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Journal Annu. Rev. Physiol.

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The Osteocyte: New Insights.

Alexander G Robling, Lynda F Bonewald,

Osteocytes are an ancient cell, appearing in fossilized skeletal remains of early fish and dinosaurs. Despite its relative high abundance, even in the context of nonskeletal cells, the osteocyte is perhaps among the least studied cells in all of vertebrate biology. Osteocytes are cells embedded in bone, able to modify ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:485-506]

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Cardiac Fibroblast Diversity.

Michelle D Tallquist,

Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological condition that occurs after injury and during aging. Currently, there are limited means to effectively reduce or reverse fibrosis. Key to identifying methods for curbing excess deposition of extracellular matrix is a better understanding of the cardiac fibroblast, the cell responsible for collagen production. In ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:63-78]

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Cardiac Pacemaker Activity and Aging.

Colin H Peters, Emily J Sharpe, Catherine Proenza,

A progressive decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) is a fundamental aspect of aging in humans and other mammals. This decrease in mHR is independent of gender, fitness, and lifestyle, affecting in equal measure women and men, athletes and couch potatoes, spinach eaters and fast food enthusiasts. Importantly, the decline ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:21-43]

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Regulation and Effects of FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease.

John Musgrove, Myles Wolf,

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health epidemic that accelerates cardiovascular disease, increases risk of infection, and causes anemia and bone disease, among other complications that collectively increase risk of premature death. Alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis have long been considered nontraditional risk factors for many of the ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:365-390]

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Gestational Exposure to Common Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Their Impact on Neurodevelopment and Behavior.

Dinushan Nesan, Deborah M Kurrasch,

Endocrine disrupting chemicals are common in our environment and act on hormone systems and signaling pathways to alter physiological homeostasis. Gestational exposure can disrupt developmental programs, permanently altering tissues with impacts lasting into adulthood. The brain is a critical target for developmental endocrine disruption, resulting in altered neuroendocrine control of ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:177-202]

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IP3 Receptor Plasticity Underlying Diverse Functions.

Kozo Hamada, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba,

In the body, extracellular stimuli produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), an intracellular chemical signal that binds to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) to release calcium ions (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. In the past 40 years, the wide-ranging functions mediated by IP3R and its genetic defects causing a variety of disorders have ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:151-176]

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Aging and Lung Disease.

Soo Jung Cho, Heather W Stout-Delgado,

People worldwide are living longer, and it is estimated that by 2050, the proportion of the world's population over 60 years of age will nearly double. Natural lung aging is associated with molecular and physiological changes that cause alterations in lung function, diminished pulmonary remodeling and regenerative capacity, and increased ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:433-459]

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Genetics of COPD.

Edwin K Silverman,

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk is strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, genetic factors are also important determinants of COPD. In addition to Mendelian syndromes such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, many genomic regions that influence COPD susceptibility have been identified in genome-wide association studies. Similarly, multiple genomic regions associated ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:413-431]

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The Acidic Tumor Microenvironment as a Driver of Cancer.

Ebbe Boedtkjer, Stine F Pedersen,

Acidic metabolic waste products accumulate in the tumor microenvironment because of high metabolic activity and insufficient perfusion. In tumors, the acidity of the interstitial space and the relatively well-maintained intracellular pH influence cancer and stromal cell function, their mutual interplay, and their interactions with the extracellular matrix. Tumor pH is ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:103-126]

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APOL1 and Kidney Disease: From Genetics to Biology.

David J Friedman, Martin R Pollak,

Genetic variants in the APOL1 gene, found only in individuals of recent African ancestry, greatly increase risk of multiple types of kidney disease. These APOL1 kidney risk alleles are a rare example of genetic variants that are common but also have a powerful effect on disease susceptibility. These alleles rose ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:323-342]

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Marrow Adipocytes: Origin, Structure, and Function.

Francisco J A de Paula, Clifford J Rosen,

The skeleton harbors an array of lineage cells that have an essential role in whole body homeostasis. Adipocytes start the colonization of marrow space early in postnatal life, expanding progressively and influencing other components of the bone marrow through paracrine signaling. In this unique, closed, and hypoxic environment close to ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:461-484]

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New Approaches to Target Inflammation in Heart Failure: Harnessing Insights from Studies of Immune Cell Diversity.

Aaron J Rhee, Kory J Lavine,

Despite mounting evidence implicating inflammation in cardiovascular diseases, attempts at clinical translation have shown mixed results. Recent preclinical studies have reenergized this field and provided new insights into how to favorably modulate cardiac macrophage function in the context of acute myocardial injury and chronic disease. In this review, we discuss ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:1-20]

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Neuronal Mechanisms that Drive Organismal Aging Through the Lens of Perception.

Christi M Gendron, Tuhin S Chakraborty, Brian Y Chung, Zachary M Harvanek, Kristina J Holme, Jacob C Johnson, Yang Lyu, Allyson S Munneke, Scott D Pletcher,

Sensory neurons provide organisms with data about the world in which they live, for the purpose of successfully exploiting their environment. The consequences of sensory perception are not simply limited to decision-making behaviors; evidence suggests that sensory perception directly influences physiology and aging, a phenomenon that has been observed in ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:227-249]

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Autophagy in Kidney Disease.

Mary E Choi,

Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic program for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins, in which double-membraned vesicles (autophagosomes) sequester cytoplasmic cargos, which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Emerging evidence implicates autophagy as an important modulator of human disease. Macroautophagy and selective autophagy (e.g., mitophagy, aggrephagy) can ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:297-322]

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Diurnal Regulation of Renal Electrolyte Excretion: The Role of Paracrine Factors.

Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock,

Many physiological processes, including most kidney-related functions, follow specific rhythms tied to a 24-h cycle. This is largely because circadian genes operate in virtually every cell type in the body. In addition, many noncanonical genes have intrinsic circadian rhythms, especially within the liver and kidney. This new level of complexity ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:343-363]

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BMP Signaling in Development, Stem Cells, and Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Yongchun Zhang, Jianwen Que,

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is essential for the morphogenesis of multiple organs in the digestive system. Abnormal BMP signaling has also been associated with disease initiation and progression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs. Recent studies using animal models, tissue organoids, and human pluripotent stem cells ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:251-273]

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Physiology of the Carotid Body: From Molecules to Disease.

Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo,

The carotid body (CB) is an arterial chemoreceptor organ located in the carotid bifurcation and has a well-recognized role in cardiorespiratory regulation. The CB contains neurosecretory sensory cells (glomus cells), which release transmitters in response to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidemia to activate afferent sensory fibers terminating in the respiratory and ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:127-149]

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Intestinal Stem Cell Aging: Origins and Interventions.

Heinrich Jasper,

Regenerative processes that maintain the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium are critical for health and survival of multicellular organisms. In insects and vertebrates, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) regenerate the GI epithelium. ISC function is regulated by intrinsic, local, and systemic stimuli to adjust regeneration to tissue demands. These control ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:203-226]

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Contributions of Aging to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

T Michael De Silva, Frank M Faraci,

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by changes in the pial and parenchymal microcirculations. SVD produces reductions in cerebral blood flow and impaired blood-brain barrier function, which are leading contributors to age-related reductions in brain health. End-organ effects are diverse, resulting in both cognitive and noncognitive deficits. Underlying phenotypes ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:275-295]

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Circadian Regulation of Cardiac Physiology: Rhythms That Keep the Heart Beating.

Jianhua Zhang, John C Chatham, Martin E Young,

On Earth, all life is exposed to dramatic changes in the environment over the course of the day; consequently, organisms have evolved strategies to both adapt to and anticipate these 24-h oscillations. As a result, time of day is a major regulator of mammalian physiology and processes, including transcription, signaling, ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:79-101]

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Cardiomyocyte Polyploidy and Implications for Heart Regeneration.

Peiheng Gan, Michaela Patterson, Henry M Sucov,

In mammals, most cardiomyocytes (CMs) become polyploid (they have more than two complete sets of chromosomes). The purpose of this review is to evaluate assumptions about CM ploidy that are commonly discussed, even if not experimentally demonstrated, and to highlight key issues that are still to be resolved. Topics discussed ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:45-61]

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Osteoclasts Provide Coupling Signals to Osteoblast Lineage Cells Through Multiple Mechanisms.

Natalie A Sims, T John Martin,

Bone remodeling is essential for the repair and replacement of damaged and old bone. The major principle underlying this process is that osteoclast-mediated resorption of a quantum of bone is followed by osteoblast precursor recruitment; these cells differentiate to matrix-producing osteoblasts, which form new bone to replace what was resorbed. ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:507-529]

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Why Lungs Keep Time: Circadian Rhythms and Lung Immunity.

Charles Nosal, Anna Ehlers, Jeffrey A Haspel,

Circadian rhythms are daily cycles in biological function that are ubiquitous in nature. Understood as a means for organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes, circadian rhythms are also important for orchestrating complex biological processes such as immunity. Nowhere is this more evident than in the respiratory system, where circadian rhythms ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2020, 82:391-412]

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Innate Lymphoid Cells of the Lung.

Jillian L Barlow, Andrew N J McKenzie,

Although, as the major organ of gas exchange, the lung is considered a nonlymphoid organ, an interconnected network of lung-resident innate cells, including epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells is crucial for its protection. These cells provide defense against a daily assault by airborne bacteria, viruses, and ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2019, 81:429-452]

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Regulation of Blood and Lymphatic Vessels by Immune Cells in Tumors and Metastasis.

Massimiliano Mazzone, Gabriele Bergers,

Research over the last decades has provided strong evidence for the pivotal role of the tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vasculature in supporting immunoevasion and in subverting T cell-mediated immunosurveillance. Conversely, tumor blood and lymphatic vessel growth is in part regulated by the immune system, with infiltrating innate as well as ... Read more >>

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (Annual review of physiology)
[2019, 81:535-560]

Cited: 2 times

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