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HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex

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Exosomes as mediators of neuron-glia communication in neuroinflammation.

María Pascual, Francesc Ibáñez, Consuelo Guerri,

In recent years, a type of extracellular vesicles named exosomes has emerged that play an important role in intercellular communication under physiological and pathological conditions. These nanovesicles (30-150 nm) contain proteins, RNAs and lipids, and their internalization by bystander cells could alter their normal functions. This review focuses on recent ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(5):796-801]

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Educational Case: Opportunistic Infections of the Central Nervous System.

Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Jorge Trejo-Lopez, Stacy G Beal, Jesse L Kresak,

The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and ... Read more >>

Acad Pathol (Academic pathology)
[2020, 7:2374289520901809]

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Glutaminase 1 Regulates Neuroinflammation After Cerebral Ischemia Through Enhancing Microglial Activation and Pro-Inflammatory Exosome Release.

Ge Gao, Congcong Li, Jie Zhu, Yi Wang, Yunlong Huang, Shu Zhao, Shiyang Sheng, Yu Song, Chenhui Ji, Chunhong Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Ling Ye, Xinrui Qi, Yanyan Zhang, Xiaohuan Xia, Jialin C Zheng,

Cerebral ischemia induces a robust neuroinflammatory response that is largely mediated by the activation of CNS resident microglia. Activated microglia produce pro-inflammatory molecules to cause neuronal damage. Identifying regulators of microglial activation bears great potential in discovering promising candidates for neuroprotection post cerebral ischemia. Previous studies demonstrate abnormal elevation of ... Read more >>

Front Immunol (Frontiers in immunology)
[2020, 11:161]

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Dielectric Constant and Conductivity of Blood Plasma: Possible Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease.

Ernest Dallé, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels,

Alzheimer's disease is a complex debilitating neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure. The lack of reliable biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease has made the evaluation of the efficacy of new treatments difficult and reliant on only clinical symptoms. In an aged population where cognitive function may be deteriorating for ... Read more >>

Oxid Med Cell Longev (Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity)
[2020, 2020:5756382]

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CD38 in Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation.

Serge Guerreiro, Anne-Laure Privat, Laurence Bressac, Damien Toulorge,

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neuronal degeneration as well as neuroinflammation. While CD38 is strongly expressed in brain cells including neurons, astrocytes as well as microglial cells, the role played by CD38 in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation remains elusive. Yet, CD38 expression increases as a consequence of aging which is otherwise ... Read more >>

Cells (Cells)
[2020, 9(2):]

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Comorbidities of HIV infection: role of Nef-induced impairment of cholesterol metabolism and lipid raft functionality.

Dmitri Sviridov, Nigora Mukhamedova, Alexander A Makarov, Alexei Adzhubei, Michael Bukrinsky,

: Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV infection, turning it from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease. However, comorbidities accompanying HIV infection, such as metabolic and cardio-vascular diseases, as well as cognitive impairment, persist despite successful virus control by combination antiretroviral therapy and pose ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(1):1-13]

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Acute visual impairment as a main presenting symptom of non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report.

Yi Yang, Shunyuan Zhang, Jinfeng Duan, Xianwen Zhang, Yufeng Tang,

BACKGROUND:Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a state of ongoing seizure activity without convulsions. The heterogeneous and subtle clinical features of NCSE make diagnosis and treatment challenging. Here, we report a patient with NCSE who showed a main presenting symptom of acute visual impairment, which is a rare and atypical clinical ... Read more >>

BMC Neurol (BMC neurology)
[2020, 20(1):51]

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Impaired Neurocognitive Performance and Mortality in HIV: Assessing the Prognostic Value of the HIV-Dementia Scale.

Nikhil Banerjee, Roger C McIntosh, Gail Ironson,

This study examined whether global HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI), assessed with the HIV-Dementia Scale (HDS), predicted mortality in an ethnically diverse sample of 209 HIV-positive adults. Participants were predominantly in the mid-range of illness at baseline, and followed over 13-years. At baseline, 31 (15%) participants scored in the NCI range (HDS ≤ 10); ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2019, 23(12):3482-3492]

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The N-formyl peptide receptors: contemporary roles in neuronal function and dysfunction.

Peter J G Cussell, Margarita Gomez Escalada, Nathaniel G N Milton, Andrew W J Paterson,

N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) were first identified upon phagocytic leukocytes, but more than four decades of research has unearthed a plethora of non-myeloid roles for this receptor family. FPRs are expressed within neuronal tissues and markedly in the central nervous system, where FPR interactions with endogenous ligands have been implicated ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(7):1191-1198]

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Operationalizing and evaluating the Frascati criteria for functional decline in diagnosing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in adults.

Anastasia Matchanova, Steven Paul Woods, Victoria M Kordovski,

The Frascati criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND; Antinori et al. 2007) outlines a classification scheme for functional decline that-despite being over a decade old-has not heretofore been examined systematically. Participants included 307 HIV+ and 183 HIV- participants who completed self-report, clinician-rated, and performance-based measures of functional status, along with ... Read more >>

J. Neurovirol. (Journal of neurovirology)
[2019, :]

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Comparison between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a Cognitive Screening Tool in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

Paulo Roberto Brito-Marques, José Eulálio Cabral-Filho, Isabelle Oliveira Briano, Gabriela Maria Marques Milet, Cecília Evellyn Silva, Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho, Carolina da Cunha-Correia,

INTRODUCTION:The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency ... Read more >>

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
[2019, 52:e20190473]

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Editorial: Purinergic Signaling in Health and Disease.

Eric Boué-Grabot, David Blum, Stefania Ceruti,

Front Cell Neurosci (Frontiers in cellular neuroscience)
[2020, 14:15]

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Three acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with central nervous system infection: diagnostic approach and outcome of treatment.

Yi-Hao Chen, Jian-Bo Chang, Jun-Ji Wei, Wei Lyu, Shuang-Ni Yu, Bai-Tao Ma, Hao Wu, Xiao Zhang, Wei Lian, Wen-Bin Ma, Ting-Ting Wang, Tai-Sheng Li, Ren-Zhi Wang,

Chin. Med. J. (Chinese medical journal)
[2019, 132(22):2754-2756]

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One-year stability of prospective memory symptoms and performance in aging and HIV disease.

Victoria M Kordovski, Kelli L Sullivan, Savanna M Tierney, Steven Paul Woods,

Introduction: HIV disease and aging can both affect prospective memory (PM), which describes the complex process of executing delayed intentions and plays an essential role in everyday functioning. The current study investigated the course of PM symptoms and performance over approximately one year in younger and older persons with and ... Read more >>

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology)
[2020, 42(2):118-130]

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Neurosyphilis: Old Disease, New Implications for Emergency Physicians.

Laura Mercurio, Lynn E Taylor, Angela F Jarman,

Recent epidemiologic data demonstrate increasing rates of neurosyphilis, particularly among those in the community of men who have sex with men and those coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we discuss a case of early neurosyphilis and new HIV diagnosis in a 27-year-old previously-healthy trans woman presenting for ... Read more >>

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med (Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine)
[2020, 4(1):46-50]

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Tanshinone IIA Alleviates CCL2-Induced Leaning memory and Cognition Impairment in Rats: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

Yuan-Jun Liao, Jian-Min Chen, Jiang-Yi Long, Yi-Jun Zhou, Bing-Yu Liang, Yan Zhou,

Chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) is one of the most recognized proinflammatory chemokines, and the expression of CCL2 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients infected with HIV-1 is significantly higher than that of healthy people. As such, it is seen as an important cause of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). ... Read more >>

Biomed Res Int (BioMed Research International)
[2020, 2020:2702175]

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Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Regulatory T Cells in Neurotropic Virus Infections.

Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Andreas Beineke,

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(5):]

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Association of Hypomorphic P2X7 Receptor Genotype With Age.

Juana Maria Sanz, Simonetta Falzoni, Mario Luca Morieri, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani, Francesco Di Virgilio,

One of the main risk factors for brain diseases is aging. Recent studies have shown that aging is a progressive degenerative process associated with chronic low-level inflammation. The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role in inflammation and has been associated with different brain (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's) or ... Read more >>

Front Mol Neurosci (Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience)
[2020, 13:8]

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Therapeutic Potential of Diosgenin and Its Major Derivatives against Neurological Diseases: Recent Advances.

Bangrong Cai, Ying Zhang, Zengtao Wang, Dujuan Xu, Yongyan Jia, Yanbin Guan, Aimei Liao, Gaizhi Liu, ChangJu Chun, Jiansheng Li,

Diosgenin (DG), a well-known steroidal sapogenin, is present abundantly in medicinal herbs such as Dioscorea rhizome, Dioscorea villosa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Smilax China, and Rhizoma polgonati. DG is utilized as a major starting material for the production of steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to its wide range of pharmacological ... Read more >>

Oxid Med Cell Longev (Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity)
[2020, 2020:3153082]

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ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries.

Paul M Thompson, Neda Jahanshad, Christopher R K Ching, Lauren E Salminen, Sophia I Thomopoulos, Joanna Bright, Bernhard T Baune, Sara Bertolín, Janita Bralten, Willem B Bruin, Robin Bülow, Jian Chen, Yann Chye, Udo Dannlowski, Carolien G F de Kovel, Gary Donohoe, Lisa T Eyler, Stephen V Faraone, Pauline Favre, Courtney A Filippi, Thomas Frodl, Daniel Garijo, Yolanda Gil, Hans J Grabe, Katrina L Grasby, Tomas Hajek, Laura K M Han, Sean N Hatton, Kevin Hilbert, Tiffany C Ho, Laurena Holleran, Georg Homuth, Norbert Hosten, Josselin Houenou, Iliyan Ivanov, Tianye Jia, Sinead Kelly, Marieke Klein, Jun Soo Kwon, Max A Laansma, Jeanne Leerssen, Ulrike Lueken, Abraham Nunes, Joseph O' Neill, Nils Opel, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Merel C Postema, Elena Pozzi, Natalia Shatokhina, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Daqiang Sun, Alexander Teumer, Amanda K Tilot, Leonardo Tozzi, Celia van der Merwe, Eus J W Van Someren, Guido A van Wingen, Henry Völzke, Esther Walton, Lei Wang, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Margaret J Wright, Je-Yeon Yun, Guohao Zhang, Yanli Zhang-James, Bhim M Adhikari, Ingrid Agartz, Moji Aghajani, André Aleman, Robert R Althoff, Andre Altmann, Ole A Andreassen, David A Baron, Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers, Carrie E Bearden, Laura A Berner, Premika S W Boedhoe, Rachel M Brouwer, Jan K Buitelaar, Karen Caeyenberghs, Charlotte A M Cecil, Ronald A Cohen, James H Cole, Patricia J Conrod, Stephane A De Brito, Sonja M C de Zwarte, Emily L Dennis, Sylvane Desrivieres, Danai Dima, Stefan Ehrlich, Carrie Esopenko, Graeme Fairchild, Simon E Fisher, Jean-Paul Fouche, Clyde Francks, Sophia Frangou, Barbara Franke, Hugh P Garavan, David C Glahn, Nynke A Groenewold, Tiril P Gurholt, Boris A Gutman, Tim Hahn, Ian H Harding, Dennis Hernaus, Derrek P Hibar, Frank G Hillary, Martine Hoogman, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Maria Jalbrzikowski, George A Karkashadze, Eduard T Klapwijk, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Peter Kochunov, Inga K Koerte, Xiang-Zhen Kong, Sook-Lei Liew, Alexander P Lin, Mark W Logue, Eileen Luders, Fabio Macciardi, Scott Mackey, Andrew R Mayer, Carrie R McDonald, Agnes B McMahon, Sarah E Medland, Gemma Modinos, Rajendra A Morey, Sven C Mueller, Pratik Mukherjee, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Talia M Nir, Alexander Olsen, Peristera Paschou, Daniel S Pine, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Miguel E Rentería, Jonathan D Rohrer, Philipp G Sämann, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Mark S Shiroishi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Dirk J A Smit, Ida E Sønderby, Dan J Stein, Jason L Stein, Masoud Tahmasian, David F Tate, Jessica A Turner, Odile A van den Heuvel, Nic J A van der Wee, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Theo G M van Erp, Neeltje E M van Haren, Daan van Rooij, Laura S van Velzen, Ilya M Veer, Dick J Veltman, Julio E Villalon-Reina, Henrik Walter, Christopher D Whelan, Elisabeth A Wilde, Mojtaba Zarei, Vladimir Zelman, ,

This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated ... Read more >>

Transl Psychiatry (Translational psychiatry)
[2020, 10(1):100]

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Diagnostic challenge of rapidly progressing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Gi Tae Kwon, Min Sung Kwon,

Antemortem assessment of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) can be significantly hampered due to its rarity, low index of clinical suspicion and its non-specific clinical features. We present an atypical case of definitive sCJD. The patient died within 5 weeks of the disease onset. This unusually short duration of disease presented a ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ Case Reports)
[2019, 12(9):]

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-like Syndrome after Chikungunya.

Felipe César Andrade, Vinicius Vergetti, Gabriella Cozza, Maria Clara Falcao, Gustavo Azevedo,

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome refers to a group of conditions whose outcome is similar to that of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but with different characteristics in the initial phase and response to therapy. The involvement of an earlier age group, the subacute course, and the stabilization or improvement of the ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2019, 11(10):e5876]

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Nef-induced CCL2 Expression Contributes to HIV/SIV Brain Invasion and Neuronal Dysfunction.

Michael H Lehmann, Jonas M Lehmann, Volker Erfle,

C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a chemoattractant for leukocytes including monocytes, T cells, and natural killer cells and it plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and function of the brain. However, there is accumulating evidence that many neurological diseases are attributable to a dysregulation of CCL2 ... Read more >>

Front Immunol (Frontiers in immunology)
[2019, 10:2447]

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Imaging correlates of the blood-brain barrier disruption in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and therapeutic implications.

Joga Chaganti, Karthik Marripudi, Lukas P Staub, Caroline D Rae, Thomas M Gates, Kirsten J Moffat, Bruce J Brew,

OBJECTIVE:HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in the context of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) still occur. We explored the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the pathogenesis of HAND in the context of fully suppressive cART using dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion (DCE-P) MRI. DCE-P is a new MRI technique that ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2019, 33(12):1843-1852]

Cited: 1 time

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The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration.

Guy C Brown,

The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration is the hypothesis that endotoxin causes or contributes to neurodegeneration. Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), constituting much of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, present at high concentrations in gut, gums and skin and in other tissue during bacterial infection. Blood plasma levels of endotoxin ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2019, 16(1):180]

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