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Epilepsy and Seizures

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Fyn gene silencing reduces oligodendrocytes apoptosis through inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation in epilepsy.

Xinming Luo, Zhengyu Li, Jing Zhao, Yan Deng, Yuqin Zhong, Ming Zhang,

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Fyn gene silencing on the apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in epileptic model in vitro and the involved mechanism. Primary oligodendrocyte pro-genitor cells (OPCs) were separated from rats and differentiated to OLs. Immunofluorescent labeling showed positive expression of A2B5 in OPCs and Olig2 ... Read more >>

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol (Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology)
[2020, 48(1):298-304]

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The structure and function of TRIP8b, an auxiliary subunit of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated channels.

Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Kendall M Foote, Dane M Chetkovich,

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). These channels have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder and multiple subtypes of epilepsy. The diversity of functions that HCN channels perform is in part attributable to differences in their ... Read more >>

Channels (Austin) (Channels (Austin, Tex.))
[2020, 14(1):110-122]

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Predictors of outcome in childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Harsita Patel, Claire Dunican, Aubrey J Cunnington,

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is classified as either uncomplicated or severe, determining clinical management and providing a framework for understanding pathogenesis. Severe malaria in children is defined by the presence of one or more features associated with adverse outcome, but there is wide variation in the predictive value of these features. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):199-221]

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Exploring structure-activity relationship of S-substituted 2-mercaptoquinazolin-4(3H)-one including 4-ethylbenzenesulfonamides as human carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Adel S El-Azab, Alaa A-M Abdel-Aziz, Hany E A Ahmed, Sivia Bua, Alessio Nocentini, Nawaf A AlSaif, Ahmad J Obaidullah, Mohamed M Hefnawy, Claudiu T Supuran,

Inhibitory action of newly synthesised 4-(2-(2-substituted-thio-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamides compounds 2-13 against human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) (hCA) isoforms I, II, IX, and XII, was evaluated. hCA I was efficiently inhibited by compounds 2-13 with inhibition constants (KIs) ranging from 57.8-740.2 nM. Compounds 2, 3, 4, and 12 showed inhibitory action against hCA ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):598-609]

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A class of carbonic anhydrase IX/XII - selective carboxylate inhibitors.

Rakia Abd Alhameed, Emanuela Berrino, Zainab Almarhoon, Ayman El-Faham, Claudiu T Supuran,

A small series of 2,4-dioxothiazolidinyl acetic acids was prepared from thiourea, chloroacetic acid, aromatic aldehydes, and ethyl-2-bromoacetate. They were assayed for the inhibition of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms of human (h) origin, the cytosolic hCA I and II, and the transmembrane hCA IX and XII, ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):549-554]

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Astrocytic modulation of potassium under seizures.

Fushun Wang, Xiaoming Qi, Jun Zhang, Jason H Huang,

The contribution of an impaired astrocytic K+ regulation system to epileptic neuronal hyperexcitability has been increasingly recognized in the last decade. A defective K+ regulation leads to an elevated extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o). When [K+]o reaches peaks of 10-12 mM, it is strongly associated with seizure initiation during hypersynchronous neuronal ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(6):980-987]

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Bibliometric analysis of potassium channel research.

Jingjing Shi, Shuqing Shi, Shuai Shi, Qiulei Jia, Guozhen Yuan, Yuguang Chu, Huan Wang, Yuanhui Hu, Hanming Cui,

OBJECTIVE:To explore the research status, hotspots, and trends in research on potassium channel. METHODS:The Web of Science core collection database was used as the data source and the visual analysis software Citespace5.4 R3 was used to visualize the studies of potassium channel in the past 10 years. The national/institutional distribution, ... Read more >>

Channels (Austin) (Channels (Austin, Tex.))
[2020, 14(1):18-27]

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Design, synthesis, in vitro inhibition and toxicological evaluation of human carbonic anhydrases I, II and IX inhibitors in 5-nitroimidazole series.

Ashok Aspatwar, Nanda Kumar Parvathaneni, Harlan Barker, Emilie Anduran, Claudiu T Supuran, Ludwig Dubois, Philippe Lambin, Seppo Parkkila, Jean-Yves Winum,

With the aim to obtain novel compounds possessing both strong affinity against human carbonic anhydrases and low toxicity, we synthesised novel thiourea and sulphonamide derivatives 3, 4 and 10, and studied their in vitro inhibitory properties against human CA I, CA II and CA IX. We also evaluated the toxicity of ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):109-117]

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Design, synthesis and molecular modelling studies of some pyrazole derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Yazgı Dizdaroglu, Canan Albay, Tayfun Arslan, Abdulilah Ece, Emir A Turkoglu, Asiye Efe, Murat Senturk, Claudiu T Supuran, Deniz Ekinci,

In this study, newly synthesised compounds 6, 8, 10 and other compounds (1-5, 7 and 9) and their inhibitory properties against the human isoforms hCA I and hCA II were reported for the first time. Compounds 1-10 showed effective inhibition profiles with KI values in the range of 5.13-16.9 nM for ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):289-297]

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Development of a cheminformatics platform for selectivity analyses of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Giulio Poli, Salvatore Galati, Adriano Martinelli, Claudiu T Supuran, Tiziano Tuccinardi,

The selectivity for a specific human Carbonic Anhydrase (hCA) isoform is an important property a hCA inhibitor (CAI) should be endowed with, in order to constitute a valuable therapeutic tool for the treatment of a desired pathology. In this context, we developed a chemoinformatic platform that allows the analysis of ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):365-371]

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Optimal concentration of necrostatin-1 for protecting against hippocampal neuronal damage in mice with status epilepticus.

Dong-Qi Lin, Xin-Ying Cai, Chun-Hua Wang, Bin Yang, Ri-Sheng Liang,

Hippocampal neurons undergo various forms of cell death after status epilepticus. Necrostatin-1 specifically inhibits necroptosis mediated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 receptors. However, there are no reports of necroptosis in mouse models of status epilepticus. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of necrostatin-1 on ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(5):936-943]

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Epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and dementia.

Ettore Beghi, Massimiliano Beghi,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To illustrate the frequency and trends of the comorbidity of epilepsy and dementia and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognitive functions. RECENT FINDINGS:Although the mortality and incidence of epilepsy are decreasing overall, they are increasing in the elderly as a result of population growth and increased ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (Current opinion in neurology)
[2020, 33(2):191-197]

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Drug Treatment of Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy.

Gregory L Holmes,

The progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) represent a rare but devastating group of syndromes characterized by epileptic myoclonus, typically action-induced seizures, neurological regression, medically refractory epilepsy, and a variety of other signs and symptoms depending on the specific syndrome. Most of the PMEs begin in children who are developing as expected, ... Read more >>

Paediatr Drugs (Paediatric drugs)
[2020, 22(2):149-164]

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The Humanistic and Economic Burden of Pediatric Focal Seizures in the United States.

Sarah N Gibbs, Jiyoon Choi, Ibrahim Khilfeh, K Hamzah Ahmed, Irina Yermilov, Eric Segal,

OBJECTIVE:To better understand the humanistic and economic burden of focal seizures in children 2-12 years old. METHODS:We conducted a targeted literature review by searching MEDLINE for English-language publications reporting on children 2-12 years old with focal seizures published in the United States since 2008. RESULTS:Thirty-five publications were included. Incidence of ... Read more >>

J. Child Neurol. (Journal of child neurology)
[2020, :883073820911785]

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Epilepsy: key experimental therapeutics in early clinical development.

Claude Steriade, Jacqueline French, Orrin Devinsky,

Introduction: Antiseizure medications are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. Currently therapies are not specific to epilepsy etiology, and control seizures in two-thirds of cases. Drugs in clinical development aim to bridge that gap by targeting novel receptors and epileptogenesis. While currently approved antiseizure medications target focal or generalized epilepsies regardless ... Read more >>

Expert Opin Investig Drugs (Expert opinion on investigational drugs)
[2020, :1-11]

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Chance and risk in epilepsy.

Maxime O Baud, Timothée Proix, Vikram R Rao, Kaspar Schindler,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Epilepsy is a dynamical disorder of the brain characterized by sudden, seemingly unpredictable transitions to the ictal state. When and how these transitions occur remain unresolved questions in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS:Modelling work based on dynamical systems theory proposed that a slow control parameter is necessary to explain the ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (Current opinion in neurology)
[2020, 33(2):163-172]

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Genetic generalized and focal epilepsy prevalence in the North American SUDEP Registry.

Chloe Verducci, Daniel Friedman, Elizabeth Donner, Orrin Devinsky,

OBJECTIVE:To assess relative rates and clinical features of patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), focal epilepsy (FE), and developmental encephalopathic epilepsy (DEE) in the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR). METHODS:We identified all adjudicated definite, definite plus, and probable sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases (n = 262) and determined ... Read more >>

Neurology (Neurology)
[2020, :]

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Long-term safety, efficacy, and quality of life outcomes with adjunctive brivaracetam treatment at individualized doses in patients with epilepsy: An up to 11-year, open-label, follow-up trial.

Terence J O'Brien, Simon Borghs, Qin Jane He, Anne-Liv Schulz, Stephen Yates, Victor Biton,

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate long-term safety/tolerability of brivaracetam at individualized doses ≤200 mg/d (primary) and maintenance of efficacy over time (secondary) in adults with focal seizures or primary generalized seizures (PGS) enrolled in phase 3, open-label, long-term follow-up trial N01199 (NCT00150800). METHODS:Patients ≥16 years of age who had completed double-blind, placebo-controlled adjunctive brivaracetam trials ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2020, :]

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Why do seizures impair consciousness and how can we reverse this?

Isabelle Lambert, Fabrice Bartolomei,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Consciousness disorders occurring during seizures are a major source of disability in people with epilepsy. The purpose of this review is to show recent developments in the assessment and understanding of consciousness disorders in epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS:The most frequent alterations in consciousness are alterations in the level of ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (Current opinion in neurology)
[2020, 33(2):173-178]

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Procedure-Related Temporal Infarct After Retractorless Transsylvian Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy and Impact on 2-Year Epilepsy Outcome.

Chih-Hsiang Liao, Shao-Ching Chen, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Chun-Fu Lin, Chien-Chen Chou, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chung-Jung Lin, Sanford P C Hsu, Yang-Hsin Shih,

BACKGROUND:Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is designed to treat patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). OBJECTIVE:To determine the volume and impact of temporal lobe infarction after retractorless transsylvian SAH (en bloc resection of the hippocampus) that have not been reported. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients treated with retractorless transsylvian SAH. Infarctions ... Read more >>

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) (Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.))
[2020, 18(4):430-437]

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Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of Concentrated Intranasal Midazolam Spray as Emergency Medication in Epilepsy Patients During Video-EEG Monitoring.

Anemone von Blomberg, Lara Kay, Susanne Knake, Sven Fuest, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Philipp S Reif, Eva Herrmann, Ümniye Balaban, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk,

BACKGROUND:An efficient, well tolerated, and safe emergency treatment with a rapid onset of action is needed to prevent seizure clusters and to terminate prolonged seizures and status epilepticus. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of intranasal midazolam (in-MDZ) spray in clinical practice. METHODS:In this retrospective, multicenter ... Read more >>

CNS Drugs (CNS drugs)
[2020, :]

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Forecasting cycles of seizure likelihood.

Philippa J Karoly, Mark J Cook, Matias Maturana, Ewan S Nurse, Daniel Payne, Benjamin H Brinkmann, David B Grayden, Sonya B Dumanis, Mark P Richardson, Greg A Worrell, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Levin Kuhlmann, Dean R Freestone,

OBJECTIVE:Seizure unpredictability is rated as one of the most challenging aspects of living with epilepsy. Seizure likelihood can be influenced by a range of environmental and physiological factors that are difficult to measure and quantify. However, some generalizable patterns have been demonstrated in seizure onset. A majority of people with ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2020, :]

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CACNA1H variants are not a cause of monogenic epilepsy.

Jeffrey D Calhoun, Alexandra M Huffman, Irena Bellinski, Lisa Kinsley, Elizabeth Bachman, Elizabeth Gerard, Jennifer A Kearney, Gemma L Carvill,

CACNA1H genetic variants were originally reported in a childhood absence epilepsy cohort. Subsequently, genetic testing for CACNA1H became available and is currently offered by commercial laboratories. However, the current status of CACNA1H as a monogenic cause of epilepsy is controversial, highlighted by ClinGen's recent re-classification of CACNA1H as disputed. We ... Read more >>

Hum. Mutat. (Human mutation)
[2020, :]

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Electrographic seizures and ictal-interictal continuum (IIC) patterns in critically ill patients.

Sahar F Zafar, Thanujaa Subramaniam, Gamaleldin Osman, Aline Herlopian, Aaron F Struck,

Critical care long-term continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring has expanded dramatically in the last several decades spurned by technological advances in EEG digitalization and several key clinical findings: 1-Seizures are relatively common in the critically ill-large recent observational studies suggest that around 20% of critically ill patients placed on cEEG have ... Read more >>

Epilepsy Behav (Epilepsy & behavior : E&B)
[2020, 106:107037]

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What are the epileptic encephalopathies?

Marina Trivisano, Nicola Specchio,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review the evolution of the concept of epileptic encephalopathy during the course of past years and analyze how the current definition might impact on both clinical practice and research. RECENT FINDINGS:Developmental delay in children with epilepsy could be the expression of the cause, consequence of intense epileptiform ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (Current opinion in neurology)
[2020, 33(2):179-184]

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