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Journal BMC Infect Dis

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Recurrent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity and prolonged viral shedding in a patient with COVID-19: a case report.

Chun-Hua Xiao, Lin-Fa Chen, You Li,

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains a major threat to public health. At present, it is recommended that patients with known or suspected COVID-19 undergo quarantine or medical observation for 14 days. However, recurrent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity and prolonged viral shedding have been ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1076]

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A case of coinfection of a pediatric patient with acute SARS-COV-2 with MIS-C and severe DENV-2 in Mexico: a case report.

Perez-Mendez Maria Jose, Zarate-Segura Paola, Davila-Gonzalez Eduardo, Servin-Monroy Monroy Osvaldo Arturo, Bastida-Gonzalez Fernando,

COVID-19 cases have been increasing since the epidemic started. One of the major concerns is how clinical symptomatology would behave after coinfection with another virus. In this case report, a pediatric native patient from Estado de Mexico (EDOMEX), MEX had severe DENV-2 and acute SARS-CoV-2 at the same time. The ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1072]

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Performance of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing in symptomatic and asymptomatic adults: a single-center evaluation.

Stephanie L Mitchell, Steven Orris, Tanner Freeman, Megan C Freeman, Michelle Adam, Meredith Axe, Jamie Gribschaw, Joe Suyama, Alejandro Hoberman, Alan Wells,

Antigen testing offers rapid and inexpensive testing for SARS-CoV-2 but concerns regarding performance, especially sensitivity, remain. Limited data exists for use of antigen testing in asymptomatic patients; thus, performance and reliability of antigen testing remains unclear. 148 symptomatic and 144 asymptomatic adults were included. A nasal swab was collected for ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1071]

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Fine-needle aspiration to improve diagnosis of melioidosis of the head and neck in children: a study from Sarawak, Malaysia.

Anand Mohan, Yuwana Podin, Da-Wei Liew, Jeevithaa Mahendra Kumar, Peter Sie-Teck Lau, Yee-Yen Tan, Yi-Pinn Tai, Ranveer Singh Gill, Ram Shanmugam, Su-Lin Chien, Lee-See Tan, Nurul Asiah Mat Sani, Kamilah Manan, Mong-How Ooi,

<h4>Background</h4>Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Although head and neck involvement is common in children, specific disease manifestations differ between geographic regions. The aim of this study ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1069]

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Surgical management of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis: a retrospective study of 81 cases with long-term follow-up.

Yin Huang, Bo Chen, Dehong Cao, Zeyu Chen, Jin Li, Jianbing Guo, Qiang Dong, Qiang Wei, Liangren Liu,

<h4>Background</h4>Nowadays, most studies of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) are case reports or small sample cohort series. Our study is aimed to present the largest series of TBEO with our management experiences and long-term follow-up outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients diagnosed with TBEO after surgical procedures at Department of Urology, West China Hospital from 2008 to ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1068]

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"That same stigma...that same hatred and negativity:" a qualitative study to understand stigma and medical mistrust experienced by people living with HIV diagnosed with COVID-19.

Andre Hall, Olivier Joseph, Samantha Devlin, Jared Kerman, Jessica Schmitt, Jessica P Ridgway, Moira C McNulty,

<h4>Background</h4>The COVID-19 and HIV epidemics have exacerbated existing inequities among vulnerable groups and severely impacted communities of color. People living with HIV (PLWH), who may already face stigma or discrimination, are at risk of experiencing further stigma as a result of COVID-19, which can result in medical mistrust.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed qualitative ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1066]

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IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein are related to disease severity and parasitemia during falciparum malaria.

Kari Otterdal, Aase Berg, Annika E Michelsen, Arne Yndestad, Sam Patel, Ida Gregersen, Bente Halvorsen, Thor Ueland, Nina Langeland, Pål Aukrust,

Several inflammatory molecules participate in the immune response to malaria. Interleukin (IL)-18 is an inflammatory cytokine activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes. In clinical falciparum malaria, with and without HIV co-infection, data on IL-18 and in particular on its binding protein, IL-18bp, is scarce. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1073]

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The global burden and trends of maternal sepsis and other maternal infections in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.

Liyuan Chen, Qi Wang, Yun Gao, Jinxiang Zhang, Sheng Cheng, Huilong Chen, Zhilin Zeng, Zhongxian Wang,

Maternal sepsis and other maternal infections (MSMI) have considerable impacts on women's and neonatal health, but data on the global burden and trends of MSMI are limited. Comprehensive knowledge of the burden and trend patterns of MSMI is important to allocate resources, facilitate the establishment of tailored prevention strategies and ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1074]

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Neurocysticercosis in a Japanese woman with lung cancer who repeatedly visited endemic countries.

Tomoya Kinouchi, Yasuyuki Morishima, Shinichi Uyama, Tadashi Miyamoto, Hidehisa Horiguchi, Naomi Fujimoto, Hiromi Ueta,

Taenia solium, present in most developing countries, infects many individuals and may result in their death. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) develops after invasion of the brain by parasitic larvae. It is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. On imaging scans it can be similar to brain tumors. ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1077]

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High rates of culture conversion and low loss to follow-up in MDR-TB patients managed at Regional Referral Hospitals in Uganda.

Mbonye Kayitale Martin, Otuba John Paul, Riese Sara, Alima Hilary, Mugabe Frank, Muhwezi K Augustin, Turyahabwe Stavia, Wandera Christopher, Tisna Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Tugume Gladys,

<h4>Background</h4>Multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health concern in Uganda. Prior to 2013, MDR-TB treatment in Uganda was only provided at the national referral hospital and two private-not-for profit clinics. From 2013, it was scaled up to seven regional referral hospitals (RRH). The aim of this study was to ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1060]

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Implementation of an automated cluster alert system into the routine work of infection control and hospital epidemiology: experiences from a tertiary care university hospital.

Seven Johannes Sam Aghdassi, Britta Kohlmorgen, Christin Schröder, Luis Alberto Peña Diaz, Norbert Thoma, Anna Maria Rohde, Brar Piening, Petra Gastmeier, Michael Behnke,

Early detection of clusters of pathogens is crucial for infection prevention and control (IPC) in hospitals. Conventional manual cluster detection is usually restricted to certain areas of the hospital and multidrug resistant organisms. Automation can increase the comprehensiveness of cluster surveillance without depleting human resources. We aimed to describe the ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1075]

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Association between risk of brucellosis and genetic variations in MicroRNA-146a.

Sima Kazemi, Saeid Afshar, Manoochehr Karami, Massoud Saidijam, Fariba Keramat, Seyed Hamid Hashemi, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani,

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common types of DNA changes in the human genome that leading to phenotypic differences in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are usually affected by various bacterial infections, and they are involved in controlling the immune responses. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) plays an essential role in the development ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1070]

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Neonatal oral myiasis caused by the larvae of Sarcophaga ruficornis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): a case report.

Minyu Zhou, Ke Cao, Hui Huang, Xiaojuan Luo, Ying Wang, Weike Ma, Zhiyue Lv,

<h4>Background</h4>Myiasis is caused by dipterous larvae, and rarely affects the mouth. Diagnosis by traditional means is easy to be confused with other similar species. Here, we report a case of oral myiasis, in a 5-month-old infant who was diagnosed by morphological examination and molecular biological methods.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A 5-month old infant ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1067]

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A Schizophyllum commune fungus ball in a lung cancer cavity: a case report.

Naoya Itoh, Nana Akazawa, Hiromi Murakami, Yuichi Ishibana, Yusuke Takahashi, Waki Hosoda, Takashi Yaguchi, Katsuhiko Kamei,

<h4>Background</h4>Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete that lives in the environment and can cause infections, mainly those of the respiratory system. Although S. commune is increasingly reported as a cause of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis and sinusitis, cases of fungal ball formation are extremely uncommon. Identification of S. commune is difficult using ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1052]

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Values and preferences for hepatitis C self-testing among the general population and healthcare workers in Rwanda.

Janvier Serumondo, Sonjelle Shilton, Ladislas Nshimiyimana, Prosper Karame, Donatha Dushimiyimana, Emmanuel Fajardo, Eric Remera, Gallican N Rwibasira, Guillermo Z Martínez-Pérez,

<h4>Background</h4>In 2018, Rwanda launched a 5-year hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination plan as per the World Health Organization global targets to eliminate HCV by 2030. To improve awareness of HCV status, strategies are needed to ensure easy access to HCV testing by as-yet unreached populations. HCV-self-testing, an innovative strategy, could ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1064]

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Gender minority stress and access to health care services among transgender women and transfeminine people: results from a cross-sectional study in China.

Yongjie Sha, Willa Dong, Weiming Tang, Lingling Zheng, Xi Huang, Kathryn E Muessig, Joseph D Tucker,

<h4>Background</h4>Transgender and gender diverse individuals often face structural barriers to health care because of their gender minority status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gender minority stress and access to specific health care services among transgender women and transfeminine people in China.<h4>Methods</h4>This multicenter cross-sectional study ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1065]

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Association between glucocorticoids treatment and viral clearance delay in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Jianbo Li, Xuelian Liao, Yue Zhou, Luping Wang, Hang Yang, Wei Zhang, Zhongwei Zhang, Yan Kang,

<h4>Background</h4>Evidence of glucocorticoids on viral clearance delay of COVID-19 patients is not clear.<h4>Methods</h4>In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 2019 to April 20, 2021. We mainly pooled the risk ratios (RRs) and mean difference ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1063]

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A transferrable IncL/M plasmid harboring a gene encoding IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae.

Nobuyoshi Mori, Tatsuya Tada, Satoshi Oshiro, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Teruo Kirikae, Yuki Uehara,

<h4>Background</h4>The worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has reduced the clinical utility of carbapenems. Plasmids often play an important role in the spread of genes encoding drug-resistance factors, especially in the horizontal transfer of these genes among species of Enterobacteriaceae. This study describes a patient infected with three species of ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1061]

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Drivers of HIV-1 drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in nine southern African countries: a modelling study.

Julien Riou, Carole Dupont, Silvia Bertagnolio, Ravindra K Gupta, Roger D Kouyos, Matthias Egger, Christian L Althaus,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The rise of HIV-1 drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) threatens antiretroviral therapy's long-term success (ART). NNRTIs will remain an essential drug for the management of HIV-1 due to safety concerns associated with integrase inhibitors. We fitted a dynamic transmission model to historical data from 2000 to 2018 in ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1042]

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Invasive pneumococcal disease burden in hospitalized adults in Bogota, Colombia.

Paula O Narváez, Salome Gomez-Duque, Juan E Alarcon, Paula C Ramirez-Valbuena, Cristian C Serrano-Mayorga, Julian Lozada-Arcinegas, Alirio Bastidas, Sandra Gómez, Hernan Vargas, Charles Feldman, Luis Felipe Reyes,

<h4>Background</h4>The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies depending on a number of factors, including vaccine uptake, in both children and adults, the geographic location, and local serotype prevalence. There are limited data about the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), serotype distribution, and clinical characteristics of adults hospitalized due to IPD ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1059]

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Molecular characterization of rpoB gene mutations in isolates from tuberculosis patients in Cubal, Republic of Angola.

Ariadna Rando-Segura, María Luisa Aznar, María Milagros Moreno, Mateu Espasa Soley, Elena Sulleiro Igual, Cristina Bocanegra Garcia, Eva Gil Olivas, Arlete Nindia Eugénio, Carlos Escartin Huesca, Adriano Zacarias, Josep Vegue Collado, Domingos Katimba, Maria Carmen Vivas Cano, Estevao Gabriel, Maria Teresa López García, Tomas Pumarola Suñe, Israel Molina Romero, María Teresa Tórtola Fernández,

<h4>Background</h4>The importance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with disputed rpoB mutations remains to be defined. This study aimed to assess the frequency and types of rpoB mutations in M. tuberculosis isolates from Cubal, Angola, a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis.<h4>Methods</h4>All isolates included (n = 308) were analyzed using phenotypic drug susceptibility testing ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1056]

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Plasma chemokines as immune biomarkers for diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis.

Nathella Pavan Kumar, Syed Hissar, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Velayuthum V Banurekha, Sarath Balaji, S Elilarasi, N S Gomathi, J Ganesh, M A Aravind, Dhanaraj Baskaran, Srikanth Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Subash Babu,

<h4>Background</h4>Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children is challenging due to paucibacillary disease, and lack of ability for microbiologic confirmation. Hence, we measured the plasma chemokines as biomarkers for diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a prospective case control study using children with confirmed, unconfirmed and unlikely TB. Multiplex assay was performed to ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1055]

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The resurgence of yellow fever outbreaks in Nigeria: a 2-year review 2017-2019.

Terna Nomhwange, Anne Eudes Jean Baptiste, Obi Ezebilo, Joseph Oteri, Lois Olajide, Kizito Emelife, Shehu Hassan, Erdoo R Nomhwange, Kennedy Adejoh, Faith Ireye, Eyo E Nora, Adamu Ningi, Blaise Bathondeli, Oyewale Tomori,

<h4>Background</h4>Yellow fever outbreaks are documented to have a considerable impact not only on the individuals but on the health system with significant economic implications. Efforts to eliminate yellow fever outbreaks globally through the EYE strategy remains important following outbreaks in Africa, Nigeria included. The outbreaks reported in Nigeria, since 2017 ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1054]

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Calculating the serial interval of SARS-CoV-2 in Lebanon using 2020 contact-tracing data.

Nadine Haddad, Hannah Eleanor Clapham, Hala Abou Naja, Majd Saleh, Zeina Farah, Nada Ghosn, Pamela Mrad, Natasha Howard,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The first detected case in Lebanon on 21 February 2020 engendered implementation of a nationwide lockdown alongside timely contact-tracing and testing.<h4>Objectives</h4>Our study aims to calculate the serial interval of SARS-CoV-2 using contact tracing data collected 21 February to 30 June 2020 in Lebanon to guide testing strategies.<h4>Methods</h4>rRT-PCR positive COVID-19 cases ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1053]

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Tuberculosis-Learning the Impact of Nutrition (TB LION): protocol for an interventional study to decrease TB risk in household contacts.

Chelsie Cintron, Prakash Babu Narasimhan, Lindsey Locks, Senbagavalli Babu, Pranay Sinha, Nonika Rajkumari, Vaishnavi Kaipilyawar, Anurag Bhargava, Kimberly Maloomian, Padma Chandrasekaran, Sheetal Verma, Noyal Joseph, W Evan Johnson, Christine Wanke, C Robert Horsburgh, Jerrold J Ellner, Sonali Sarkar, Padmini Salgame, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Natasha S Hochberg,

<h4>Background</h4>Comorbidities such as undernutrition and parasitic infections are widespread in India and other tuberculosis (TB)-endemic countries. This study examines how these conditions as well as food supplementation and parasite treatment might alter immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and risk of progression to TB disease.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a 5-year prospective ... Read more >>

BMC Infect Dis (BMC infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(1):1058]

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