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Genetic and Inflammatory Mechanisms in Stroke

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XingNaoJing injection ameliorates cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury via SIRT1-mediated inflammatory response inhibition.

Yue-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Yu Qu, Li-Na Tao, Jing-Hui Zhai, Huan Gao, Yan-Qing Song, Si-Xi Zhang,

Context: XingNaoJing injection (XNJ), extracted from a traditional compound Chinese medicine Angong niuhuang pill, is well known for treating stroke in the clinic, but the specific effects and mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the mechanistic basis for the protective effect of XNJ on cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.Materials and methods: Five ... Read more >>

Pharm Biol (Pharmaceutical biology)
[2020, 58(1):16-24]

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PAC proton-activated chloride channel contributes to acid-induced cell death in primary rat cortical neurons.

James Osei-Owusu, Junhua Yang, Maria Del Carmen Vitery, Mengnan Tian, Zhaozhu Qiu,

Severe local acidosis causes tissue damage and pain, and is associated with many diseases, including cerebral and cardiac ischemia, cancer, infection, and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cellular response to extracellular acidic environment are not fully understood. We recently identified a novel and evolutionarily conserved membrane protein, PAC ... Read more >>

Channels (Austin) (Channels (Austin, Tex.))
[2020, 14(1):53-58]

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Renoprotective effect of vildagliptin following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Iman O Sherif, Alaa A Alshaalan, Nora H Al-Shaalan,

Remote renal injury is a drastic consequence of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Vildagliptin (V) is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that has a hepatorenal protective effect against models of liver and renal IR. This research was done to explore the protective role of vildagliptin against renal injury following hepatic IR injury ... Read more >>

Ren Fail (Renal Failure)
[2020, 42(1):208-215]

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Activating Sirt1 by resveratrol suppresses Nav1.7 expression in DRG through miR-182 and alleviates neuropathic pain in rats.

Qianqian Jia, Wenze Dong, Liwei Zhang, Xiaochun Yang,

Neuropathic pain is clinically unsatisfactorily treated because of unclear mechanisms. The present study aims to explore the concrete mechanisms underlying the alleviation of resveratrol-activated silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) to chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. CCI surgery was conducted to the unilateral sciatic nerve of male Sprague-Dawley rats to ... Read more >>

Channels (Austin) (Channels (Austin, Tex.))
[2020, 14(1):69-78]

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The role of cofilin in age-related neuroinflammation.

Amsha S Alsegiani, Zahoor A Shah,

Aging brain becomes susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases due to the shifting of microglia and astrocyte phenotypes to an active "pro-inflammatory" state, causing chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Despite the fact that the role of neuroinflammation during aging has been extensively studied in recent years, the underlying causes remain unclear. The identification of ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(8):1451-1459]

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Adrenomedullin: an important participant in neurological diseases.

Feng-Jiao Li, Si-Ru Zheng, Dong-Mei Wang,

Adrenomedullin, a peptide with multiple physiological functions in nervous system injury and disease, has aroused the interest of researchers. This review summarizes the role of adrenomedullin in neuropathological disorders, including pathological pain, brain injury and nerve regeneration, and their treatment. As a newly characterized pronociceptive mediator, adrenomedullin has been shown ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(7):1199-1207]

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The N-formyl peptide receptors: contemporary roles in neuronal function and dysfunction.

Peter J G Cussell, Margarita Gomez Escalada, Nathaniel G N Milton, Andrew W J Paterson,

N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) were first identified upon phagocytic leukocytes, but more than four decades of research has unearthed a plethora of non-myeloid roles for this receptor family. FPRs are expressed within neuronal tissues and markedly in the central nervous system, where FPR interactions with endogenous ligands have been implicated ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(7):1191-1198]

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Expression of long non-coding RNAs in complete transection spinal cord injury: a transcriptomic analysis.

Lu Ding, Wen-Jin Fu, Hong-Yan Di, Xiao-Min Zhang, Yu-Tian Lei, Kang-Zhen Chen, Tao Wang, Hong-Fu Wu,

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and exert a critical role in gene regulation via multiple biological processes. To uncover the functional significance and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in spinal cord injury (SCI), the expression signatures of lncRNAs were profiled using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(8):1560-1567]

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Virtual Screening of the multi-pathway and multi-gene regulatory molecular mechanism of Dachengqi decoction in the treatment of stroke Based on Network Pharmacology.

Lishan Pei, Xia Shen, Yonggang Yan, Conge Tan, Kai Qu, Junbo Zou, Yanxia Wang, Fan Ping,

BACKGROUND:Stroke is ranked second among diseases that cause mortality worldwide. Owing to its complicated pathogenesis, no satisfactory treatment strategies for stroke are available. Dachengqi decoction (DCQD), is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been widely used in China for a long time, has a good effect on stroke. However, ... Read more >>

Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. (Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening)
[2020, :]

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The Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Apelin/APJ System on Ischemic Stroke: A Promising Therapeutic Target.

Yanjun Tian, Ruijiao Chen, Yunlu Jiang, Bo Bai, Tongju Yang, Haiqing Liu,

The orphan receptor APJ and its endogenous ligand apelin, which are expressed in the brain, are the major components of the apelin/APJ system. Growing evidence shows that the apelin/APJ system plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury. Targeting the apelin/APJ system may have protective effects on ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in Neurology)
[2020, 11:75]

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Identification of novel biomarkers in ischemic stroke: a genome-wide integrated analysis.

Qizhi Xie, Xiaoyun Zhang, Sijia Peng, Jingjing Sun, Xiao Chen, Yuanfei Deng, Li Yi,

BackgroundIschemic Stroke (IS) is the most common neurological emergency disease and has become the second most frequent cause of death after coronary artery disease in 2015. Owing to its high fatality rate and narrow therapeutic time window, early identification and prevention of potential stroke is becoming increasingly important.MethodsWe used meta-analysis ... Read more >>

BMC Med. Genet. (BMC medical genetics)
[2020, 21:]

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Modified citrus pectin ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and inflammation via suppressing galectin-3 and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Geng-Rui Xu, Chuang Zhang, Hong-Xia Yang, Jia-Huan Sun, Yue Zhang, Ting-Ting Yao, Yuan Li, Lin Ruan, Ran An, Ai-Ying Li,

Myocardial fibrosis (MF) plays a key role in the development and progression of heart failure (HF) with limited effective therapies. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker associated with fibrosis and inflammation in patients with HF. The Gal-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP) protects against cardiac dysfunction, though the underlying mechanism remains ... Read more >>

Biomed. Pharmacother. (Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie)
[2020, 126:110071]

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Dietary habits, lifestyle factors and neurodegenerative diseases.

Aurel Popa-Wagner, Dinu Iuliu Dumitrascu, Bogdan Capitanescu, Eugen Bogdan Petcu, Roxana Surugiu, Wen-Hui Fang, Danut-Adrian Dumbrava,

Worldwide stroke is increasing in parallel with modernization, changes in lifestyle, and the growing elderly population. Our review is focused on the link between diet, as part of 'modern lifestyle', and health in the context of genetic predisposition of individuals to 'unhealthy' metabolic pathway activity. It is concluded that lifestyle ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(3):394-400]

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MicroRNA-181c provides neuroprotection in an intracerebral hemorrhage model.

Xi Lu, Hui-Yuan Zhang, Zhi-Yi He,

Apoptosis is an important factor during the early stage of intracerebral hemorrhage. MiR-181c plays a key regulatory role in apoptosis. However, whether miR-181c is involved in apoptosis of prophase cells after intracerebral hemorrhage remains unclear. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In vivo ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(7):1274-1282]

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cGAS-STING signaling regulates control of microglia polarization in cerebral ischemic stroke

Di Lu, Guoliang Jiang, Xinglong Yang, Houjun Zhou, Jiang Long, Linming Zhang,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background Cerebral ischemic stroke is a highly debilitating disease, in which inflammation is well document to play a pivotal role in its pathophysiology. Microglia are the the major immuncompetent cells of the brain involved in different neuropathologies. Recent discovery of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase(cGAS) activation and its ... Read more >>

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Gut Microbiota and Stroke.

Benjamin Y Q Tan, Prakash R Paliwal, Vijay K Sharma,

Ischemic stroke remains a significant health problem, which is expected to increase owing to an aging population. A considerable proportion of stroke patients suffer from gastrointestinal complications, including dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and constipation. Often, these complications adversely affect stroke outcomes. Recent research postulates the role of "brain-gut axis" in causing ... Read more >>

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(2):155-158]

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Editorial: Pathophysiologic Insights From Biomarker Studies in Neurological Disorders.

Stefan Bittner, Marcello Moccia, Tobias Warnecke, Tobias Ruck,

Front Neurol (Frontiers in Neurology)
[2020, 11:151]

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Conceptualization of Heterogeneity of Chronic Diseases and Atherosclerosis as a Pathway to Precision Medicine: Endophenotype, Endotype, and Residual Cardiovascular Risk.

Vadim V Genkel, Igor I Shaposhnik,

The article discusses modern approaches to the conceptualization of pathogenetic heterogeneity in various branches of medical science. The concepts of endophenotype, endotype, and residual cardiovascular risk and the scope of their application in internal medicine and cardiology are considered. Based on the latest results of studies of the genetic architecture ... Read more >>

Int J Chronic Dis (International journal of chronic diseases)
[2020, 2020:5950813]

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Regional brain susceptibility to neurodegeneration: what is the role of glial cells?

Andrea Beatriz Cragnolini, Giorgia Lampitella, Assunta Virtuoso, Immacolata Viscovo, Fivos Panetsos, Michele Papa, Giovanni Cirillo,

The main pathological feature of the neurodegenerative diseases is represented by neuronal death that represents the final step of a cascade of adverse/hostile events. Early in the neurodegenerative process, glial cells (including astrocytes, microglial cells, and oligodendrocytes) activate and trigger an insidious neuroinflammatory reaction, metabolic decay, blood brain barrier dysfunction ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(5):838-842]

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Clonal Hematopoiesis: A New Step Linking Inflammation to Heart Failure.

Yoshimitsu Yura, Soichi Sano, Kenneth Walsh,

Heart failure is a common disease with poor prognosis that is associated with cardiac immune cell infiltration and dysregulated cytokine expression. Recently, the clonal expansion of hematopoietic cells with acquired (i.e., nonheritable) DNA mutations, a process referred to as clonal hematopoiesis, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases ... Read more >>

JACC Basic Transl Sci (JACC. Basic to translational science)
[2020, 5(2):196-207]

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Downregulation of MiR-218-5p Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion-Induced Injuries of PC12 Cells via Upregulating N-myc Downstream Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4).

Huiying Zhu, Xiaojing Wang, Shaoyuan Chen,

<strong>BACKGROUND</strong> Cerebral ischemia is a major player of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and mainly caused by blood vessels obstruction-induced reduced blood flow. Furthermore, miR-218-5p level was elevated in patients with AIS compared with controls. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the role of miR-218-5p in AIS <i>in vitro</i>. ... Read more >>

Med. Sci. Monit. (Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research)
[2020, 26:e920101]

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Network Pharmacology Identifies the Mechanisms of Action of TaohongSiwu Decoction Against Essential Hypertension.

Tian-Hao Liu, Wei-Hao Chen, Xu-Dong Chen, Qiu-Er Liang, Wen-Cong Tao, Zhen Jin, Ya Xiao, Li-Guo Chen,

BACKGROUND TaohongSiwu decoction (THSWT), a traditional herbal formula, has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, the pharmacological mechanism is not clear. To investigate the mechanisms of THSWT in the treatment of EH, we performed compounds, targets prediction and network analysis ... Read more >>

Med. Sci. Monit. (Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research)
[2020, 26:e920682]

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Genes associated with inflammation may serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and ischaemic stroke.

Peng-Fei Zheng, Fu-Jun Liao, Rui-Xing Yin, Lu-Zhu Chen, Hui Li, Rong-Jun Nie, Yong Wang, Pei-Juan Liao,

BACKGROUND:The current research aimed to expound the genes and pathways that are involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischaemic stroke (IS) and the related mechanisms. METHODS:Two array CAD datasets of (GSE66360 and GSE97320) and an array IS dataset (GSE22255) were downloaded. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the ... Read more >>

Lipids Health Dis (Lipids in Health and Disease)
[2020, 19(1):37]

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Targeting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation to Prevent Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Liquan Wu, Xiaoxing Xiong, Xiaomin Wu, Yingze Ye, Zhihong Jian, Zeng Zhi, Lijuan Gu,

The cerebral ischemia injury can result in neuronal death and/or functional impairment, which leads to further damage and dysfunction after recovery of blood supply. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) often causes irreversible brain damage and neuronal injury and death, which involves many complex pathological processes including oxidative stress, amino acid toxicity, ... Read more >>

Front Mol Neurosci (Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience)
[2020, 13:28]

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Therapeutic potential of natural compounds from Chinese medicine in acute and subacute phases of ischemic stroke.

Bei Zhang, Kathryn E Saatman, Lei Chen,

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in adults worldwide, resulting in huge social and financial burdens. Extracts from herbs, especially those used in Chinese medicine, have emerged as new pharmaceuticals for stroke treatment. Here we review the evidence from preclinical studies investigating neuroprotective properties of ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(3):416-424]

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