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General Principles of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

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Secondary somatosensory cortex of primates: beyond body maps, toward conscious self-in-the-world maps.

Rafael V Bretas, Miki Taoka, Hiroaki Suzuki, Atsushi Iriki,

Recent human imaging studies have revealed the involvement of the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in processes that require high-level information integration, such as self-consciousness, social relations, whole body representation, and metaphorical extrapolations. These functions are far beyond its known role in the formation of body maps (even in their most ... Read more >>

Exp Brain Res (Experimental brain research)
[2020, 238(2):259-272]

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Principles of Neurorehabilitation After Stroke Based on Motor Learning and Brain Plasticity Mechanisms.

Martina Maier, Belén Rubio Ballester, Paul F M J Verschure,

What are the principles underlying effective neurorehabilitation? The aim of neurorehabilitation is to exploit interventions based on human and animal studies about learning and adaptation, as well as to show that the activation of experience-dependent neuronal plasticity augments functional recovery after stroke. Instead of teaching compensatory strategies that do not ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2019, 13:74]

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Technical aspects of surgical correction of spinal deformities in cerebral palsy.

Jorge Mineiro, Muharrem Yazici,

Purpose:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder arising from a non-progressive lesion in the developing immature brain with an encephalopathy, that results in various levels of motor and sensory dysfunction. Motor disability of these children can be assessed by the Gross Motor Function Classification System in five levels, and depending on ... Read more >>

J Child Orthop (Journal of children's orthopaedics)
[2020, 14(1):30-40]

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Direct electrical stimulation of the premotor cortex shuts down awareness of voluntary actions.

Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Lorenzo Bello, Anna Berti, Gabriella Cerri, Francesca Garbarini,

A challenge for neuroscience is to understand the conscious and unconscious processes underlying construction of willed actions. We investigated the neural substrate of human motor awareness during awake brain surgery. In a first experiment, awake patients performed a voluntary hand motor task and verbally monitored their real-time performance, while different ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):705]

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Trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential test as an evaluation tool for infraorbital nerve damage.

Woo Taik Hong, Jin-Hee Choi, Ji Hyun Kim, Yong Hun Kim, Chae-Eun Yang, Jiye Kim, Sug Won Kim,

BACKGROUND:Neurosensory changes are frequently observed in the patients with mid-face fractures, and these symptoms are often caused by infraorbital nerve (ION) damage. Although ION damage is a relatively common phenomenon, there are no established and objective methods to evaluate it. The aim of this study was to test whether trigeminal ... Read more >>

Arch Craniofac Surg (Archives of craniofacial surgery)
[2019, 20(4):223-227]

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Principles of Electrophysiological Assessments for Movement Disorders.

Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen, Robert Chen,

Electrophysiological studies can provide objective and quantifiable assessments of movement disorders. They are useful in the diagnosis of hyperkinetic movement disorders, particularly tremors and myoclonus. The most commonly used measures are surface electromyography (sEMG), electroencephalography (EEG) and accelerometry. Frequency and coherence analyses of sEMG signals may reveal the nature of ... Read more >>

J Mov Disord (Journal of movement disorders)
[2020, 13(1):27-38]

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Cortical Plasticity in Rehabilitation for Upper Extremity Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Scoping Review.

Patrick J Zink, Benjamin A Philip,

IMPORTANCE:Poor outcomes after upper extremity peripheral nerve injury (PNI) may arise, in part, from the challenges and complexities of cortical plasticity. Occupational therapy practitioners need to understand how the brain changes after peripheral injury and how principles of cortical plasticity can be applied to improve rehabilitation for clients with PNI. ... Read more >>

Am J Occup Ther (The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association)
[2020, 74(1):7401205030p1-7401205030p15]

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Local Resting Ca2+ Controls the Scale of Astroglial Ca2+ Signals.

Claire M King, Kirsten Bohmbach, Daniel Minge, Andrea Delekate, Kaiyu Zheng, James Reynolds, Cordula Rakers, Andre Zeug, Gabor C Petzold, Dmitri A Rusakov, Christian Henneberger,

Astroglia regulate neurovascular coupling while engaging in signal exchange with neurons. The underlying cellular machinery is thought to rely on astrocytic Ca2+ signals, but what controls their amplitude and waveform is poorly understood. Here, we employ time-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging in acute hippocampal slices and in cortex in vivo to ... Read more >>

Cell Rep (Cell reports)
[2020, 30(10):3466-3477.e4]

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Multimodal treatment for spinal cord injury: a sword of neuroregeneration upon neuromodulation.

Ya Zheng, Ye-Ran Mao, Ti-Fei Yuan, Dong-Sheng Xu, Li-Ming Cheng,

Spinal cord injury is linked to the interruption of neural pathways, which results in irreversible neural dysfunction. Neural repair and neuroregeneration are critical goals and issues for rehabilitation in spinal cord injury, which require neural stem cell repair and multimodal neuromodulation techniques involving personalized rehabilitation strategies. Besides the involvement of ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(8):1437-1450]

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Human Neocortical Neurosolver (HNN), a new software tool for interpreting the cellular and network origin of human MEG/EEG data.

Samuel A Neymotin, Dylan S Daniels, Blake Caldwell, Robert A McDougal, Nicholas T Carnevale, Mainak Jas, Christopher I Moore, Michael L Hines, Matti Hämäläinen, Stephanie R Jones,

Magneto- and electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) non-invasively record human brain activity with millisecond resolution providing reliable markers of healthy and disease states. Relating these macroscopic signals to underlying cellular- and circuit-level generators is a limitation that constrains using MEG/EEG to reveal novel principles of information processing or to translate findings into new ... Read more >>

Elife (eLife)
[2020, 9:]

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Transcranial Pulse Stimulation with Ultrasound in Alzheimer's Disease-A New Navigated Focal Brain Therapy.

Roland Beisteiner, Eva Matt, Christina Fan, Heike Baldysiak, Marleen Schönfeld, Tabea Philippi Novak, Ahmad Amini, Tuna Aslan, Raphael Reinecke, Johann Lehrner, Alexandra Weber, Ulrike Reime, Cédric Goldenstedt, Ernst Marlinghaus, Mark Hallett, Henning Lohse-Busch,

Ultrasound-based brain stimulation techniques may become a powerful new technique to modulate the human brain in a focal and targeted manner. However, for clinical brain stimulation no certified systems exist and the current techniques have to be further developed. Here, a clinical sonication technique is introduced, based on single ultrashort ... Read more >>

Adv Sci (Weinh) (Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany))
[2020, 7(3):1902583]

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Cross-Talk of Low-Level Sensory and High-Level Cognitive Processing: Development, Mechanisms, and Relevance for Cross-Modal Abilities of the Brain.

Xiaxia Xu, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz, Malte Bieler,

The emergence of cross-modal learning capabilities requires the interaction of neural areas accounting for sensory and cognitive processing. Convergence of multiple sensory inputs is observed in low-level sensory cortices including primary somatosensory (S1), visual (V1), and auditory cortex (A1), as well as in high-level areas such as prefrontal cortex (PFC). ... Read more >>

Front Neurorobot (Frontiers in neurorobotics)
[2020, 14:7]

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Single subject and group whole-brain fMRI mapping of male genital sensation at 7 Tesla.

Sven P R Luijten, Ilse M Groenendijk, Joan C Holstege, Chris I De Zeeuw, Wietske van der Zwaag, Bertil F M Blok,

Processing of genital sensations in the central nervous system of humans is still poorly understood. Current knowledge is mainly based on neuroimaging studies using electroencephalography (EEG), magneto-encephalography (MEG), and 1.5- or 3- Tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all of which suffer from limited spatial resolution and sensitivity, thereby ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):2487]

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Transcranial Focused Ultrasound (tFUS) and Transcranial Unfocused Ultrasound (tUS) Neuromodulation: From Theoretical Principles to Stimulation Practices.

Lazzaro di Biase, Emma Falato, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro,

Transcranial focused ultrasound is an emerging technique for non-invasive neurostimulation. Compared to magnetic or electric non-invasive brain stimulation, this technique has a higher spatial resolution and can reach deep structures. In addition, both animal and human studies suggest that, potentially, different sites of the central and peripheral nervous system can ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in Neurology)
[2019, 10:549]

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Contact heat evoked potentials in knowledge workers and unskilled labors.

Bo Sun, Yan-Ran Li, Hong-Fen Wang, Fang Cui, Li Ling, Fei Yang, Zhao-Hui Chen, Xu-Sheng Huang,

BACKGROUND:Whether occupation has an impact on contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) results has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the difference of CHEP parameters between knowledge workers and unskilled labors. METHODS:A total of 137 healthy participants were recruited between November 20, 2014 and December 31, 2016. All participants ... Read more >>

Chin. Med. J. (Chinese medical journal)
[2020, 133(5):537-541]

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Cortical Output Is Gated by Horizontally Projecting Neurons in the Deep Layers.

Robert Egger, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Jason M Guest, Arco Bast, Daniel Udvary, Luis F Messore, Suman Das, Christiaan P J de Kock, Marcel Oberlaender,

Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the mammalian neocortex. Here, we report the origins of the PTs' ability to respond to a broad range of stimuli with onset latencies that rival or even precede those of their intracortical input neurons. We find that neurons with ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2020, 105(1):122-137.e8]

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Neural Foundations of Ayres Sensory Integration®.

Shelly J Lane, Zoe Mailloux, Sarah Schoen, Anita Bundy, Teresa A May-Benson, L Diane Parham, Susanne Smith Roley, Roseann C Schaaf,

Sensory integration, now trademarked as Ayres Sensory Integration® or ASI, is based on principles of neuroscience and provides a framework for understanding the contributions of the sensory and motor foundations of human behavior. The theory and practice of ASI continues to evolve as greater understanding of the neurobiology of human ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2019, 9(7):]

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Direct Electrical Stimulation of Premotor Areas: Different Effects on Hand Muscle Activity during Object Manipulation.

Luca Fornia, Marco Rossi, Marco Rabuffetti, Antonella Leonetti, Guglielmo Puglisi, Luca Viganò, Luciano Simone, Henrietta Howells, Andrea Bellacicca, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri,

Dorsal and ventral premotor (dPM and vPM) areas are crucial in control of hand muscles during object manipulation, although their respective role in humans is still debated. In patients undergoing awake surgery for brain tumors, we studied the effect of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the premotor cortex on the ... Read more >>

Cereb. Cortex (Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991))
[2020, 30(1):391-405]

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Neural correlates of visual aesthetic appreciation: insights from non-invasive brain stimulation.

Zaira Cattaneo,

During the last decade, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have been increasingly employed in the field of neuroaesthetics research to shed light on the possible causal role of different brain regions contributing to aesthetic appreciation. Here, I review studies that have employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation ... Read more >>

Exp Brain Res (Experimental brain research)
[2020, 238(1):1-16]

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MOTANA: study protocol to investigate motor cerebral activity during a propofol sedation.

Sébastien Rimbert, Denis Schmartz, Laurent Bougrain, Claude Meistelman, Cédric Baumann, Philippe Guerci,

BACKGROUND:Accidental Accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) occurs in 1-2% of high-risk practice patients and is a cause of severe psychological trauma, termed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no monitoring techniques can accurately predict or detect AAGA. Since the first reflex for a patient during AAGA is to move, a ... Read more >>

Trials (Trials)
[2019, 20(1):534]

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Functional Architecture and Encoding of Tactile Sensorimotor Behavior in Rat Posterior Parietal Cortex.

Hemanth Mohan, Roel de Haan, Robin Broersen, Anton W Pieneman, Fritjof Helmchen, Jochen F Staiger, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock,

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in rodents is reciprocally connected to primary somatosensory and vibrissal motor cortices. The PPC neuronal circuitry could thus encode and potentially integrate incoming somatosensory information and whisker motor output. However, the information encoded across PPC layers during refined sensorimotor behavior remains largely unknown. To uncover ... Read more >>

J. Neurosci. (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2019, 39(37):7332-7343]

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Remote Analgesic Effects Of Conventional Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: A Scientific And Clinical Review With A Focus On Chronic Pain.

Shai N Gozani,

Background:Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a safe, noninvasive treatment for chronic pain that can be self-administered. Conventional TENS involves stimulation of peripheral sensory nerves at a strong, non-painful level. Following the original gate-control theory of pain, stimulation is typically near the target pain. As another option, remote stimulation may ... Read more >>

J Pain Res (Journal of Pain Research)
[2019, 12:3185-3201]

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Paired Associative Stimulation Fails to Induce Plasticity in Freely Behaving Intact Rats.

Windsor Kwan-Chun Ting, Maxime Huot-Lavoie, Christian Ethier,

Paired associative stimulation (PAS) has been explored in humans as a noninvasive tool to drive plasticity and promote recovery after neurologic insult. A more thorough understanding of PAS-induced plasticity is needed to fully harness it as a clinical tool. Here, we tested the efficacy of PAS with multiple interstimulus intervals ... Read more >>

eNeuro (eNeuro)
[2020, 7(2):]

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Clinical Neurorestorative Therapeutic Guidelines for Spinal Cord Injury (IANR/CANR version 2019).

Hongyun Huang, Wise Young, Stephen Skaper, Lin Chen, Gustavo Moviglia, Hooshang Saberi, Ziad Al-Zoubi, Hari Shanker Sharma, Dafin Muresanu, Alok Sharma, Wagih El Masry, Shiqing Feng, ,

Functional restoration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most challenging tasks in neurological clinical practice. With a view to exploring effective neurorestorative methods in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI, "Clinical Therapeutic Guidelines of Neurorestoration for Spinal Cord Injury (China Version 2016)" was first ​proposed in ... Read more >>

J Orthop Translat (Journal of orthopaedic translation)
[2020, 20:14-24]

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Multimodal Intraoperative Spinal Cord Monitoring during Spinal Deformity Surgery: Efficacy, Diagnostic Characteristics, and Algorithm Development.

Athanasios I Tsirikos, Andrew D Duckworth, Lindsay E Henderson, Ciara Michaelson,

OBJECTIVE:This study aims to present the diagnostic characteristics of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (IOM) in spinal deformity surgery and to define and categorise the neuromonitoring events, as well as propose an algorithm of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We reviewed 1,155 consecutive patients (807 female, 348 male) who underwent deformity correction using standardised ... Read more >>

Med Princ Pract (Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre)
[2020, 29(1):6-17]

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