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The role of glycosylation in the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin of a unique H4N2 with a natural polybasic cleavage site in virus fitness in vitro and in vivo.

Marcel Gischke, Ola Bagato, Angele Breithaupt, David Scheibner, Claudia Blaurock, Melina Vallbracht, Axel Karger, Beate Crossley, Jutta Veits, Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab,

To date, only low pathogenic (LP) H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been observed to naturally shift to a highly pathogenic (HP) phenotype after mutation of the monobasic hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (HACS) to polybasic motifs. The LPAIV monobasic HACS is activated by tissue-restricted trypsin-like enzymes, while the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):666-678]

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Gross pathology associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 and H5N1 in naturally infected birds in the UK (2020-2021).

Fabian Z X Lean, Alejandro Núñez, Ashley C Banyard, Scott M Reid, Ian H Brown, Rowena D E Hansen,

<h4>Background</h4>Multiple outbreaks with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) clade 2.3.4.4b viruses, including H5N8 and H5N1, have occurred in the United Kingdom, as well as in other European countries, since late 2020.<h4>Methods</h4>This report describes the pathology among poultry species (chickens, turkeys, ducks, and pheasants) and captive birds (Black Swans, a ... Read more >>

Vet Rec (The Veterinary record)
[2021, :e731]

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Primary Chicken and Duck Endothelial Cells Display a Differential Response to Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

Zhen Wei Marcus Tong, Anjana C Karawita, Colin Kern, Huaijun Zhou, Jane E Sinclair, Limin Yan, Keng Yih Chew, Sue Lowther, Lee Trinidad, Arjun Challagulla, Karel A Schat, Michelle L Baker, Kirsty R Short,

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in gallinaceous poultry are associated with viral infection of the endothelium, the induction of a 'cytokine storm, and severe disease. In contrast, in Pekin ducks, HPAIVs are rarely endothelial tropic, and a cytokine storm is not observed. To date, understanding these species-dependent differences in ... Read more >>

Genes (Basel) (Genes)
[2021, 12(6):]

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Subclinical Infection and Transmission of Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) and Domestic Pigeon (Columbia livia domestica).

Sol Jeong, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Sun-Hak Lee, Yu-Jin Kim, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Jung-Eun Park, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Dong-Hun Lee, Chang-Seon Song,

Since 2014, H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry in multiple continents, including Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. Wild birds were suspected to be the sources of the local and global spreads of HPAIV. This study evaluated the infectivity, ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(6):]

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Emergence and spread of novel H5N8, H5N5 and H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2020.

Nicola S Lewis, Ashley C Banyard, Elliot Whittard, Talgat Karibayev, Thamer Al Kafagi, Ilya Chvala, Alex Byrne, Saduakassova Meruyert Akberovna, Jacqueline King, Timm Harder, Christian Grund, Steve Essen, Scott M Reid, Adam Brouwer, Nikolay G Zinyakov, Azimkhan Tegzhanov, Victor Irza, Anne Pohlmann, Martin Beer, Ron A M Fouchier, Sultanov Akhmetzhan Akievich, Ian H Brown,

Analyses of HPAI H5 viruses from poultry outbreaks across a wide Eurasian region since July 2020 including the Russian Federation, Republics of Iraq and Kazakhstan, and recent detections in migratory waterfowl in the Netherlands, revealed undetected maintenance of H5N8, likely in galliform poultry since 2017/18 and both H5N5 and H5N1. ... Read more >>

Emerg Microbes Infect (Emerging microbes & infections)
[2021, 10(1):148-151]

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Genetic characterization of an H5N6 avian influenza virus with multiple origins from a chicken in southern China, October 2019.

Feng Wen, Jing Yang, Jinyue Guo, Congying Wang, Qing Cheng, Zheng Tang, Kaijian Luo, Sheng Yuan, Shujian Huang, Yong Li,

<h4>Background</h4>Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5 subtype pose a great threat to the poultry industry and human health. In recent years, H5N6 subtype has rapidly replaced H5N1 as the most predominate HPAIV subtype circulating in domestic poultry in China. In this study, we describe the genetic and phylogenetic ... Read more >>

BMC Vet Res (BMC veterinary research)
[2021, 17(1):200]

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Cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions in the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus-infected lungs of genetically disparate Ri chicken lines.

Thi Hao Vu, Yeojin Hong, Anh Duc Truong, Jiae Lee, Sooyeon Lee, Ki-Duk Song, Jihye Cha, Hoang Vu Dang, Ha Thi Thanh Tran, Hyun S Lillehoj, Yeong Ho Hong,

<h4>Objective</h4>The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a threat to the poultry industry as well as the economy and remains a potential source of pandemic infection in humans. Antiviral genes are considered a potential factor for HPAIV resistance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated gene expression related to cytokine-cytokine ... Read more >>

Anim Biosci (Animal bioscience)
[2021, :]

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In Vivo Models to Study the Pathogenesis of Extra-Respiratory Complications of Influenza A Virus Infection.

Edwin Veldhuis Kroeze, Lisa Bauer, Valentina Caliendo, Debby van Riel,

Animal models are an inimitable method to study the systemic pathogenesis of virus-induced disease. Extra-respiratory complications of influenza A virus infections are not extensively studied even though they are often associated with severe disease and mortality. Here we review and recommend mammalian animal models that can be used to study ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(5):]

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A Semiquantitative Scoring System for Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Lesions and Tissue Tropism in Avian Influenza.

Maria Landmann, David Scheibner, Annika Graaf, Marcel Gischke, Susanne Koethe, Olanrewaju I Fatola, Barbara Raddatz, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Christian Grund, Timm Harder, Elsayed M Abdelwhab, Reiner Ulrich,

The main findings of the post-mortem examination of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) include necrotizing inflammation and viral antigen in multiple organs. The lesion profile displays marked variability, depending on viral subtype, strain, and host species. Therefore, in this study, a semiquantitative scoring system was developed ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(5):]

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Novel reassortant 2.3.4.4B H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating among wild, domestic birds in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

Qian Zhang, Xindi Mei, Cheng Zhang, Juan Li, Nana Chang, Dilihuma Aji, Weifeng Shi, Yuhai Bi, Zhenghai Ma,

<h4>Background</h4>The H5 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of clade 2.3.4.4 circulate in wild and domestic birds worldwide. In 2017, nine strains of H5N6 AIVs were isolated from aquatic poultry in Xinjiang, Northwest China.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aimed to analyze the origin, reassortment, and mutations of the AIV isolates.<h4>Methods</h4>AIVs were isolated from oropharyngeal and ... Read more >>

J Vet Sci (Journal of veterinary science)
[2021, 22(4):e43]

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Isolation and Molecular Identification of Respiratory Diseases Viruses in Poultry During 2020

Nahed Yehia, Fatma Amer, Abdelhafez Samir, Mohamed Samy, Ahmed Sedeek, Neveen Rebie, Wafaa Mohammed, Salama Mostafa Aboelenin, Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed El-Saadony, Naglaa Hagag,

Poultry production has affected by multiple respiratory disease triggering serious economic losses in Egypt. In this study, the situation and genetic evolution of respiratory disease in Egypt during 2020 were studied. We collected 53 samples from infected flocks suffered from respiratory signs and variable mortality rate from nine governorates in ... Read more >>

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First Outbreak of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus on a Chicken Farm in Japan in 2020.

Saki Sakuma, Yuko Uchida, Momoyo Kajita, Taichiro Tanikawa, Junki Mine, Ryota Tsunekuni, Takehiko Saito,

On 5 November 2020, a confirmed outbreak due to an H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) occurred at an egg-hen farm in Kagawa prefecture (western Japan). This virus, A/chicken/Kagawa/11C/2020 (Kagawa11C2020), was the first HPAI poultry isolate in Japan in 2020 and had multiple basic amino acids-a motif conferring high ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(3):]

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RNA-dependent assembly of chimeric antigen nanoparticles as an efficient H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine platform.

Jongkwan Lim, Yucheol Cheong, Young-Seok Kim, Wonil Chae, Beom Jeung Hwang, Jinhee Lee, Yo Han Jang, Young Hoon Roh, Sang-Uk Seo, Baik L Seong,

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) pose a significant threat to human health, with high mortality rates and require effective vaccines. We showed that, harnessed with novel RNA-mediated chaperone function, hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 HPAIV could be displayed as an immunologically relevant conformation on self-assembled chimeric nanoparticles (cNP). A tri-partite ... Read more >>

Nanomedicine (Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine)
[2021, :102438]

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Host factors drive the within-host competition between highly and low pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses

Pierre Bessière, Thomas Figueroa, Amelia Coggon, Charlotte Foret-Lucas, Alexandre Houffschmitt, Maxime Fusade-Boyer, Gabriel Dupré, Jean-Luc Guérin, Maxence Delverdier, Romain Volmer,

<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) emerge from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) through the introduction of basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. Following viral evolution, the newly formed HPAIV likely represents a minority variant within the index host, predominantly infected with the LPAIV precursor. ... Read more >>

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Elucidating the Local Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 in the Republic of Korea by Integrating Phylogenetic Information.

Dae-Sung Yoo, Byungchul Chun, Kyung-Duk Min, Jun-Sik Lim, Oun-Kyoung Moon, Kwang-Nyeong Lee,

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most virulent and infectious pathogens of poultry. As a response to HPAI epidemics, veterinary authorities implement preemptive depopulation as a controlling strategy. However, mass culling within a uniform radius of the infection site can result in unnecessary depopulation. Therefore, it ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2021, 10(6):]

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Genetic and biological properties of H7N9 avian influenza viruses detected after application of the H7N9 poultry vaccine in China.

Xin Yin, Guohua Deng, Xianying Zeng, Pengfei Cui, Yujie Hou, Yanjing Liu, Jingzhen Fang, Shuxin Pan, Dongxue Wang, Xiaohan Chen, Yaping Zhang, Xiurong Wang, Guobin Tian, Yanbing Li, Yan Chen, Liling Liu, Yasuo Suzuki, Yuntao Guan, Chengjun Li, Jianzhong Shi, Hualan Chen,

The H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) that emerged in China have caused five waves of human infection. Further human cases have been successfully prevented since September 2017 through the use of an H7N9 vaccine in poultry. However, the H7N9 AIV has not been eradicated from poultry in China, and its ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog (PLoS pathogens)
[2021, 17(4):e1009561]

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Genetic Characterization and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza Virus H7N3 Isolated from Spot-Billed Ducks in South Korea, Early 2019.

Thuy-Tien Thi Trinh, Indira Tiwari, Kaliannan Durairaj, Bao Tuan Duong, Anh Thi Viet Nguyen, Hien Thi Tuong, Vui Thi Hoang, Duong Duc Than, SunJeong Nam, Seon-Ju Yeo, Hyun Park,

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus-A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)-was isolated from ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(5):]

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H7N7 Avian Influenza Virus Mutation from Low to High Pathogenicity on a Layer Chicken Farm in the UK.

Alexander M P Byrne, Scott M Reid, Amanda H Seekings, Alejandro Núñez, Ana B Obeso Prieto, Susan Ridout, Caroline J Warren, Anita Puranik, Vanessa Ceeraz, Stephen Essen, Marek J Slomka, Jill Banks, Ian H Brown, Sharon M Brookes,

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 are capable of mutating from low to high pathogenicity strains, causing high mortality in poultry with significant economic losses globally. During 2015, two outbreaks of H7N7 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) in Germany, and one each in the United Kingdom (UK) and The ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(2):]

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Do contrasting patterns of migration movements and disease outbreaks between congeneric waterfowl species reflect differing immunity?

Shenglai Yin, Yanjie Xu, Nyambyar Batbayar, John Y Takekawa, Yali Si, Diann J Prosser, Scott H Newman, Herbert H T Prins, Willem F De Boer,

Long-distance migrations influence the dynamics of hostpathogen interactions and understanding the role of migratory waterfowl in the spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is important. While wild geese have been associated with outbreak events, disease ecology of closely related species has not been studied to the same ... Read more >>

Geospat Health (Geospatial health)
[2021, 16(1):]

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A novel epitope-blocking ELISA for specific and sensitive detection of antibodies against H5-subtype influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska,

<h4>Background</h4>H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic potential. Due to veterinary and public health significance, these HPAIVs, as well as low pathogenicity (LP) H5-subtype AIVs having a propensity ... Read more >>

Virol J (Virology journal)
[2021, 18(1):91]

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Genetic Characterization of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Falcated Ducks and Environmental Water in Japan in November 2020.

Ahmed Magdy Khalil, Yoshikazu Fujimoto, Isshu Kojima, Mana Esaki, Kyonha Ri, Tatsunori Masatani, Tsutomu Matsui, Makoto Ozawa,

We isolated two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b from falcated duck (<i>Anas falcata</i>) feces and environmental water collected at an overwintering site in Japan. Our isolates were almost genetically identical to each other and showed high genetic similarity with H5N8 HPAIVs recently isolated in ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2021, 10(2):]

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Virus Adaptation Following Experimental Infection of Chickens with a Domestic Duck Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Isolate from the 2017 USA H7N9 Outbreak Identifies Polymorphic Mutations in Multiple Gene Segments.

Klaudia Chrzastek, Karen Segovia, Mia Torchetti, Mary Lee Killian, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R Kapczynski,

In March 2017, highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7N9 were detected from poultry farms and backyard birds in several states in the southeast United States. Because interspecies transmission is a known mechanism for evolution of AIVs, we sought to characterize infection and transmission ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(6):]

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The Impact of Selected Risk Factors on The Occurrence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Poultry Flocks in Poland.

Anna Gierak, Krzysztof Śmietanka,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) into a country and its further spread may have a devastating impact on the poultry industry and lead to serious economic consequences. Various risk factors may increase the probability of HPAI outbreak occurrence but their relative influence is often difficult to determine. ... Read more >>

J Vet Res (Journal of veterinary research)
[2021, 65(1):45-52]

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Neuraminidase-associated plasminogen recruitment enables systemic spread of natural avian Influenza viruses H3N1.

Jacob Schön, Angele Breithaupt, Dirk Höper, Jacqueline King, Anne Pohlmann, Rokshana Parvin, Klaus-Peter Behr, Bernd-Andreas Schwarz, Martin Beer, Jürgen Stech, Timm Harder, Christian Grund,

Repeated outbreaks due to H3N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) in Belgium were associated with unusually high mortality in chicken in 2019. Those events caused considerable economic losses and prompted restriction measures normally implemented for eradicating high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Initial pathology investigations and infection studies suggested ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog (PLoS pathogens)
[2021, 17(4):e1009490]

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Identification of amino acid residues required for inhibition of host gene expression by influenza A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 H5N1 PA-X.

Kevin Chiem, Darío López-García, Javier Ortego, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Marta L DeDiego, Aitor Nogales,

PA-X is a non-structural protein of influenza A virus (IAV), which is encoded by the polymerase acidic (PA) N-terminal region that contains a C-terminal +1 frameshifted sequence. IAV PA-X protein modulates virus-induced host innate immune responses and viral pathogenicity via suppression of host gene expression or cellular shutoff, through cellular ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, :JVI0040821]

Cited: 1 time

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