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Journal Antioxid Redox Signal

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Oxidative Stress and Localization Status of Hepatocellular Transporters: Impact on Bile Secretion and Role of Signaling Pathways.

Cecilia L Basiglio, Fernando A Crocenzi, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Most hepatopathies are primarily or secondarily cholestatic in nature. Oxidative stress (OS) is a frequent trait among them, and impairs the machinery to generate bile by triggering endocytic internalization of hepatocellular transporters, thus causing cholestasis. This is critical, since it leads to accelerated transporter degradation, which could explain the ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, 35(10):808-831]

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THIOL-BASED ANTIOXIDANTS AND THE EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION IN CANCER.

Fernando T Ogata, Alex Yuri Simoes Sato, Lucia Coppo, Roberto J Arai, Arnold I Stern, Hugo P Monteiro,

<h4>Significance</h4>The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is commonly associated with tumor metastasis. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are maintained in cancer cells and are involved in the EMT. Cancer cells are endowed with high levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants which counteract the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thiol-based antioxidant systems such ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Sulfur Dioxide: Endogenous Generation, Biological Effects, Detection, and Therapeutic Potential.

Yaqian Huang, Heng Zhang, Boyang Lv, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin,

<h4>Significance</h4>Previously, sulfur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>) was recognized as an air pollutant. However, it is found to be endogenously produced in mammalian tissues. As a new gasotransmitter, SO<sub>2</sub> is involved in regulating the structure and function of blood vessels, heart, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system, etc. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence showed ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Urinary thioredoxin as a biomarker of renal redox dysregulation and a companion diagnostic to identify responders to redox-modulating therapeutics.

Kenji Kasuno, Junji Yodoi, Masayuki Iwano,

<h4>Significance</h4>The development and progression of renal diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), are the result of heterogeneous pathophysiology that reflects a range of environmental factors and, in a lesser extent, genetic mutations. The pathophysiology specific to most kidney diseases is not currently identified, therefore, these ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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Loop Between NLRP3 Inflammasome and Reactive Oxygen Species.

Abishai Dominic, Nhat-Tu Le, Masafumi Takahashi,

<h4>Significance</h4>Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein complexes that mediate innate immune pathways. Inflammasomes activate inflammatory caspases and regulate inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 as well as inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Among known inflammasomes, NLRP3 inflammasome is unique and well-studied owing to the fact that it senses a broad range of stimuli and ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Development of Hydropersulfide Donors to Study Their Chemical Biology.

Vinayak S Khodade, Sahil C Aggarwal, Alexander Eremiev, Eric Bao, Sarah Porche, John P Toscano,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Hydropersulfides (RSSH) are ubiquitous in prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells, and mammalian tissues. The unique chemical properties and prevalent nature of these species suggest a crucial role of RSSH in cell regulatory processes, yet little is known about their physiological functions. <b><i>Recent Advances:</i></b> Examining the biological roles of RSSH species is ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Oxidation of Hemoglobin Drives a Proatherogenic Polarization of Macrophages in Human Atherosclerosis.

László Potor, Zoltán Hendrik, Andreas Patsalos, Éva Katona, Gábor Méhes, Szilárd Póliska, Éva Csősz, Gergő Kalló, István Komáromi, Zsolt Combi, Niké Posta, Katalin Éva Sikura, Dávid Pethő, Melinda Oros, György Vereb, Csaba Tóth, Péter Gergely, László Nagy, György Balla, József Balla,

<b><i>Aim:</i></b> The aim of our study was to explore the pathophysiologic role of oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to ferrylHb in human atherosclerosis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We observed a severe oxidation of Hb to ferrylHb in complicated atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries with oxidative changes of the globin moieties, detected previously described oxidation ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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The role of oxidative stress in epigenetic changes underlying autoimmunity.

Xiaoqing Zheng, Amr Sawalha,

<h4>Significance</h4>Epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases. Oxidative stress is associated with autoimmunity and is also known to alter epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the interplay between oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide insights into the role of environmental triggers on the development of autoimmunity ... Read more >>

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Translational Aspects of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complexes in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Alaa Abou Daher, Sahar Alkhansa, William S Azar, Rim Rafeh, Hilda E Ghadieh, Assaad Antoine Eid,

<h4>Significance</h4>Despite the many efforts put into understanding diabetic nephropathy (DN), direct treatments for DN have yet to be discovered. Understanding the mechanisms behind DN is an essential step in the development of novel therapeutic regimens. The mTOR pathway has emerged as an important candidate in the quest for drug discovery ... Read more >>

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Chemiluminescence Measurement of Reactive Sulfur and Nitrogen Species.

Bo Li, Yujin Lisa Kim, Alexander Ryan Lippert,

<h4>Significance</h4>Reactive sulfur and nitrogen species like hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide are ubiquitous cellular signaling molecules that play central roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Deeper understanding of these signaling pathways will offer new opportunities for therapeutic treatments and disease management. Recent advances: Chemiluminescence methods have been fundamental in detecting and ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Biological sex as a critical variable in CD4+ effector T cell function in preclinical models of multiple sclerosis.

Muhammad Umair, Mohamed Reda Fazazi, Manu Rangachari,

T cells play a pivotal role in maintaining adaptive immune responses against pathogens. However, misdirected T cell responses against self-tissues may lead to autoimmune disease. Biological sex has profound effects on T cell function and is an important determinant of disease incidence and severity in autoimmune diseases such as multiple ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic p66Shc differentially regulates stem cell traffic and vascular response to ischemia in diabetes.

Mattia Albiero, Marianna D'Anna, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Gaia Zuccolotto, Antonio Rosato, Marco Giorgio, Elisabetta Iori, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini,

<h4>Aims</h4>Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a severe complication of diabetes, characterized by defective traffic of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We examined the hematopoietic versus non-hematopoietic role of p66Shc in regulating HSPC traffic and blood flow recovery after ischemia in diabetic mice.<h4>Results</h4>Using streptozotocin-induced diabetes, chimeric mice with GFP+ bone marrow (BM), ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Fluorescent Probes and Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods to Quantify Thiols in Biological Systems.

Lingfei Wang, Feng Jin, Xiqian Jiang, Jianwei Chen, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang,

Fluorescent probes and mass spectrometry are the two most popular and complementary methods to quantify thiols in biological systems. In this review, we focus on the widely used and commercially available methods to detect and quantify thiols in living cells and the general approaches applied in mass spectrometry-based thiol quantification. ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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miR-210 hypoxamiR in angiogenesis and diabetes.

Germana Zaccagnini, Simona Greco, Christine Voellenkle, Carlo Gaetano, Fabio Martelli,

microRNA-210 (miR-210) is the master hypoxia-inducible miRNA (hypoxamiR) since it has been found significantly up-regulated under hypoxia in a wide range of cell types. Gene ontology analysis of its targets indicates that miR-210 modulates several aspects of cellular response to hypoxia. Due to its high pleiotropy, miR-210 not only plays ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Oxidative Cysteine Modification of Thiol Isomerases in Thrombotic Disease: A Hypothesis.

Moua Yang, Robert Flaumenhaft,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Oxidative stress is a characteristic of many systemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Thiol isomerases are a family of oxidoreductases important in protein folding and are exquisitely sensitive to the redox environment. They are essential for thrombus formation and represent a previously unrecognized layer of control of the thrombotic process. ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Aging-Induced Impairment of Vascular Function: Mitochondrial Redox Contributions and Physiological/Clinical Implications.

Evan Paul Tracy, William Hughes, Jason E Beare, Gabrielle Rowe, Andreas Beyer, Amanda Jo LeBlanc,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> The vasculature responds to the respiratory needs of tissue by modulating luminal diameter through smooth muscle constriction or relaxation. Coronary perfusion, diastolic function, and coronary flow reserve are drastically reduced with aging. This loss of blood flow contributes to and exacerbates pathological processes such as angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, and ... Read more >>

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Brain Areas Involved in Modulating the Immune Response Participating in Hypertension and Its Target Organ Damage.

Marialuisa Perrotta, Daniela Carnevale,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Hypertension is a multifactorial disease ensuing from the continuous challenge imposed by several risk factors on the cardiovascular system. Classically known pathophysiological alterations associated with hypertension comprise neurogenic mechanisms dysregulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS), vascular dysfunction, and excessive activation of the renin angiotensin system. During the past few ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Mitochondrial Ca2+ and Reactive Oxygen Species in Trypanosomatids.

Roberto Docampo, Aníbal Eugénio Vercesi,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Millions of people are infected with trypanosomatids and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Trypanosomatids possess one mitochondrion per cell and its study has led to discoveries of general biological interest. These mitochondria, as in their animal counterparts, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and have evolved enzymatic and nonenzymatic defenses ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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PDK4 decrease neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting ROS-ASK1/p38 pathway in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Xuan Gao, Yong-Yue Gao, Hui-Ying Yan, Guang-Jie Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Tao, Ting-Ting Yue, Cong Pang, Xiang-Xin Chen, Sen Gao, Ling-Yun Wu, Chun-Hua Hang, Wei Li,

<h4>Aims</h4>Metabolic disorders may play key roles in oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in response to early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is related to oxidative stress in EBI, and its activity obviously decreases after SAH. We discovered that only pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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The Reactive Species Interactome in the brain.

Elise Malard, Samuel Valable, Myriam Bernaudin, Elodie Pérès, Laurent Chatre,

<h4>Significance</h4>Redox pioneer Helmut Sies attempted to explain reactive species' challenges faced by organelles, cells, tissues, and organs via three complementary definitions: (1) oxidative stress, i.e. the disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant defense balance in favor of the prooxidants, (2) oxidative eustress, the low physiological exposure to prooxidants, and (3) oxidative distress, ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Impact of Acute and Chronic Psychosocial Stress on Vascular Inflammation.

Julia Hinterdobler, Heribert Schunkert, Thorsten Kessler, Hendrik B Sager,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Atherosclerosis and its complications, such as acute coronary syndromes, are the leading causes of death worldwide. A wide range of inflammatory processes substantially contribute to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, epidemiological studies strongly associate both chronic stress and acute psychosocial stress with the occurrence ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Self-Assembling Antioxidants for Ischemia-Reperfusion Injuries.

Toru Yoshitomi, Yukio Nagasaki,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a major component of severe damage in vascular occlusion during stroke, myocardial infarction, surgery, and organ transplantation, and is exacerbated by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which occurs particularly during reperfusion. With the aging of the population, IR injury is becoming a ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Redox-based theranostics of gastric ulcer using nitroxyl radicals.

Keiji Yasukawa,

<h4>Significance</h4>Redox-based theranostics involves redox monitoring and therapeutics that normalize redox imbalance. It may be a promising approach to markedly improve a patient's quality of life through streamlined treatment. Nitroxyl radicals are useful for both redox monitoring and treating gastric ulcers in rodents. Recent Advances: Redox monitoring using in vivo electron ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Signaling integration of hydrogen sulfide and iron on cellular functions.

Hassan Mustafa Arif, Zhong Ming Qian, Rui Wang,

<h4>Significance</h4>Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) is an endogenous signaling molecule, regulating numerous physiological functions from vasorelaxation to neuromodulation. Iron is a well-known bioactive metal ion, being the central component of hemoglobin for oxygen transportation and participating in biomolecule degradation, redox balance, and enzymatic actions. The interplay between H<sub>2</sub>S and iron metabolisms and ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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The α-arrestin ARRDC3 is an Emerging Multifunctional Adaptor Protein in Cancer.

Helen Wedegaertner, Wen-An Pan, Carlos C Gonzalez, David J Gonzalez, Joann Trejo,

<h4>Significance</h4>Adaptor proteins control the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular signaling. Dysregulation of adaptor protein function can cause aberrant cell signaling and promote cancer. The arrestin adaptor proteins are known to regulate signaling by the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are highly druggable and implicated in cancer progression. ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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