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HIV Associated Vacuolar Myelopathy

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Successful Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Resistant Vacuolar Myelopathy with Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

Lidiia N Prakhova, Aleksandr G Ilves, Svetlana N Kizhlo, Zhanna I Savintseva,

For the first time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM) was detailed in an autopsy-based study of 89 cases in 1985. This condition is the most common cause for spinal cord lesions in HIV patients. VM's pathogenic mechanism remains unclear; however, it is assumed that the disease can be ... Read more >>

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(2):220-222]

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HIV-Associated Vacuolar Encephalomyelopathy.

Gregory R Madden, Molly E Fleece, Akriti Gupta, M Beatriz S Lopes, Scott K Heysell, Christopher J Arnold, Brian Wispelwey,

We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated vacuolar encephalomyelopathy with progressive central nervous system dysfunction and corresponding vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord, cranial nerves, and brain, the anatomic extent of which has not previously been described. ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open forum infectious diseases)
[2019, 6(10):]

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Neurological disorders in HIV in Africa: a review.

William P Howlett,

Background:Neurological disorders in HIV infection are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to provide a narrative overview of up to date information concerning neurological disorders affecting HIV infected persons in Africa. Methods:Seminal research concerning neurological disorders among HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa from ... Read more >>

Afr Health Sci (African health sciences)
[2019, 19(2):1953-1977]

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Nef-induced CCL2 Expression Contributes to HIV/SIV Brain Invasion and Neuronal Dysfunction.

Michael H Lehmann, Jonas M Lehmann, Volker Erfle,

C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a chemoattractant for leukocytes including monocytes, T cells, and natural killer cells and it plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and function of the brain. However, there is accumulating evidence that many neurological diseases are attributable to a dysregulation of CCL2 ... Read more >>

Front Immunol (Frontiers in immunology)
[2019, 10:2447]

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Progressive myeloneuropathy with symptomatic anaemia.

Charlene L Rohm, Sara Acree, Louis Lovett,

Hypocupremia is a rare and under-recognised cause of bone marrow dysplasia and myeloneuropathy. A 47-year-old Caucasian woman had progressive ascending peripheral neuropathy and gait ataxia over 3 months and fatigue, dyspnoea and unintentional weight loss over 8 months. She had profound macrocytic anaemia and neutropenia. Initial workup included normal serum ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ case reports)
[2019, 12(12):]

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Role of HTLV-1 orf-I encoded proteins in viral transmission and persistence.

Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Ramona Moles, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Damian F J Purcell, Genoveffa Franchini, Cynthia A Pise-Masison,

The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTVL-1), first reported in 1980 by Robert Gallo's group, is the etiologic agent of both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Despite approximately 40 years of investigation, the prognosis for afflicted patients remains poor with no effective treatments. The virus persists in the infected host ... Read more >>

Retrovirology (Retrovirology)
[2019, 16(1):43]

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Spastic paraparesis caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mimicking vacuolar myelopathy in a human immunodeficiency virus patient: A case report.

Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park,

Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. ... Read more >>

Medicine (Baltimore) (Medicine)
[2018, 97(20):e10756]

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Residency Training: Progressive gait difficulty and incontinence in a 40-year-old man with HIV.

Andrew Silverman, Tess O'Meara, Leah Le, Kevin Robertson, Serena Spudich,

Neurology (Neurology)
[2018, 91(23):1065-1070]

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Cerebellar cortical degeneration associated with feline leukemia virus infection and cerebellar lymphoma in a young cat.

Alejandra Parra Pardo, Marcelo A Gómez, Carlos M González,

Background:Cerebellar cortical degeneration (CCD) is the premature death of cerebellar neurons of heterogeneous etiology that is uncommonly observed as a neurological complication of certain neoplasia. Case Description:Here, we report an 8-month-old male domestic cat with altered consciousness, symmetric ataxia, hypermetric gait, vertical positional nystagmus, mydriasis, strabismus, intention tremor of the ... Read more >>

Open Vet J (Open veterinary journal)
[2019, 9(3):246-252]

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Primary Intramedullary Spinal Cord Lymphoma Presenting as a Cervical Ring-Enhancing Lesion in an AIDS Patient.

Julia Bini Viotti, Susanne Doblecki, Corneliu C Luca, Nicholas Mackrides, Francisco Vega, Maria L Alcaide,

Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is rare and constitutes only 1% of central nervous system lymphomas. We report a case of PISCL in a 37-year-old man with advanced AIDS. To our knowledge, only 4 cases of PISCL in the setting of HIV/AIDS have been reported in the literature. Despite ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open Forum Infectious Diseases)
[2018, 5(6):ofy128]

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HIV and spinal cord disease.

Seth N Levin, Jennifer L Lyons,

The epidemiology of spinal cord disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown due to a paucity of data since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV mediates spinal cord injury indirectly, by immune modulation, degeneration, or associated infections and neoplasms. The pathologies vary and range from cytotoxic necrosis to ... Read more >>

Handb Clin Neurol (Handbook of clinical neurology)
[2018, 152:213-227]

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Haemorrhagic conversion of infectious myelitis in an immunocompromised patient.

Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln,

A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ case reports)
[2017, 2017:]

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Diagnostic challenges in vacuolar myelopathy: a didactic case report.

Florian Ernst, Fritz Klausner, Waltraud Kleindienst, Heinrich Bartsch, Ninon Taylor, Eugen Trinka,

Because of the diagnostic complexity and potential pitfalls in interpreting test results, HIV-vacuolar myelopathy (HIVM) is far more often diagnosed postmortem than in vivo. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the topic of neuro-AIDS has become increasingly important. This case report covers some of the diagnostic problems ... Read more >>

Spinal Cord Ser Cases (Spinal cord series and cases)
[2016, 2:16020]

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Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Optic Neuropathy Associated with Syphilitic Meningomyelitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Rie Tohge, Yuya Shinoto, Makio Takahashi,

The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient ... Read more >>

Intern. Med. (Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan))
[2017, 56(15):2067-2072]

Cited: 2 times

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Neurological manifestations, laboratory and neuroimaging features in HIV-infected patients.

Hai Chen, Fangju Lin, Shimeng Liu, Yuwei Da, Dongmei Guo,

OBJECTIVE:To present detailed information regarding these aspects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients making an effort to improve the recognition of neurological complications of HIV infection. METHODS:This retrospective study analyzed the clinical manifestations, laboratory and neuroimaging results of HIV-infected patients with neurological complications at Xuanwu hospital, Beijing, China from January ... Read more >>

Neurosciences (Riyadh) (Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia))
[2017, 22(4):311-315]

Cited: 1 time

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A Systematic Review of Non-Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries in Sub-Saharan Africa and a Proposed Diagnostic Algorithm for Resource-Limited Settings.

Abdu Kisekka Musubire, David B Meya, Paul R Bohjanen, Elly Tebasooke Katabira, Patrice Barasukana, David R Boulware, Ana-Claire Meyer,

Non-traumatic myelopathy is common in Africa and there are geographic differences in etiology. Clinical management is challenging due to the broad differential diagnosis and the lack of diagnostics. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the most common etiologies of non-traumatic myelopathy in sub-Saharan Africa to inform a ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in Neurology)
[2017, 8:618]

Cited: 1 time

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Approach to a case of myeloneuropathy.

Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar,

Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of ... Read more >>

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2016, 19(2):183-187]

Cited: 2 times

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Aged Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with SIV develop marked viremia in absence of clinical disease, inflammation or cognitive impairment.

Stephanie J Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P Jedema, Nicholas F Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W Bradberry, Clayton A Wiley,

BACKGROUND:Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuropathological or cellular basis of HAND. We sought to study the potential contribution of aging to the pathogenesis of HAND. Aged (range = 14.7-24.8 year) rhesus ... Read more >>

Retrovirology (Retrovirology)
[2018, 15(1):17]

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Aging and Apolipoprotein E in HIV Infection.

Rebeca Geffin, Micheline McCarthy,

With the implementation of increasingly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, individuals infected with HIV live a much longer life. HIV infection is no longer a terminal but rather a chronic disease. However, the lifespan of infected individuals remains shorter than that of their uninfected peers. Even ... Read more >>

J. Neurovirol. (Journal of neurovirology)
[2018, 24(5):529-548]

Cited: 3 times

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HIV-associated synaptic degeneration.

Wenjuan Ru, Shao-Jun Tang,

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induces neuronal injuries, with almost 50% of infected individuals developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although highly activate antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the incidence of severe dementia, the overall prevalence of HAND remains high. Synaptic degeneration is emerging as one of the most relevant ... Read more >>

Mol Brain (Molecular brain)
[2017, 10(1):40]

Cited: 8 times

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The neuromyelitis optica presentation and the aquaporin-4 antibody in HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Ahmed I Bhigjee, Anandan A Moodley, Izanne Roos, Cait-Lynn Wells, Pratistadevi Ramdial, Monika Esser,

Background:The association of the anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) water channel antibody with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) syndrome has been described from various parts of the world. There has been no large study describing this association from southern Africa, an HIV endemic area. HIV patients often present with visual disturbance or features of a ... Read more >>

South Afr J HIV Med (Southern African journal of HIV medicine)
[2017, 18(1):684]

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MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with methotrexate-induced myelopathy risk.

Kelsey Juster-Switlyk, A Gordon Smith, Tibor Kovacsovics, Deborah Stephens, Martha Glenn, Cheryl Ann Palmer, Edward P Quigley, Noah Kolb,

Neurology (Neurology)
[2017, 88(6):603-604]

Cited: 1 time

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A 66-Year-Old Woman with a Progressive, Longitudinally Extensive, Tract Specific, Myelopathy.

Elizabeth O'Keefe, Katherine E Schwetye, John Nazarian, Richard Perrin, Robert E Schmidt, Robert Bucelli,

A 66-year-old woman presented with progressive lancinating pain and sensory deficits attributable to a myelopathy of unclear etiology. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging showed a longitudinally extensive T2-hyperintense lesion of the dorsal columns. Comprehensive serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid analyses failed to identify an etiology. Empiric intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous ... Read more >>

Case Rep Neurol Med (Case reports in neurological medicine)
[2016, 2016:4125294]

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HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) and the Prospect of Brain-Penetrating Protease Inhibitors for Antiretroviral Treatment.

Arun K Ghosh, Anindya Sarkar, Hiroaki Mitsuya,

The advent of combined active antiretroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improved HIV management and patient care of HIV-infected individuals. This treatment regimen resulted in a significant reduction of HIV/AIDS-related mortality and greatly improved life expectancies of those patients with access to cART. However, among many HIV-related complications, neurocognitive dysfunction, known as ... Read more >>

Med Res Arch (Medical research archives)
[2017, 5(4):]

Cited: 1 time

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Ataxic gait following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

Chang Ho Hwang, Dong Jin Park, Gyu Yeol Kim,

A 58-year-old woman, who had undergone total gastrectomy for early gastric cancer 9 years previously, visited the outpatient clinic complaining of progressive difficulty in walking for 15 d. Laboratory examinations showed macrocytic anemia and a decreased serum vitamin B12 concentration and increased serum concentrations of folate, vitamin E and copper. ... Read more >>

World J. Gastroenterol. (World journal of gastroenterology)
[2016, 22(37):8435-8438]

Cited: 1 time

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