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Fungal Infections in Preterm Infants

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Oral Nystatin Prophylaxis To Prevent Systemic Fungal Infection In Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants : A Randomized Controlled Trial

Lily Rundjan, Retno Wahyuningsih, Chrissela Oeswadi, Miske Marsogi, Ayu Purnamasari,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background Systemic fungal infection (SFI) is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Because early diagnosis of SFI is challenging due to nonspecific manifestations, prophylaxis becomes crucial. This study aimed to assess effectiveness of oral nystatin as ... Read more >>

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Genetic and behavioral adaptation of Candida parapsilosis to the microbiome of hospitalized infants revealed by in situ genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics

Patrick West, Samantha Peters, Matthew Olm, Feiqiao Yu, Yue Clare Lou, Brian Firek, Robyn Baker, Alexander Johnson, Michael Morowitz, Robert Hettich, Jillian Banfield,

ABSTRACT Candida parapsilosis is a common cause of invasive candidiasis, especially in newborn infants, and infections have been increasing over the past two decades. C. parapsilosis has been primarily studied in pure culture, leaving gaps in understanding of its function in microbiome context. Here, we reconstructed five unique C. parapsilosis ... Read more >>

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Malassezia furfur Emergence and Candidemia Trends in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit During 10 Years: The Experience of Fluconazole Prophylaxis in a Single Hospital.

I-Ting Chen, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hsin-Chun Huang, Kuang-Che Kuo,

BACKGROUND:Because Candida spp is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants, fluconazole prophylaxis has been suggested by some experts and hospital policy. In our hospital, fluconazole prophylaxis was used in eligible preterm infants and set as the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) practice in 2014. PURPOSE:This study ... Read more >>

Adv Neonatal Care (Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses)
[2020, 20(1):E3-E8]

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Epidemiology and microbiology of late-onset sepsis among preterm infants in China, 2015-2018: A cohort study.

Siyuan Jiang, Chuanzhong Yang, Changyi Yang, Weili Yan, Vibhuti Shah, Prakesh S Shah, Shoo K Lee, Yi Yang, Yun Cao, ,

OBJECTIVE:To describe the incidence, case-fatality rate and pathogen distribution of late-onset sepsis (LOS) among preterm infants in China and to investigate risk factors and short-term outcomes associated with LOS caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. METHODS:This cohort study included all infants born at <34 weeks' gestation and admitted ... Read more >>

Int. J. Infect. Dis. (International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases)
[2020, :]

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Clinical Trials of Lactoferrin in the Newborn: Effects on Infection and the Gut Microbiome.

Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington,

Newborn infants, especially those born preterm, are at risk of infections in early life. In preterm infants, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating inflammatory gut condition, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are important causes of serious morbidity and are the commonest reasons for death after the first week of life. Fresh breast ... Read more >>

Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser (Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series)
[2020, 94:1-11]

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Cerebral Lupus and Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Pregnant Woman.

Ching Soong Khoo, Marsilla Mariaty Marzukie, Soo Shu Yap, Wan Nur Nafisah Wan Yahya, Hui Jan Tan,

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune and multisystem disorder, which frequently affects young women. During pregnancy, SLE flares could occur up to 65%, with renal and hematological manifestations being the most common. However, reports on neuropsychiatric lupus in pregnant women are scarce. We herein report a 26-year-old lupus ... Read more >>

J Neurosci Rural Pract (Journal of neurosciences in rural practice)
[2020, 11(1):183-186]

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Fungal cutaneous microbiome and host determinants in preterm and term neonates.

Anshu A Paul, Kristi L Hoffman, Joseph L Hagan, Venkatesh Sampath, Joseph F Petrosino, Mohan Pammi,

BACKGROUND:The neonatal cutaneous mycobiome has not been characterized in preterm infants. Invasive fungal infections in preterm neonates are associated with high mortality. The immaturity of the preterm skin predisposes neonates to invasive infection by skin colonizers. We report the clinical and host determinants that influence the skin mycobiome. METHODS:Skin swabs ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Res. (Pediatric research)
[2019, :]

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Infantile hypopigmented pityriasis versicolor: two uncommon cases.

Fahimeh Abdollahimajd, Nasim Niknezhad, Nakisa Niknejad, Mohammad Nikvar,

Pityriasis versicolor is a common infection of the epidermis in adults, but only a few cases of this infection (especially the hypopigmented type) have been reported in infants aged under one year. Herein, we document a report of these cases and a review of the literature. Two patients with infantile ... Read more >>

Turk Pediatri Ars (Turk pediatri arsivi)
[2019, 54(4):277-280]

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The Inflammasome in Reproductive Biology: A Promising Target for Novel Therapies.

Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari,

The inflammasome is a key regulator of innate immunity involved in the inflammatory response to infections as well as disease through the activation of caspase-1 and the processing of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Even though the inflammasome was first described in the context of infections, most research ... Read more >>

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (Frontiers in Endocrinology)
[2020, 11:8]

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Pulmonary Mucormycosis: A Case Report of a Rare Infection with Potential Diagnostic Problems.

Salwa O Mekki, Amal A Hassan, Afnan Falemban, Nashwa Alkotani, Salem M Alsharif, Ahmed Haron, Basim Felemban, Mohammad S Iqbal, Aisha Tabassum,

Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively rare pulmonary fungal disease, which is difficult to diagnose early and lacks effective treatment. It is seen in patients with hematological malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and immunocompromised states. The diagnosis depends primarily on the detection of fungi in lung tissue. Here, we present a case of ... Read more >>

Case Rep Pathol (Case reports in pathology)
[2020, 2020:5845394]

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Microbiota in vaginal health and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal infections: a critical review.

Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Manpreet Kaur,

Recurrent vulvovaginal infections (RVVI) has not only become an epidemiological and clinical problem but also include large social and psychological consequences. Understanding the mechanisms of both commensalism and pathogenesis are necessary for the development of efficient diagnosis and treatment strategies for these enigmatic vaginal infections. Through this review, an attempt ... Read more >>

Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. (Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials)
[2020, 19(1):5]

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Antifungal Drugs for Invasive Candida Infections (ICI) in Neonates: Future Perspectives.

Iliana Bersani, Fiammetta Piersigilli, Bianca Maria Goffredo, Alessandra Santisi, Sara Cairoli, Maria Paola Ronchetti, Cinzia Auriti,

Fungal infections may complicate the neonatal clinical course, and the spectrum of therapies for their treatment in the perinatal period is limited. Polyenes, Azoles and Echinocandins represent the three classes of antifungal drugs commonly used in the neonatal period. The present review provides an overview about the most recent therapeutic ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in Pediatrics)
[2019, 7:375]

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Histological chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, and neonatal outcomes in very low birth weight infants: A nationwide study.

Hyun-Seung Lee, So Young Kim,

BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to investigate whether some associations between histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) and favorable neonatal outcomes might be linked to those of antenatal steroids (AS) by determining the separate as well as the combined associations of HCA and AS with neonatal outcomes in very low birth weight ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(10):e0224450]

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Cumulative evidence for association of sepsis and retinopathy of prematurity.

Jichong Huang, Ying Tang, Tingting Zhu, Yafei Li, Hua Chun, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu,

BACKGROUND:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affected by multiple factors such as infection and preterm birth. The role of sepsis in the development of ROP remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify the impact of sepsis on ROP. METHODS:The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library ... Read more >>

Medicine (Baltimore) (Medicine)
[2019, 98(42):e17512]

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Nutritional interventions to reduce rates of infection, necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in very preterm infants.

Christoph Bührer, Hendrik S Fischer, Sven Wellmann,

Observational studies demonstrating reduced rates of infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality in preterm infants fed their own mother's milk, as opposed to formula, have prompted endeavors to achieve similar effects with the right choice of food and food additives. In a systematic review of meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Res. (Pediatric research)
[2020, 87(2):371-377]

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ECMO for Neonatal Sepsis in 2019.

Warwick Wolf Butt, Roberto Chiletti,

Sepsis and septic shock in newborns causes mortality and morbidity depending on the organism and primary site. ECMO provides cardiorespiratory support to allow adequate organ perfusion during the time for antibiotics and source control surgery (if needed) to occur. ECMO mode and cannulation site vary depending on support required and ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:50]

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Prevalence, risk factors and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species among pregnant women at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Alem Tsega, Feleke Mekonnen,

BACKGROUND:Candida is the commonest opportunistic fungi in human. Candida species cause diverse types of diseases. Vaginal candidiasis has been reported as one of the most common type of fungal diseases among pregnant women. However; In Ethiopia, due to scarcity of data, much has not been documented regarding the prevalence of ... Read more >>

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (BMC pregnancy and childbirth)
[2019, 19(1):527]

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Late-Onset Sepsis as a Risk Factor for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee,

This study aimed to determine the effect of late-onset sepsis (LOS) on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. A prospective cohort study was performed using data collected from 64 centres registered in the Korean national registry. LOS was defined as a positive blood ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2019, 9(1):15448]

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Management of congenital cutaneous candidiasis in a healthy term baby: A case report.

Sophia Colantonio, Erin Hedin, Heidi Oi-Yee Li, Geneviève Gavigan,

The management of congenital cutaneous candidiasis in a healthy term neonate of normal birth weight is unclear. Often, healthy term neonates undergo extensive evaluation followed by systemic treatment, which may not be clinically warranted. Here, we present a case of a healthy term neonate with congenital cutaneous candidiasis, whose work-up ... Read more >>

SAGE Open Med Case Rep (SAGE Open Medical Case Reports)
[2019, 7:2050313X19876707]

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A Review of the Immunomodulating Components of Maternal Breast Milk and Protection Against Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Lila S Nolan, Olivia B Parks, Misty Good,

Breast milk contains immunomodulating components that are beneficial to newborns during maturation of their immune system. Human breast milk composition is influenced by an infant's gestational and chronological age, lactation stage, and the mother and infant's health status. Major immunologic components in human milk, such as secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) ... Read more >>

Nutrients (Nutrients)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Allograft of Primary Cutaneous Mucormycosis in a Preterm Neonate: A Case Report.

Tania Benjamin, Rachel Wattier, William Dominic,

INTRODUCTION:Primary cutaneous mucormycosis (PCM) is a fungal infection of the skin that can affect compromised hosts. Skin lesions evolve from an indurated area to a necrotic ulcer. Preterm neonates are at increased risk due to poorly developed skin, immature immune function, and invasive devices. Antifungals and debridement with grafting have ... Read more >>

Wounds (Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice)
[2019, 31(7):E46-E48]

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Warding Off Recurrent Yeast and Bacterial Vaginal Infections: Lactoferrin and Lactobacilli.

Fabiana Superti, Francesco De Seta,

Vaginal infections are the most prevalent women's health problem. Incompetent diagnosis, inappropriate treatments, and antibiotic resistance are the main causes of the unsatisfactory results of conventional, antimicrobic treatment for these infections. Research has thus been conducted to identify new treatments for these genital diseases. The significant enhancement in our knowledge ... Read more >>

Microorganisms (Microorganisms)
[2020, 8(1):]

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Fungal Ecology in a Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit after 16 Years of Routine Fluconazole Prophylaxis: No Emergence of Native Fluconazole-Resistant Strains.

Martina Luparia, Francesca Landi, Alessio Mesini, Maria Angela Militello, Paolo Galletto, Daniele Farina, Elio Castagnola, Paolo Manzoni,

OBJECTIVE:We analyzed the fungal ecology of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a period of 20 consecutive years following the introduction of routine fluconazole prophylaxis for all very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g at birth) preterm babies. The aim was to detect the possible appearance of any ecological shifts ... Read more >>

Am J Perinatol (American journal of perinatology)
[2019, 36(S 02):S126-S133]

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Infantile Aspergillus fumigatus ventriculitis successfully treated with monitoring of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid voriconazole concentration level.

Aiko Furudate, Shoko Hirose, Kota Abe, Akitsugu Kawashima, Kazutoshi Hashimoto, Shingo Yamazaki, Katsuhiko Kamei, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Hiromichi Hamada, Masahiko Sato,

Aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection in newborns, and its morbidity and mortality are high. Voriconazole (VRCZ) is the first-line antifungal agent for invasive Aspergillus infection, but little data is available about its pharmacokinetics in infants. We report a case of a premature infant who developed ventriculitis due to Aspergillus ... Read more >>

J. Infect. Chemother. (Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy)
[2020, 26(1):132-135]

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Pediatric Cullen gangrene: Case report of postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum in a preterm infant with a complex gastrointestinal malformation.

Sonja Diez, Julia Syed, Hanna Müller, Manuel Besendoerfer, Vera Schellerer,

INTRODUCTION:Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare condition in infants, children and adolescents. The postoperative variant of this rapidly progressive ulceration is known as Cullen gangrene. Only a few case reports of pediatric Cullen gangrene have been published. PRESENTATION OF CASE:We present a male infant (gestational age 31 + 6 weeks) with gastroschisis ... Read more >>

Int J Surg Case Rep (International journal of surgery case reports)
[2020, 66:381-384]

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