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Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures

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Effects of physiological parameter evolution on the dynamics of tonic-clonic seizures.

F Deeba, P Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson,

The temporal and spectral characteristics of tonic-clonic seizures are investigated using a neural field model of the corticothalamic system in the presence of a temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Increasing connection strength drives the system into ∼ 10 Hz seizure oscillations once a threshold is ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(4):e0230510]

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Tonic-clonic seizures as first symptom of a disseminated supraglottic laryngeal cancer.

Christian Danstrup, Maria Andersen,

A 60-year-old man was found unconscious at work, without any signs of trauma. At the site, he presented with tonic-clonic seizures, central facial palsy and eye deviation. A CT scan of the cerebrum did not find bleeding or thrombosis, but contrast enhancement at the superior sagittal sinus and pathological cervical ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ case reports)
[2020, 13(3):]

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Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of Concentrated Intranasal Midazolam Spray as Emergency Medication in Epilepsy Patients During Video-EEG Monitoring.

Anemone von Blomberg, Lara Kay, Susanne Knake, Sven Fuest, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Philipp S Reif, Eva Herrmann, Ümniye Balaban, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk,

BACKGROUND:An efficient, well tolerated, and safe emergency treatment with a rapid onset of action is needed to prevent seizure clusters and to terminate prolonged seizures and status epilepticus. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of intranasal midazolam (in-MDZ) spray in clinical practice. METHODS:In this retrospective, multicenter ... Read more >>

CNS Drugs (CNS drugs)
[2020, :]

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Are Predator smell (TMT)-induced behavioral alterations in rats able to inhibit seizures?

P Delfino-Pereira, P B Dutra, J A Cortes de Oliveira, I C C Turatti, A Fernandes, N P Lopes, N Garcia-Cairasco,

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the chemical and behavioral effects of 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) after olfactory exposure and to verify their influence in the expression of acute audiogenic seizures in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PROTOCOL 1:TMT gas chromatography was applied to define odor saturation in a chamber to different ... Read more >>

Chem. Senses (Chemical Senses)
[2020, :]

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A model for focal seizure onset, propagation, evolution, and progression.

Jyun-You Liou, Elliot H Smith, Lisa M Bateman, Samuel L Bruce, Guy M McKhann, Robert R Goodman, Ronald G Emerson, Catherine A Schevon, L F Abbott,

We developed a neural network model that can account for major elements common to human focal seizures. These include the tonic-clonic transition, slow advance of clinical semiology and corresponding seizure territory expansion, widespread EEG synchronization, and slowing of the ictal rhythm as the seizure approaches termination. These were reproduced by ... Read more >>

Elife (eLife)
[2020, 9:]

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Prenatal alcohol exposure in the second trimester-equivalent increases the seizure susceptibility in developing rats.

Sue J Cho, Jamila Newton, Tengfei Li, Padmini Khandai, George Luta, David M Lovinger, Prosper N'Gouemo,

We have previously reported that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the 2nd trimester-equivalent of gestation is associated with increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) prevalence in postpartum developing rats. Whether the 1st trimester-equivalent of gestation is also a vulnerable period for developing GTCSs following PAE is unknown. Here, we ... Read more >>

Alcohol (Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.))
[2020, :]

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Meta-analysis of drug efficacy in adult vs pediatric trials of patients with PGTC seizures.

Douglas R Nordli, Emilia Bagiella, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Jinping Wang, Dinesh Kumar, Antonio Laurenza, Jacqueline French,

OBJECTIVE:A meta-analysis of published studies was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiseizure drugs in adults with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) is comparable with that in the pediatric population (2-12 years of age). METHODS:Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials ... Read more >>

Neurology (Neurology)
[2020, :]

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Novel CDKL5 mutations were found in patients in China: retrospective investigation in cases of CDKL5-related disorders.

Yumei Yan, Dake He, Jing Wu, Ruolin Hou, Kun Sun, Ling Li,

OBJECTIVE:CDKL5-related disorders (CDD) is an epileptic encephalopathy resulted of gene mutations of CDKL5. This study aimed to explore the development process of CDD and to expand its mutation spectrum. METHODS:Clinic datawas collected about three infantile epileptic encephalopathy cases diagnosed at Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine. ... Read more >>

Ital J Pediatr (Italian journal of pediatrics)
[2020, 46(1):27]

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Genetic generalized and focal epilepsy prevalence in the North American SUDEP Registry.

Chloe Verducci, Daniel Friedman, Elizabeth Donner, Orrin Devinsky,

OBJECTIVE:To assess relative rates and clinical features of patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), focal epilepsy (FE), and developmental encephalopathic epilepsy (DEE) in the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR). METHODS:We identified all adjudicated definite, definite plus, and probable sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases (n = 262) and determined ... Read more >>

Neurology (Neurology)
[2020, :]

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Tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsies: Prevalence, risk factors, and outcome.

Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Maryam Homayoun,

PURPOSE:We investigated the prevalence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and the risk factors associated with them. We also studied the seizure outcome in patients with IGEs. METHODS:In this retrospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of IGE were recruited at the epilepsy clinic ... Read more >>

Acta Neurol. Scand. (Acta neurologica Scandinavica)
[2020, :]

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Predictors of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures during long-term video-EEG monitoring.

Max C Pensel, Martin Schnuerch, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges,

OBJECTIVE:To determine predictors of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS) during video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM). METHODS:All adult patients undergoing presurgical VEM from 2014 to 2015 in the department of epileptology were eligible (N = 229). Those with refractory focal epilepsy and epileptic seizures recorded during VEM were analyzed (N = 188, Group 1). To ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2020, 61(3):489-497]

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Analyzing clinical and genetic characteristics of a cohort with multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome (MCAHS).

Xianru Jiao, Jiao Xue, Pan Gong, Xinhua Bao, Ye Wu, Yuehua Zhang, Yuwu Jiang, Zhixian Yang,

OBJECTIVE:To summarize and extend the phenotypic characterization of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome, and to discuss genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS:Collecting clinical information of 17 patients with pathogenic variants in PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT. Genetic studies were performed on all patients. RESULTS:There were 7 patients with 15 PIGN mutations (one patient carrying 3 ... Read more >>

Orphanet J Rare Dis (Orphanet journal of rare diseases)
[2020, 15(1):78]

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Clinical features of nine cases of leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein antibody-associated encephalitis.

Ying Li, Fan Song, Wei Liu, Ying Wang,

To investigate clinical features of leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis (AE). The clinical data were collected and analyzed in nine patients with LGI1 AE. All nine patients (100%) presented acute/subacute onset, had seizures, cognitive impairment, mental/behavioral abnormalities, six had sleep disorders and seven showed hyponatremia. Seizures ... Read more >>

Acta Neurol Belg (Acta neurologica Belgica)
[2020, :]

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Deletion of calcineurin from astrocytes reproduces proteome signature of Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy and predisposes to seizures

Laura Tapella, Giulia Dematteis, Federico Alessandro Ruffinatti, Luisa Ponzoni, Fabio Fiordaliso, Alessandro Corbelli, Enrico Albanese, Beatrice Pistolato, Jessica Pagano, Elettra Barberis, Emilio Marengo, Claudia Balducci, Gianluigi Forloni, Chiara Verpelli, Carlo Sala, Carla Distasi, Mariaelvina Sala, Armando Genazzani, Marcello Manfredf, Dmitry Lim,

ABSTRACT Calcineurin (CaN), acting downstream of intracellular calcium signals, orchestrates cellular remodelling in many cellular types. In astrocytes, principal homeostatic cells in the central nervous system (CNS), CaN is involved in neuroinflammation and gliosis, while its role in healthy CNS or in early neuro-pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here we report ... Read more >>

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A girl with protein-losing enteropathy during a ketogenic diet: a case report.

Juan Wang, Li Jiang, Min Cheng,

BACKGROUND:A ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy in children. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rarely reported but serious complication of KDs. CASE PRESENTATION:A 3-month-old female patient presented with PLE while following a KD as treatment for intractable epilepsy. She also had genovariation of the STXBP1 gene. ... Read more >>

BMC Pediatr (BMC pediatrics)
[2020, 20(1):102]

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Uni-hemispheric hyperperfusion in the early postictal state: case report.

A Velasco Gonzalez, C Schülke, B Buerke,

BACKGROUND:In the emergency setting of acute ischemic stroke, seizures have been reported in up to 4% of patients. In the absence of arterial occlusion, seizures may also cause abnormalities in CT perfusion in 78% of cases when the time window from onset to imaging is short. Both hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion ... Read more >>

BMC Neurol (BMC neurology)
[2020, 20(1):108]

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[Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: long-term prognosis and antiepileptic drug withdrawal].

A Viloria Alebesque, E Bellosta Diago, S Santos Lasaosa, J A Mauri Llerda,

BACKGROUND:Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a classic epileptic syndrome that lacks consensus on the possibility of suspending treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AD). METHOD:Retrospective observational study of a series of patients diagnosed with JME with 20 years or more of evolution, focusing on those with withdrawal from AD. RESULTS:The study involved ... Read more >>

An Sist Sanit Navar (Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra)
[2020, 0(0):74332]

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Anterior communicating artery duplication associated with a triplication of anterior cerebral artery – A rare anatomical variation.

Francisco Matos Ureña, Jose Gregorio Matos Ureña, Saul Almeida, Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Julian Reis da Silva, Mauricio Mandel, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo,

Background:The anterior communicating artery complex may presente several anatomical variations, and many abnormalities have been reported in radiologiacal and cadaveric studies.Case Description:The authors present a case of a 44-year-old Caucasian female, with a prior history of smoking and arterial systemic hypertension, admitted in the emergency department complaining of a sudden ... Read more >>

Surg Neurol Int (Surgical Neurology International)
[2020, 11:]

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A Clinical and CT scan Study of Partial and Generalized Seizures.

Vinay S Panchalwar, Soham S Doshi,

Aims and Objectives:1. To assess clinical profile of patients presenting with seizures, 2. To determine the etiological factors of seizures, 3. To evaluate role of computed tomography scan in diagnosis of seizures. Methods:The present study was conducted in 100 cases of age more than 12 years and seizure onset after ... Read more >>

J Assoc Physicians India (The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)
[2020, 68(3):39-42]

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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the elderly.

S Dupont, K Kinugawa,

There is a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the older adult population that commonly presents as nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). NCSE most often corresponds to prolonged focal seizures with impaired consciousness with three main clinical presentations: i) an unexplained acute confusional state, ii) subtle eye, motor or behavioral signs ... Read more >>

Rev. Neurol. (Paris) (Revue neurologique)
[2020, :]

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Adjunctive Rufinamide in Children with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A Literature Review.

Ganna Balagura, Antonella Riva, Francesca Marchese, Alberto Verrotti, Pasquale Striano,

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe, childhood-onset, developmental epileptic encephalopathy, with different etiologies and co-morbidities. Seizure treatment in LGS represents a major challenge; new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are developed to especially address seizures resulting in high morbidity and mortality, such as drop seizures. Rufinamide (RFN) is one of the latest ... Read more >>

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment)
[2020, 16:369-379]

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Clinical and Genetic Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder-Epilepsy (ASD-E) Phenotype: Two Sides of the Same Coin!

Sudhakar Karunakaran, Ramshekhar N Menon, Sruthi S Nair, S Santhakumar, Muralidharan Nair, Soumya Sundaram,

The clinical phenotype of autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy (ASD-E) is a common neurological presentation in various genetic disorders, irrespective of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we describe the demographic and clinical profiles, coexistent neurological conditions, type of seizures, epilepsy syndrome, and EEG findings in 11 patients with ASD-E phenotype ... Read more >>

Clin EEG Neurosci (Clinical EEG and neuroscience)
[2020, :1550059420909673]

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Raloxifene potentiates the effect of fluoxetine against maximal electroshock induced seizures in mice.

Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Nahida Tabassum, Md Noushad Javed, Shah Nigar, Shrestha Sharma, Md Abul Barkat, Harshita, Md Sabir Alam, Mohammad Azam Ansari, George E Barreto, Ghulam Md Ashraf,

The evidence to guide clinicians regarding rationale polytherapy with current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is lacking, and current practice recommendations are largely empirical.  The excessive drug loading with combinatorial therapies of existing AEDs are associated with escalated neurotoxicity, and that emergence of pharmacoresistant seizures couldn't be averted. In pursuit of judicious ... Read more >>

Eur J Pharm Sci (European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences)
[2020, 146:105261]

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KCNT1-related epilepsy: An international multicenter cohort of 27 pediatric cases.

Felippe Borlot, Ahmed Abushama, Nadine Morrison-Levy, Puneet Jain, Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan, Musaad Abukhalid, Hesham M Aldhalaan, Hanin S Almuzaini, Sheffali Gulati, Tova Hershkovitz, Ramesh Konanki, Lokesh Lingappa, Aimee F Luat, Shatha Shafi, Brahim Tabarki, Maya Thomas, Sangeetha Yoganathan, Majid Alfadhel, Ravindra Arya, Elizabeth J Donner, Salleh N Ehaideb, Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Vivek Jain, Priyanka Madaan, Kenneth A Myers, Hiroshi Otsubo, Prateek Panda, Jitendra K Sahu, Letícia P B Sampaio, Suvasini Sharma, Elisabeth Simard-Tremblay, Maria Zak, Robyn Whitney,

OBJECTIVE:Through international collaboration, we evaluated the phenotypic aspects of a multiethnic cohort of KCNT1-related epilepsy and explored genotype-phenotype correlations associated with frequently encountered variants. METHODS:A cross-sectional analysis of children harboring pathogenic or likely pathogenic KCNT1 variants was completed. Children with one of the two more common recurrent KCNT1 variants were ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2020, :]

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Subcutaneous EEG Monitoring Reveals AED Response and Breakthrough Seizures.

Sigge Weisdorf, Ivan C Zibrandtsen, Troels W Kjaer,

Unrecognized seizures are a common problem in temporal lobe epilepsy potentially leading to undertreatment. Objective seizure counting using EEG home monitoring for prolonged periods with a minimally invasive device has not been feasible until now. We present a case in which a novel, subcutaneous EEG device was utilized to provide ... Read more >>

Case Rep Neurol Med (Case reports in neurological medicine)
[2020, 2020:8756917]

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