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Searching for a technology-driven acute rheumatic fever test: the START study protocol.

Anna P Ralph, Rachel Webb, Nicole J Moreland, Reuben McGregor, Anthony Bosco, David Broadhurst, Timo Lassmann, Timothy C Barnett, Rym Benothman, Jennifer Yan, Bo Remenyi, Julie Bennett, Nigel Wilson, Mark Mayo, Glenn Pearson, Tobias Kollmann, Jonathan R Carapetis,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The absence of a diagnostic test for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a major impediment in managing this serious childhood condition. ARF is an autoimmune condition triggered by infection with group A <i>Streptococcus</i>. It is the precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a leading cause of health inequity and premature ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e053720]

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Level of adherence to vitamin D supplementation guidelines in an antenatal centre in Birmingham, UK, and its effect on biochemical and obstetrical outcomes: a single-centre cross-sectional study.

Liana Yamanouchi, Maheshwari Srinivasan, Nicola Barlow, Ansu Basu,

<h4>Objectives</h4>A third of pregnant women in the UK are vitamin D deficient, which may confer deleterious consequences, including an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction. This study aims to determine the proportion of women that met National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) standards ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e048705]

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Prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in the school-attending adolescent population of the United Arab Emirates: a large cross-sectional study.

Caroline Barakat, Susan Jamuria Yousufzai, Alison Booth, Lenka Benova,

<h4>Objectives</h4>The prevalence of diabetes has reportedly increased among adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries of the Middle East and may be linked to social, demographic and economic contextual factors. This study aimed: (1) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes in the adolescent population of the United Arab ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e046956]

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Adolescent alcohol use in Estonia compared with Latvia, Lithuania, Finland and Sweden: results from cross-sectional surveys, 2003-2015.

Daisy Kudre, Sigrid Vorobjov, Inge Ringmets, Kersti Pärna,

<h4>Objectives</h4>The aims of the study were (1) to describe trends in the prevalence of monthly alcohol use from 2003 to 2015 and (2) to analyse the associations between alcohol use and family-related and school-related factors, risk behaviours and perceived alcohol availability in Estonia compared with Latvia, Lithuania, Finland and Sweden.<h4>Methods</h4>The ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e044889]

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Demographic, occupational and societal risk exposures to physical injuries in a rural community in Western Kenya: a 12-week longitudinal study.

Reagan Ngoge Chweya, Susan Njoki Mambo, John Mwangi Gachohi,

<h4>Objective</h4>We studied factors associated with the weekly occurrence of physical injuries in a rural setting to determine injury-related burden and risk exposures.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Suna-West subcounty, Migori County, Western Kenya.<h4>Participants</h4>390 study participants (subjects) cluster sampled from 92 households, recruited and followed up for 12 weeks, between August and October 2019.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e053161]

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Attitudes of Chinese immigrants in Canada towards the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine for prevention and management of COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey during the early stages of the pandemic.

Yujia Kong, Lance Garrett Shaver, Fuyan Shi, Lixia Yang, Weiguo Zhang, Xiaolin Wei, Yun Zhu, Yiran Wang, Peizhong Peter Wang,

<h4>Objection</h4>The objective of this study was to assess attitudes towards the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for COVID-19 among Chinese immigrants in Canada during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 in Canada. Individuals aged 16 or older who were of Chinese ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e051499]

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PLAN-e-PSY, a mobile application to improve case management and patient's functioning in first episode psychosis: protocol for an open-label, multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled trial.

Frédéric Haesebaert, Sofia El Oussoul, Amélie Pavard, Delphine Fabre, Caroline Cellard, Laurent Magaud, Fabien Subtil, Eleonore Damiolini, Eric Fakra, Julie Haesebaert,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The prognosis of first episode psychosis (FEP), which is a severe disorder, can be notably impaired by patients' disengagement from healthcare providers. Coordinated specialty care with case management is now considered as the gold standard in this population, but there are still challenges for engagement with subsequent functional impairments. Youth-friendly ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e050433]

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Assessing the safety of home oximetry for COVID-19: a multisite retrospective observational study.

Jonathan Clarke, Kelsey Flott, Roberto Fernandez Crespo, Hutan Ashrafian, Gianluca Fontana, Jonathan Benger, Ara Darzi, Sarah Elkin,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the safety and effectiveness of home oximetry monitoring pathways for patients with COVID-19 in the English National Health Service.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective, multisite, observational study of home oximetry monitoring for patients with suspected or proven COVID-19.<h4>Setting</h4>This study analysed patient data from four COVID-19 home oximetry pilot sites in England across primary ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e049235]

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How do general practices respond to a pandemic? Protocol for a prospective qualitative study of six Australian practices.

Grant Russell, Jenny Advocat, Riki Lane, Jennifer Neil, Timothy Staunton-Smith, Karyn E Alexander, Simon Hattle, Benjamin F Crabtree, William L Miller, Sumudu Neilya Setunge, Elizabeth Ann Sturgiss,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed healthcare systems worldwide. Primary care providers have been at the forefront of the pandemic response and have needed to rapidly adjust processes and routines around service delivery. The pandemic provides a unique opportunity to understand how general practices prepare for and respond to public health ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e046086]

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Early versus differed arterial catheterisation in critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure: a multicentre, open-label, pragmatic, randomised, non-inferiority controlled trial: the EVERDAC protocol.

Grégoire Muller, Toufik Kamel, Damien Contou, Stephan Ehrmann, Maëlle Martin, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Jean-Claude Lacherade, Florence Boissier, Alexandra Monnier, Sylvie Vimeux, Solène Brunet Houdard, Elsa Tavernier, Thierry Boulain,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The use of peripheral indwelling arterial catheter for haemodynamic monitoring is widespread in the intensive care unit and is recommended in patients with shock. However, there is no evidence that the arterial catheter could improve patient's outcome, whereas the burden of morbidity generated is significant (pain, thrombosis, infections). We hypothesise ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e044719]

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Efficacy of perioperative immunonutrition in visceral surgery: an umbrella review protocol.

Karem Slim, Flora Badon, Charles-Hervé Vacheron, Chadli Dziri, Thomas Marquillier,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Immunonutrition (IN) is generally used before major visceral surgery with the intent to reduce postoperative complications, especially infectious ones. However, the conclusions of published meta-analyses are conflicting. The purpose of this review is to synthesise the data of published systematic reviews on the effectiveness of IN.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>This protocol follows ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e053851]

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Impact of COVID-19 on patient health and self-care practices: a mixed-methods survey with German patients.

Amelia Fiske, Antonius Schneider, Stuart McLennan, Siranush Karapetyan, Alena Buyx,

<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to examine German patients': (1) self-estimation of the impact of the pandemic on their health and healthcare; and (2) use of digital self-care practices during the pandemic.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional mixed-methods survey.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>General practice patients from four physicians' offices located in urban and rural areas of Bavaria, Germany, between ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e051167]

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Protocol for a mixed method acceptability evaluation of a codesigned bundled COmmunication intervention for use in the adult ICU during the COVID-19 PandEmic: the COPE study.

Laura Istanboulian, Louise Rose, Yana Yunusova, Craig M Dale,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation via an artificial airway experience sudden voicelessness placing them at risk for adverse outcomes and increasing provider workload. Infection control precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of personal protective equipment (eg, gloves, masks, etc), patient isolation, and visitor restrictions may exacerbate communication difficulty. ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e050347]

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Health status of individuals referred to first-line intervention for hip and knee osteoarthritis compared with the general population: an observational register-based study.

Kristin Gustafsson, Joanna Kvist, Marit Eriksson, Andrea Dell'Isola, Caddie Zhou, Leif E Dahlberg, Ola Rolfson,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in a population referred to standardised first-line intervention (patient education and exercise) for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), in comparison with the general population. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate if eventual differences were associated with socioeconomic inequalities.<h4>Design</h4>Register-based study.<h4>Setting</h4>Primary healthcare, Sweden.<h4>Participants</h4>Individuals with hip and/or knee ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e049476]

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First steps in the physician-scientist pipeline: a longitudinal study to examine the effects of an undergraduate extracurricular research programme.

Belinda W C Ommering, Floris M van Blankenstein, Friedo W Dekker,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Medicine is facing a physician-scientist shortage. By offering extracurricular research programmes (ERPs), the physician-scientist training pipeline could already start in undergraduate phases of medical training. However, previous studies into the effects of ERPs are mainly retrospective and lack baseline measurements and control groups. Therefore, the current study mimics a randomised ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e048550]

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Protocol of controlled odorant stimulation for reducing apnoeic episodes in premature newborns: a randomised open-label Latin-square study with independent evaluation of the main endpoint (PREMODEUR).

Patricia Duchamp-Viret, Huu Kim Nguyen, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Laurent Remontet, Aurore Guyon, Patricia Franco, Andrei Cividjian, Marc Thevenet, Jean Iwaz, Sonia Galletti, Behrouz Kassai, Elise Cornaton, Franck Plaisant, Olivier Claris, Hélène Gauthier-Moulinier,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Apnoea affects 85% of premature infants under 34 weeks of age and would be an important risk factor for subsequent neuropsychological disorders. Currently, premature children with life-threatening apnoeas receive stimulants such as methylxanthines (mainly, caffeine) or doxapram (an analeptic unlicensed in children under 15). However, these products have undesirable effects ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e047141]

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National Early Warning Scores and COVID-19 deaths in care homes: an ecological time-series study.

Daniel Stow, Robert O Barker, Fiona E Matthews, Barbara Hanratty,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate whether National Early Warning Scores (NEWS/NEWS2) could contribute to COVID-19 surveillance in care homes.<h4>Setting</h4>460 care home units using the same software package to collect data on residents, from 46 local authority areas in England.<h4>Participants</h4>6464 care home residents with at least one NEWS recording.<h4>Exposure measure</h4>29 656 anonymised person-level NEWS from ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e045579]

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Trends in high deductible health plan enrolment and spending among commercially insured members with and without chronic conditions: a Natural Experiment for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D2) Study.

Laura F Garabedian, Fang Zhang, Robert LeCates, Jamie Wallace, Dennis Ross-Degnan, James F Wharam,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine trends in high deductible health plan (HDHP) enrolment among members with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with healthy members and compare out-of-pocket (OOP) and total spending for members with chronic conditions in HDHPs versus low deductible plans.<h4>Design</h4>Descriptive study with time trends.<h4>Setting</h4>A large national commercial insurance database.<h4>Participants</h4>1.2 million ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e044198]

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Shared decision making interventions in mental healthcare: a protocol for an umbrella review.

Marta Chmielowska, Yaara Zisman-Ilani, Rob Saunders, Stephen Pilling,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as a key component of person-centred care and recovery from mental illness. Although the principles of SDM have been well documented, there is a lack of guidance about how to accomplish SDM in mental healthcare. The objective of the present protocol is to ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e051283]

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Economic burden of road traffic injuries in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of existing literature.

Marcella Farrelle Dorothea Ryan-Coker, Justine Davies, Giulia Rinaldi, Marie Hasselberg, Dennis H Marke, Marco Necchi, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli,

<h4>Objective</h4>This systematic review aims to explore and synthesise existing literature on the direct and indirect costs from road traffic injuries (RTIs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the quality of existing evidence, methods used to estimate and report these costs, and the factors that drive the costs.<h4>Methodology</h4>MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ProQuest Central, Web of ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e048231]

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Using institutional entrepreneurship to understand the role of innovation teams in healthcare: a longitudinal qualitative study.

Angela Melder, Ian Mcloughlin, Tracy Robinson, Rick Iedema, Helena J Teede,

<h4>Objectives</h4>We draw on institutional theory to explore the roles and actions of innovation teams and how this influences their behaviour and capabilities as 'institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)', in particular the extent to which they are both 'willing' and 'able' to facilitate transformational change in healthcare through service redesign.<h4>Design</h4>A longitudinal qualitative study ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e046750]

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Responses of physicians to an objective safety and quality knowledge test: a cross-sectional study.

Harry B Burke, Heidi B King,

<h4>Objective</h4>For physicians to practice safe high quality medicine they must have sufficient safety and quality knowledge. Although a great deal is known about the safety and quality perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of physicians, little is known about their safety and quality knowledge. This study tested the objective safety and quality ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e040779]

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Cohort profile: a migratory cohort study of US Marines who train in Australia.

Alyssa Chan-Cuzydlo, Dustin J Harrison, Brian L Pike, Bart J Currie, Mark Mayo, Mark G Salvador, William R Hulsey, Joseph Azzarello, Jeffrey Ellis, Daniel Kim, William King-Lewis, Jessica Nicole Smith, Barbara Rodriguez, Ryan C Maves, James V Lawler, Kevin L Schully,

<h4>Purpose</h4>In 2012, US Marines and Sailors began annual deployments to Australia to participate in joint training exercises with the Australian Defence Force and other partners in the region. During their training, US service members are exposed to a variety of infectious disease threats not normally encountered by American citizens. This ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e050330]

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Assessing health-related quality of life and health utilities in patients with chronic hepatitis B-related diseases in China: a cross-sectional study.

Meng Zhang, Yaoguang Li, Zihao Fan, Dongqi Shen, Xueying Huang, Qi Yu, Mei Liu, Feng Ren, Xiao Wang, Liping Dai, Peng Wang, Hua Ye, Jianxiang Shi, Xiaoang Yang, Shunxiang Zhang, Jianying Zhang,

<h4>Objectives</h4>The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utilities of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection, including compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), have not been well described in China. This study aimed to evaluate HRQoL and utilities and provide parameters for ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e047475]

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Attitudes, stressors and work outcomes related to the COVID-19 pandemic among dental assistants in Germany: a cross-sectional study.

Annegret Dreher, Reinhard Pietrowsky, Adrian Loerbroks,

<h4>Objectives</h4>The COVID-19 pandemic has posed great challenges to medical professionals worldwide. Dental assistants (DAs) are at exceptionally high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to frequent and close patient contact and involvement in various high-risk dental procedures. This study aimed to investigate attitudes, stressors and work outcomes among DAs from ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(9):e045881]

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