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Journal Antioxid Redox Signal

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Redox Biology of Melatonin: Discriminating between Circadian and Non-circadian Functions.

Rudiger Hardeland,

Melatonin has not only to be seen as a regulator of circadian clocks. In addition to its chronobiotic functions, it displays other actions, especially in cell protection. This includes antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondria protecting effects. Although protection is also modulated by the circadian system, the respective actions of melatonin can ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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mTOR-AKT signaling in cellular clock resetting triggered by osmotic stress.

Hikari Yoshitane, Kiyomichi Imamura, Takenori Okubo, Yuta Otobe, Satoshi Kawakami, Shunsuke Ito, Toru Takumi, Kazuki Hattori, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo, Yoshitaka Fukada,

<h4>Aims</h4>The circadian clock oscillates in a cell-autonomous manner with a period of approximately 24 hours, and the phase is regulated by various time cues such as light and temperature through multiple clock input pathways. We previously found that osmotic and oxidative stress strongly affected the circadian period and phase of ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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The Many Roles Mitochondria Play in Mammalian Aging.

Caio M P F Batalha, Anibal Eugênio Vercesi, Nadja C Souza-Pinto,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Aging is a natural process that affects most living organisms, resulting in increased mortality. As the world population ages, the prevalence of age-associated diseases, and their associated health care costs, has increased sharply. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to cellular dysfunction may provide important targets ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Neuroprotective Effects of Rhodiola Sacra on Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia Through Activating AMPK/Nrf2 Pathway in Rats.

Kongping Li, Jiaqi Jiang, Zhe Shi, Lixuan Zhan, Linhui Peng, Weiwen Sun, Yanyan Tang, Xialin Zuo, En Xu,

<b><i>Aims:</i></b> Rhodiola sacra is a widely used pharmaceutical component with multiple functions, including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. However, the exact mechanisms involved in neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) remain to be elucidated. Herein, we aim at closing the gap in understanding on whether rhodiola sacra reduces neuronal death in ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Thiol-Based Antioxidants and the Epithelial/Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer.

Fernando Toshio Ogata, Alex Yuri Simões Sato, Lucia Coppo, Roberto Jun Arai, Arnold Ira Stern, Hugo Pequeno Monteiro,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> The epithelial/mesenchymal transition (EMT) is commonly associated with tumor metastasis. Oxidative and nitrosative stress is maintained in cancer cells and is involved in the EMT. Cancer cells are endowed with high levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, which counteract the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thiol-based antioxidant systems ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Sulfur Dioxide: Endogenous Generation, Biological Effects, Detection, and Therapeutic Potential.

Yaqian Huang, Heng Zhang, Boyang Lv, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Previously, sulfur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>) was recognized as an air pollutant. However, it is found to be endogenously produced in mammalian tissues. As a new gasotransmitter, SO<sub>2</sub> is involved in regulating the structure and function of blood vessels, heart, lung, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, <i>etc.</i> <b><i>Recent Advances:</i></b> Increasing evidence showed ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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PDK4 Decrease Neuronal Apoptosis via Inhibiting ROS-ASK1/P38 Pathway in Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Xuan Gao, Yong-Yue Gao, Hui-Ying Yan, Guang-Jie Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Tao, Ting-Ting Yue, Cong Pang, Xiang-Xin Chen, Sen Gao, Ling-Yun Wu, Chun-Hua Hang, Wei Li,

<b><i>Aims:</i></b> Metabolic disorders may play key roles in oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in response to early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is related to oxidative stress in EBI, and its activity obviously decreases after SAH. We discovered that only pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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The α-Arrestin ARRDC3 Is an Emerging Multifunctional Adaptor Protein in Cancer.

Helen Wedegaertner, Wen-An Pan, Carlos C Gonzalez, David J Gonzalez, JoAnn Trejo,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Adaptor proteins control the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular signaling. Dysregulation of adaptor protein function can cause aberrant cell signaling and promote cancer. The arrestin family of adaptor proteins are known to regulate signaling by the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The GPCRs are highly druggable and implicated in ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Chemical Biology of Reactive Sulfur Species: Hydrolysis-Driven Equilibrium of Polysulfides as a Determinant of Physiological Functions.

Tomohiro Sawa, Tsuyoshi Takata, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Hideshi Ihara, Hozumi Motohashi, Takaaki Akaike,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Polysulfide species (<i>i.e.,</i> R-S<sub><i>n</i></sub>-R', <i>n</i> > 2; and R-S<sub><i>n</i></sub>-H, <i>n</i> > 1) exist in many organisms. The highly nucleophilic nature of hydropersulfides and hydropolysulfides contributes to the potent antioxidant activities of polysulfide species that protect organisms against oxidative and electrophilic stresses. <b><i>Recent Advances:</i></b> Accumulating evidence suggests that organic polysulfides (R-S<sub><i>n</i></sub>-R') readily undergo alkaline ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Contain Liver-Derived RNA Species as Indicators of Severe Cholestasis-Induced Early Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

Sharmila Fagoonee, Maddalena Arigoni, Marta Manco, Martina Olivero, Francesca Bizzaro, Cinzia Magagnotti, Annapaola Andolfo, Barbara Miniscalco, Marco Forni, Stefano Todeschi, Emanuela Tolosano, Elena Bocchietto, Raffaele Calogero, Fiorella Altruda,

<b><i>Aims:</i></b> Biliary diseases represent around 10% of all chronic liver diseases and affect both adults and children. Currently available biochemical tests detect cholestasis but not early liver fibrosis. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) provide a noninvasive, real-time molecular snapshot of the injured organ. We thus aimed at searching for a panel ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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The Multifaceted ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) in Energy Metabolism Reprogramming and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A New Player in Age-Associated Disorders?

Emilia Gore, Thibaut Duparc, Annelise Genoux, Bertrand Perret, Souad Najib, Laurent O Martinez,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, comprising the electron transport chain and ATP synthase, generates membrane potential, drives ATP synthesis, governs energy metabolism, and maintains redox balance. OXPHOS dysfunction is associated with a plethora of diseases ranging from rare inherited disorders to common conditions, including diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Soluble Carrier Transporters and Mitochondria in the Immunometabolic Regulation of Macrophages.

Lincon Felipe Lima-Silva, Jennifer Lee, Pedro M Moraes-Vieira,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Immunometabolic regulation of macrophages is a growing area of research across many fields. Here, we review the contribution of solute carriers (SLCs) in regulating macrophage metabolism. We also highlight key mechanisms that regulate SLC function, their effects on mitochondrial activity, and how these intracellular activities contribute to macrophage fitness ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Reactive Oxygen Species/Reactive Nitrogen Species as Messengers in the Gut: Impact on Physiology and Metabolic Disorders.

Anne Abot, Steven Fried, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> The role of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species as "friend" or "foe" messengers in the whole body is well characterized. Depending on the concentration in the tissue considered, these molecular actors exert beneficial or deleterious impacts leading to a pathological state, as observed in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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Dysregulation of Iron Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System and the Role of Ferroptosis in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Samuel David, Priya Jhelum, Fari Ryan, Suh Young Jeong, Antje Kroner,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Iron accumulation occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) in a variety of neurological conditions as diverse as spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and others. Iron is a redox-active metal that gives rise to damaging free radicals if its intracellular levels are not controlled or if ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Urinary Thioredoxin as a Biomarker of Renal Redox Dysregulation and a Companion Diagnostic to Identify Responders to Redox-Modulating Therapeutics.

Kenji Kasuno, Junji Yodoi, Masayuki Iwano,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> The development and progression of renal diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), are the result of heterogeneous pathophysiology that reflects a range of environmental factors and, in a lesser extent, genetic mutations. The pathophysiology specific to most kidney diseases is not currently identified; therefore, ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Mitochondrial Adaptive Responses to Hypertriglyceridemia and Bioactive Lipids.

Luciane C Alberici, Helena C F Oliveira,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Altered plasma triglyceride metabolism and changes in dietary fatty acid types and levels are major contributors to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases such as fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in visceral adipose tissue and ectopically in other organs, as well as lipid-induced redox ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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The Role of Oxidative Stress in Epigenetic Changes Underlying Autoimmunity.

Xiaoqing Zheng, Amr H Sawalha,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases. Oxidative stress is associated with autoimmunity and is also known to alter epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the interplay between oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide insights into the role of environmental triggers in the development of ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Biological Sex As a Critical Variable in CD4+ Effector T Cell Function in Preclinical Models of Multiple Sclerosis.

Muhammad Umair, Mohamed Reda Fazazi, Manu Rangachari,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> T cells play a pivotal role in maintaining adaptive immune responses against pathogens. However, misdirected T cell responses against self-tissues may lead to autoimmune disease. Biological sex has profound effects on T cell function and is an important determinant of disease incidence and severity in autoimmune diseases such as ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Reactive Species in Progeroid Syndromes and Aging-Related Processes.

Clément Crochemore, Chiara Cimmaruta, Cristina Fernández-Molina, Miria Ricchetti,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Reactive species have been classically considered causative of age-related degenerative processes, but the scenario appears considerably more complex and to some extent counterintuitive than originally anticipated. The impact of reactive species in precocious aging syndromes is revealing new clues to understand and perhaps challenge the resulting degenerative processes. <b><i>Recent ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Redox Homeostasis Involvement in the Pharmacological Effects of Metformin in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Xiangyu Teng, Josephine Brown, Laurence Morel,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Metformin has been proposed as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The primary target of metformin, the electron transport chain complex I in the mitochondria, is associated with redox homeostasis in immune cells, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. This review addresses the ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Translational Aspects of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complexes in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Alaa Abou Daher, Sahar Alkhansa, William S Azar, Rim Rafeh, Hilda E Ghadieh, Assaad A Eid,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Despite the many efforts put into understanding diabetic nephropathy (DN), direct treatments for DN have yet to be discovered. Understanding the mechanisms behind DN is an essential step in the development of novel therapeutic regimens. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has emerged as an important candidate in ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Hematopoietic and Nonhematopoietic p66Shc Differentially Regulates Stem Cell Traffic and Vascular Response to Ischemia in Diabetes.

Mattia Albiero, Marianna D'Anna, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Gaia Zuccolotto, Antonio Rosato, Marco Giorgio, Elisabetta Iori, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini,

<b><i>Aims:</i></b> Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a severe complication of diabetes, characterized by defective traffic of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We examined the hematopoietic <i>versus</i> nonhematopoietic role of p66Shc in regulating HSPC traffic and blood flow recovery after ischemia in diabetic mice. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Using streptozotocin-induced diabetes, chimeric mice with green ... Read more >>

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[2022, :]

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Signaling Integration of Hydrogen Sulfide and Iron on Cellular Functions.

Hassan Mustafa Arif, Zhongming Qian, Rui Wang,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) is an endogenous signaling molecule, regulating numerous physiological functions from vasorelaxation to neuromodulation. Iron is a well-known bioactive metal ion, being the central component of hemoglobin for oxygen transportation and participating in biomolecule degradation, redox balance, and enzymatic actions. The interplay between H<sub>2</sub>S and iron metabolisms ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2022, :]

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Hydrogen Sulfide and the Kidney: Physiological Roles, Contribution to Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Potential.

Maria Peleli, Paraskevas Zampas, Andreas Papapetropoulos,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S), the third member of the gasotransmitter family, has a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antioxidant and cytoprotective actions, as well as vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. New, significant aspects of H<sub>2</sub>S biology in the kidney continue to emerge, underscoring the importance of this signaling molecule ... Read more >>

Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
[2021, :]

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The Functions of Thioredoxin 1 in Neurodegeneration.

Maher Un Nisa Awan, Fang Yan, Faisal Mahmood, Liping Bai, Jingyu Liu, Jie Bai,

<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is a ubiquitous protein that is found in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Trx1 acts as reductases in redox regulation and protects proteins from oxidative aggregation and inactivation. Trx1 helps the cells to cope with various environmental stresses and inhibits programmed cell death. It is ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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