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Human T Cell Lymphotropic Viruses

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Aspartic peptidase of Phialophora verrucosa as target of HIV peptidase inhibitors: blockage of its enzymatic activity and interference with fungal growth and macrophage interaction.

Marcela Q Granato, Ingrid S Sousa, Thabatta L S A Rosa, Diego S Gonçalves, Sergio H Seabra, Daniela S Alviano, Maria C V Pessolani, André L S Santos, Lucimar F Kneipp,

Phialophora verrucosa causes several fungal human diseases, mainly chromoblastomycosis, which is extremely difficult to treat. Several studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus peptidase inhibitors (HIV-PIs) are attractive candidates for antifungal therapies. This work focused on studying the action of HIV-PIs on peptidase activity secreted by P. verrucosa and their ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):629-638]

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Coinfection dynamics of heroin transmission and HIV infection in a single population.

Xi-Chao Duan, Xue-Zhi Li, Maia Martcheva,

We propose a model of a joint spread of heroin use and HIV infection. The unique disease-free equilibrium always exists and it is stable if the basic reproduction numbers of heroin use and HIV infection are both less than 1. The semi-trivial equilibrium of HIV infection (heroin use) exists if ... Read more >>

J Biol Dyn (Journal of biological dynamics)
[2020, 14(1):116-142]

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Sexually transmitted infection knowledge and attitudes among Muslim women worldwide: a systematic review.

Noura Alomair, Samah Alageel, Nathan Davies, Julia V Bailey,

Extramarital sexual relations are forbidden in Islam, and sexual health information is not readily available in Islamic communities, especially for women. This review aimed to explore sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge and attitudes among Muslim women worldwide. A systematic review was conducted on seven electronic databases. We included qualitative and ... Read more >>

Sex Reprod Health Matters (Sexual and reproductive health matters)
[2020, 28(1):1731296]

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Predictors of outcome in childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Harsita Patel, Claire Dunican, Aubrey J Cunnington,

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is classified as either uncomplicated or severe, determining clinical management and providing a framework for understanding pathogenesis. Severe malaria in children is defined by the presence of one or more features associated with adverse outcome, but there is wide variation in the predictive value of these features. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):199-221]

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Bovine leukemia virus tax gene/Tax protein polymorphism and its relation to Enzootic Bovine Leukosis.

Irina M Zyrianova, Svetlana N Kovalchuk,

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of the Deltaretrovirus genus, which causes persistent infection in its natural hosts - cattle, zebu, and water buffalo with diverse clinical manifestations through the defeat of B-cells. The BLV proviral genome, along with structural genes (gag, pro, pol, and env), includes nonstructural ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):80-87]

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Establishment and validation of a pseudovirus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2.

Jianhui Nie, Qianqian Li, Jiajing Wu, Chenyan Zhao, Huan Hao, Huan Liu, Li Zhang, Lingling Nie, Haiyang Qin, Meng Wang, Qiong Lu, Xiaoyu Li, Qiyu Sun, Junkai Liu, Changfa Fan, Weijin Huang, Miao Xu, Youchun Wang,

Pseudoviruses are useful virological tools because of their safety and versatility, especially for emerging and re-emerging viruses. Due to its high pathogenicity and infectivity and the lack of effective vaccines and therapeutics, live SARS-CoV-2 has to be handled under biosafety level 3 conditions, which has hindered the development of vaccines ... Read more >>

Emerg Microbes Infect (Emerging microbes & infections)
[2020, 9(1):680-686]

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Sexual health of adolescent girls and young women in Central Uganda: exploring perceived coercive aspects of transactional sex.

Nambusi Kyegombe, Rebecca Meiksin, Joyce Wamoyi, Lori Heise, Kirsten Stoebenau, Ana Maria Buller,

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Uganda are at risk of early sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, violence, and disproportionally high HIV infection rates, driven in part by transactional sex. This paper examines the extent to which AGYW's participation in transactional sex is perceived to be coerced. We conducted 19 ... Read more >>

Sex Reprod Health Matters (Sexual and reproductive health matters)
[2020, 28(1):1700770]

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Commitment towards a better future for medical education in Saudi Arabia: the efforts of the college of medicine at Qassim University to become socially accountable.

Saleh A Alrebish, Mohamed H Taha, Mohamed H Ahmed, Mohamed Elhassan Abdalla,

Background: The College of Medicine at Qassim University (COMQU) was founded in 2001 as a problem-based learning and community-oriented medical school in order to strengthen the health system not only in the Qassim region but also in the whole of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the current study was to ... Read more >>

Med Educ Online (Medical education online)
[2020, 25(1):1710328]

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Association of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with serum leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profile in overweight adults.

Mahsa Mehrdad, Saeid Doaei, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Majid Fardaei, Mohammad Fararouei, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari,

FTO gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity and food intake. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism genotypes with serum glucose, lipid profile and serum hormones level. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 196 randomly selected overweight adults. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass ... Read more >>

Adipocyte (Adipocyte)
[2020, 9(1):51-56]

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Prevalence and curriculum of sexual and gender minority education in Japanese medical school and future direction.

Yuka Yamazaki, Akiko Aoki, Junji Otaki,

Background: In Japan, sexual and gender minorities (SGM) remain stigmatized, provoking hospital access barriers and health disparities from judgmental care. Japan's Western-influenced introduction of SGM course content into medical education for future physicians addresses these disparities, although often perfunctorily and inconsistently.Objective: To examine the prevalence and characteristics of medical education ... Read more >>

Med Educ Online (Medical education online)
[2020, 25(1):1710895]

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The personal motif in naturalistic case study research: developing "innerstandings" in woman's compulsive behaviour.

Tineke A Abma, Andrea Ruissen, Ellen den Oude, Petra Verdonk,

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show case study research focused on persons as a case and our personal engagement with the case can improve our innerstandings and understanding of person-centred care. Method: We present the methodology and epistemology of naturalistic case study research and illuminate this approach ... Read more >>

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being)
[2020, 15(1):1730552]

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A qualitative assessment of the influence of family dynamics on adolescents' sexual risk behaviour in a migration-affected community.

Felix Chima Anyanwu, Henry Abayomi Akinsola, Augustine Kwame Tugli, Nkechi Obisie-Nmehielle,

Purpose: Adolescents may be known to take risks, but they may also conform to societal norms if they are given proper guidance, implying that there is a need for proper monitoring. This qualitative study explores the influence of family dynamics on adolescents sexual risk behaviour within a migration affected community.Method: ... Read more >>

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being)
[2020, 15(1):1717322]

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The mediating role of psychological capital on the relation between distress and empathy of medical residents: a cross-sectional survey.

Jing Jin, Honghe Li, Wenwen Song, Nan Jiang, Weiyue Zhao, Deliang Wen,

Background: Medical residents usually suffer from work overload and experience both personal and professional distress, which affects their level of the empathy to patients. Psychological capital (PsyCap) is a psychological resource that is negatively associated with indicators of distress.Objective: This study explored the potential mediating effect of PsyCap on the ... Read more >>

Med Educ Online (Medical education online)
[2020, 25(1):1710326]

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Mutation on lysX from Mycobacterium avium hominissuis impacts the host-pathogen interaction and virulence phenotype.

Greana Kirubakar, Hubert Schäfer, Volker Rickerts, Carsten Schwarz, Astrid Lewin,

The lysX gene from Mycobacterium avium hominissuis (MAH) is not only involved in cationic antimicrobial resistance but also regulates metabolic activity. An MAH lysX deficient mutant was shown to exhibit a metabolic shift at the extracellular state preadapting the bacteria to the conditions inside host-cells. It further showed stronger growth ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):132-144]

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Determination of antiviral action of long non-coding RNA loc107051710 during infectious bursal disease virus infection due to enhancement of interferon production.

Xuewei Huang, Yigang Xu, Qingyu Lin, Weilong Guo, Dongfang Zhao, Chunmei Wang, Li Wang, Han Zhou, Yanping Jiang, Wen Cui, Xinyuan Qiao, Yijing Li, Guangpeng Ma, Lijie Tang,

The functions and profiles of lncRNAs during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection have not been determined, yet. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral action of loc107051710 lncRNA during IBDV infection by investigating the relationship between loc107051710 and IRF8, Type I IFN, STATs, and ISGs. DF-1 ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):68-79]

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Sulphonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine structural motifs show antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase inhibitory profile.

Nabih Lolak, Mehmet Boga, Muhammed Tuneg, Gulcin Karakoc, Suleyman Akocak, Claudiu T Supuran,

A series of 16 novel benzenesulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties substituted with aromatic amines, dimethylamine, morpholine and piperidine were investigated. These compounds were assayed for antioxidant properties by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2`-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical decolarisation assay and metal chelating methods. They were also investigated as inhibitors of ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):424-431]

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Multilevel Barriers to Engagement in the HIV Care Continuum Among Residents of the State of Rhode Island Living with HIV.

Matthew J Mimiaga, D August Oddleifson, Stephen C Meersman, Annie Silvia, Jaclyn M W Hughto, Stewart Landers, Emily Brown, Paul Loberti,

An estimated 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. Of those living with HIV, only 40% are engaged in HIV care, 37% are prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 30% are virally suppressed. Individual-, interpersonal-, and structural-level factors that represent barriers to engagement along the HIV care ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2020, 24(4):1133-1150]

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Opportunities and Challenges in HIV Treatment as Prevention Research: Results from the ANRS 12249 Cluster-Randomized Trial and Associated Population Cohort.

Frank Tanser, Hae-Young Kim, Alain Vandormael, Collins Iwuji, Till Bärnighausen,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The ANRS 12249 treatment as prevention (TasP) trial investigated the impact of a universal test and treat (UTT) approach on reducing HIV incidence in one of the regions of the world most severely affected by the HIV epidemic-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We summarize key findings from this trial as ... Read more >>

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (Current HIV/AIDS reports)
[2020, 17(2):97-108]

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High Interest in Syphilis Pre-exposure and Post-exposure Prophylaxis Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men in Vancouver and Toronto.

Laura Fusca, Mark Hull, Patrick Ross, Troy Grennan, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Darrell H S Tan,

BACKGROUND:We assessed the acceptability of doxycycline-based syphilis pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PrEP/PEP in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM). METHODS:We recruited gbMSM from Toronto and Vancouver sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics during routine visits from June 2018 ... Read more >>

Sex Transm Dis (Sexually transmitted diseases)
[2020, 47(4):224-231]

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Obesity and Weight Gain in Persons with HIV.

Samuel S Bailin, Curtis L Gabriel, Celestine N Wanjalla, John R Koethe,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The proportion of overweight and obese persons with HIV (PWH) has increased since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aim to summarize recent literature on risks of weight gain, discuss adipose tissue changes in HIV and obesity, and synthesize current understanding of how excess adiposity and HIV ... Read more >>

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (Current HIV/AIDS reports)
[2020, 17(2):138-150]

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Incident HIV among pregnant and breast-feeding women in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lauren A Graybill, Margaret Kasaro, Kellie Freeborn, Jennifer S Walker, Charles Poole, Kimberly A Powers, Katie R Mollan, Nora E Rosenberg, Sten H Vermund, Wilbroad Mutale, Benjamin H Chi,

OBJECTIVES:A previous meta-analysis reported high HIV incidence among pregnant and breast-feeding women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but limited evidence of elevated risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy or breast-feeding when compared with nonpregnant periods. The rapidly evolving HIV prevention and treatment landscape since publication of this review may have important ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(5):761-776]

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HIV-related Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among Patients with HIV, Dilla, Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study

Yigrem Chekole,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background Understanding HIV-related perceived stigma has importance in improving quality of patients and provides a better tackling of HIV stigma. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among Patients with HIV attending clinic at Dilla University ... Read more >>

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The Impact of Clinic Policy Attendance and the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Case Management Program on HIV Clinical Outcomes: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

Julia D López, Enbal Shacham, Tawnya Brown,

Clinic appointment attendance is a significant determinant of improved HIV health outcomes. A retrospective longitudinal analysis from 2009 to 2015 examined the relationship of clinic policy attendance with and without medical case management (MCM) on HIV clinical outcomes. Clinical parameters were abstracted across the study years and latent growth models ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2020, 24(4):1161-1169]

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HIV/AIDS Among Female Sex Workers in China: Epidemiology and Recent Prevention Strategies.

Hanxi Zhang, Evelyn Hsieh, Lu Wang, Susu Liao,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review aims to describe the epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in China over the past decade, to summarize current gaps in knowledge regarding risk factors, and to identify new directions for HIV prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS:We summarized national and regional levels of HIV prevalence ... Read more >>

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (Current HIV/AIDS reports)
[2020, 17(2):151-160]

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Assessing and Addressing Social Determinants of HIV among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic and Tanzania through Community Empowerment-Based Responses.

Deanna Kerrigan, Yeycy Donastorg, Clare Barrington, Martha Perez, Hoisex Gomez, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Andrea Mantsios, S Wilson Beckham, Anna Leddy, Tahilin Sanchez Karver, Noya Galai, Wendy W Davis,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review describes social determinants of HIV in two geographic and epidemic settings, the Dominican Republic (DR) and Tanzania, among female sex workers (FSW), their influence on HIV outcomes including 90-90-90 goals, and the development and impact of tailored, context driven, community empowerment-based responses in each setting. RECENT ... Read more >>

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (Current HIV/AIDS reports)
[2020, 17(2):88-96]

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