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Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

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Herpes simplex encephalitis: A new type of “ICU-acquired infection”?

Fabien Hauw, Vera Dinkelacker, Pierre Jaquet, Hervé Vespignani, Charles Grégoire, Mathilde Perrin, Nicolas Engrand,

Electrophysiology; Infectious disease; Neurology; Neurosurgery; Intensive care medicine; Herpes simplex Encephalitis; Intensive care; Immunosuppression; ICU acquired Infection; Herpes simplex reactivation ... Read more >>

Heliyon (Heliyon)
[2020, 6(3):]

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An improved animal model for herpesvirus encephalitis in humans.

Julia Sehl, Julia E Hölper, Barbara G Klupp, Christina Baumbach, Jens P Teifke, Thomas C Mettenleiter,

Herpesviral encephalitis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most devastating diseases in humans. Patients present with fever, mental status changes or seizures and when untreated, sequelae can be fatal. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by mainly unilateral necrotizing inflammation effacing the frontal and mesiotemporal ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2020, 16(3):e1008445]

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Parechovirus-A3 encephalitis presenting with focal seizure mimicking herpes simplex virus infection.

Sakiko Arai, Takayuki Yamanaka, Masashi Kasai, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yuta Aizawa, Ko Matsui, Masanori Sato, Hiroko Matsui, Akihiko Saitoh,

BACKGROUND:Febrile neonates and young infants presenting with seizure require immediate evaluation and treatment. Herein we experienced two young infants with parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) encephalitis, initially presented with focal seizure suspecting herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. CASES:We have experienced 2 infantile cases, initially presented with focal seizure. At presentation, HSV encephalitis was ... Read more >>

J. Infect. Chemother. (Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy)
[2020, :]

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Distinct immunoreactivity pattern to Bacillus mannanilyticus in a subgroup of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Yong-Won Shin, Soon-Tae Lee, Young-Sook Kim, Dohyun Han, Yuichi Nogi, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee,

Over half of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) is unrelated to etiologies such as teratomas or herpes simplex encephalitis. Bacillus mannanilyticus nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) shares a protein sequence with GluN1. After confirming the anti-NRPS antibody immunoreactivity in an index patient by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 24/57 (42%) ... Read more >>

J. Neuroimmunol. (Journal of neuroimmunology)
[2020, 342:577215]

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Acute cerebral haematoma in the course of herpes simplex 1 encephalitis. A rare complication.

D Veiga Canuto, J Carreres Polo, F Aparici Robles, A Quiroz Tejada,

Neurologia (Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain))
[2020, :]

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Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus infection: a case report.

Ya Chen, Doujia Chen, Xuejiao Zhou, Haiqing Zhang, Shusheng Liao, Zucai Xu, Ping Xu,

Purpose: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disease that can be associated with autoimmunity, paraneoplastic tumour, infection or unknown aetiology.Methods: We describe a 54-year-old woman who developed severe OMS, with the clinical onset occurring 2 months and 15 days after she experienced dizziness, vomiting and fever related to a ... Read more >>

Int. J. Neurosci. (The International journal of neuroscience)
[2020, :1-5]

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Clinicoradiological Profile of Superficial Middle Cerebral Vein Thrombosis.

Neeharika L Mathukumalli, Ravivarma Dandu, Meena A Kanikannan, Subhash Kaul,

Background:The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) involving superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) remains challenging even in the present era of modern MRI protocols. Objective:The purpose of this study is to review the clinical and radiological characteristics of SMCV thrombosis in our hospital. Methods:Chart review of cases of SMCV ... Read more >>

Neurol India (Neurology India)
[2020, :]

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Epidemiology and Etiology of Severe Childhood Encephalitis in The Netherlands.

Dirkje de Blauw, Andrea H L Bruning, C B E Busch, Lisa M Kolodziej, N J G Jansen, J B M van Woensel, Dasja Pajkrt, ,

BACKGROUND:Limited data are available on childhood encephalitis. Our study aimed to increase insight on clinical presentation, etiology, and clinical outcome of children with severe encephalitis in the Netherlands. METHODS:We identified patients through the Dutch Pediatric Intensive Care Evaluation database and included children diagnosed with encephalitis <18 years of age admitted ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(4):267-272]

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The longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the United States.

Musa Kiyani, Beiyu Liu, Lefko T Charalambous, Syed M Adil, Sarah E Hodges, Siyun Yang, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad,

Introduction. Previous studies of viral encephalitis have focused on acute costs, estimating incidence at 7.3 per 100 000 and total US annual charges at $2 billion in 2010.Aim. We aim to quantify the most updated longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the USA from 2008 to 2015.Methodology. Data on ... Read more >>

J. Med. Microbiol. (Journal of medical microbiology)
[2020, 69(2):270-279]

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Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin,

SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and ... Read more >>

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (Clinical microbiology reviews)
[2020, 33(2):]

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Two Cases of Late-Onset Anti-NMDAr Auto-Immune Encephalitis After Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Encephalitis.

Guillaume Dorcet, Marie Benaiteau, Chloé Bost, Catherine Mengelle, Fabrice Bonneville, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Jérémie Pariente,

Context: Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) was described as a potential trigger for the development of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) auto-immune encephalitis (AIE) within a few days to a few weeks after the infection. Methods: We assessed clinical, radiological, and biological diagnoses process, treatment response, and evolution. Cases ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:38]

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Cerebral HSV-1 Vasculitis as a Fatal Complication of Immunosuppression in Non-Hodgkin´s Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Raffaele Nardone, Luca Carnicelli, Francesco Brigo, Slaven Pikija, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner,

Patients with lymphoma are predisposed to infection because of the immunocompromised state related to the disease itself and as a consequence of chemo-/radiotherapy. Here, we report a case of Herpes-simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) in an immunosuppressed patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), a rare indolent variant of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 9(3):]

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Herpes simplex virus encephalitis of childhood: inborn errors of central nervous system cell-intrinsic immunity.

Shen-Ying Zhang,

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis in Western countries. Over the last 15 years, human genetic and immunological studies have provided proof-of-principle that childhood HSE can result from inborn errors of central nervous system (CNS)-specific, cell-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1. HSE-causing mutations of eight ... Read more >>

Hum. Genet. (Human genetics)
[2020, :]

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Recurrent Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a Patient With a Novel Toll-Like Receptor 3 Variant Linked to Compromised Activation Capacity in Fibroblasts.

Frank Liang, Hedvig Glans, Sara Lind Enoksson, Antonios G A Kolios, Karin Loré, Jakob Nilsson,

BACKGROUND:Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs primarily in elderly or immunocompromised individuals after reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Recurrences of zoster ophthalmicus are uncommon because the reactivation efficiently boosts anti-VZV immunity. A 28-year-old female presented to our clinic with a history of multiple recurrences of zoster ophthalmicus. METHODS:Whole-exome sequencing (WES), analyses ... Read more >>

J. Infect. Dis. (The Journal of infectious diseases)
[2020, 221(8):1295-1303]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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A 9-month retrospective evaluation of the aetiology and management of patients presenting with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at a South London hospital.

Tehmina Bharucha, Lina Nashef, Nick Moran, Sue Watkins, David Brown, Mark Zuckerman,

Encephalitis causes high morbidity and mortality. An incidence of 4.3 cases of encephalitis/100 000 population has been reported in the UK. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the diagnosis and management of adults admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis/meningoencephalitis. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collated from ... Read more >>

Epidemiol. Infect. (Epidemiology and infection)
[2020, 148:e23]

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Prediction and analysis of human-herpes simplex virus type 1 protein-protein interactions by integrating multiple methods

Ziding Zhang, Xianyi Lian, Xiaodi Yang, Jiqi Shao, Fujun Hou, Shiping Yang, Dongli Pan,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous infectious pathogen that widely affects human health. To decipher the complicated human-HSV-1 interactions, a comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) network between human and HSV-1 is highly demanded. Results: To complement experimental identification of human-HSV-1 PPIs, we developed ... Read more >>

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Strain-Dependent Activity of Zika Virus and Exposure History in Serological Diagnostics.

Kelli L Barr, Erika R Schwarz, Dhani Prakoso, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Ruiyu Pu, J Glenn Morris Jr, Erum Khan, Maureen T Long,

Zika virus (ZIKV) circulates as two separate lineages, with significant genetic variability between strains. Strain-dependent activity has been reported for dengue virus, herpes simplex virus and influenza. Strain-dependent activity of subject specimens to a virus could be an impediment to serological diagnosis and vaccine development. In order to determine whether ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of Infectious Encephalitis and Meningitis: A Large, Prospective Case Series of 213 Patients.

Xiao-Wei Xing, Jia-Tang Zhang, Yu-Bao Ma, Mian-Wang He, Guo-En Yao, Wei Wang, Xiao-Kun Qi, Xiao-Yan Chen, Lei Wu, Xiao-Lin Wang, Yong-Hua Huang, Juan Du, Hong-Fen Wang, Rong-Fei Wang, Fei Yang, Sheng-Yuan Yu,

Purpose: We assessed the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis and meningitis. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with viral encephalitis and/or meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, bacterial meningitis, fungal meningitis, and non-central nervous system (CNS) infections were subjected to ... Read more >>

Front Cell Infect Microbiol (Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology)
[2020, 10:88]

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[Update on important CNS infections].

Matthias Klein, Uwe Koedel, Hans-Walter Pfister,

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in daily clinical practice. In most cases, an early and efficient empiric therapy is crucial for the prognosis. Here, an update on current developments concerning the following CNS infections is presented:- Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis,- bacterial ... Read more >>

Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. (Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946))
[2020, 145(3):155-160]

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Correction to: Ventral striatal and septal area hypermetabolism on FDG-PET in herpes simplex viral encephalitis.

T Singhal, I Solomon, F Akbik, S Smirnakis, H Vaitkevicius,

The word "hypermetabolism" needs to be replaced by "hypometabolism" at only ONE place and NOT throughout the article.So the correction could be stated as:"In the case description section, the sentence "A repeat dedicatedbrain FDG-PET scan performed on day 9, under burst suppression,showed diffuse hypermetabolism with persistent relativehypermetabolism in the left ... Read more >>

J. Neurovirol. (Journal of neurovirology)
[2020, 26(1):121]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

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Acute Flaccid Myelitis Caused by Japanese Encephalitis Virus: A Rare Association.

Nishanth Dev, Rahul Kumar, Ashok Kumawat, Mithu Bhowmick,

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(2):237-238]

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Gyriform restricted diffusion in adults: looking beyond thrombo-occlusions.

Vivek Pai, Yih Yian Sitoh, Bela Purohit,

Gyriform restricted diffusion (GRD) refers to hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) with corresponding hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. These changes are commonly seen following a vascular occlusion, reflecting the limitation of water molecule movement across cell membranes (restricted diffusion) due to the failure ... Read more >>

Insights Imaging (Insights into imaging)
[2020, 11(1):20]

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Cold atmospheric plasma as antiviral therapy - effect on human herpes simplex virus type 1.

Oskar Bunz, Kemal Mese, Christina Funk, Maximilan Wulf, Susanne M Bailer, Andree Piwowarczyk, Anja Ehrhardt,

In previous studies, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was explored as an antibacterial and antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic wounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CAP may also be suitable as an antiviral therapy against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 most frequently ... Read more >>

J. Gen. Virol. (The Journal of general virology)
[2020, 101(2):208-215]

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