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Encephalopathic EEG Patterns

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Non-convulsive seizures in the encephalopathic critically ill cancer patient does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis.

Cristina Gutierrez, Merry Chen, Lei Feng, Sudhakar Tummala,

Background:Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is present in 10-30% of ICU patients with altered mental status (AMS) and is associated to poor outcomes. To our knowledge, there is no data describing the prevalence and outcomes of critically ill cancer patients with AMS associated to non-convulsive seizures (NCS) or NCSE. We aim ... Read more >>

J Intensive Care (Journal of Intensive Care)
[2019, 7:62]

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A Patient With CAD Deficiency Responsive to Uridine and Literature Review.

Ling Zhou, Han Xu, Tianshuang Wang, Ye Wu,

CAD encodes a multifunctional enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, and pyrimidine can be alternatively recycled from uridine. Trio whole-exome sequencing identified CAD compound heterozygous mutations in a new male patient with global developmental delay (DD), refractory epilepsy, and anemia with anisopoikilocytosis. We further reviewed all published cases with ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:64]

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Electroencephalographic seizures in critically ill children: Management and adverse events.

France W Fung, Marin Jacobwitz, Lisa Vala, Darshana Parikh, Maureen Donnelly, Rui Xiao, Alexis A Topjian, Nicholas S Abend,

OBJECTIVE:Guidelines recommend that encephalopathic critically ill children undergo continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring for electrographic seizure (ES) identification and management. However, limited data exist on antiseizure medication (ASM) safety for ES treatment in critically ill children. METHODS:We performed a single-center prospective observational study of encephalopathic critically ill children undergoing CEEG. Clinical ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2019, 60(10):2095-2104]

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Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia: Two Case Reports and Review.

Rajesh P Poothrikovil, Khalid Al Thihli, Amna Al Futaisi, Fathiya Al Murshidi,

Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) or glycine encephalopathy is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism resulting in an excessive accumulation of glycine in all body tissues, including the central nervous system. It is caused by a biochemical defect in the glycine cleavage system and considered as a rare disorder with an ... Read more >>

Neurodiagn J (The Neurodiagnostic journal)
[2019, 59(3):142-151]

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Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic ictal discharges during funduscopic examination in a patient with status epilepticus.

Wei-Pin Hong, Tsang-Shan Chen, Chin-Wei Huang,

Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs), an unusual pattern in electroencephalography, have been described in critically-ill encephalopathic patients in response to alerting stimuli. The phenomenon may be seen in patients with a broad range of aetiologies, including cerebral infarct, haemorrhage, anoxia, and degenerative diseases. Here, we report a unique ... Read more >>

Epileptic Disord (Epileptic disorders : international epilepsy journal with videotape)
[2019, 21(5):475-478]

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EEG in WNV Neuroinvasive Disease.

Angela M Parsons, Marie F Grill, Anteneh M Feyissa, Jeffrey Britton, Sara Hocker, Amy Crepeau,

PURPOSE:Neuroinvasive West Nile virus (WNV) is rare, occurring in less than 1% of those infected, and may manifest as meningitis, encephalitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. Patients may present initially with nonspecific symptoms including fevers. Although rare, neuroinvasive WNV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mainstay of treatment is ... Read more >>

J Clin Neurophysiol (Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society)
[2019, 36(2):135-140]

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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Encephalitis Concomitantly with Tall-cell Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Ahmad Mahadeen, Naresh Mullaguri, Pravin George, Laura Rabinowitz, Christopher R Newey,

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) encephalitis is an autoimmune-mediated process characterized by psychosis, seizures, dyskinetic movements, and autonomic instability. At least half of the reported cases are paraneoplastic, particularly associated with an ovarian teratoma. None have been reported to be associated with thyroid tumor. We present a case of anti-NMDA encephalitis concomitantly occurring ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2019, 11(8):e5415]

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Clinical approach to the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in the pediatric patient.

Tania Cellucci, Heather Van Mater, Francesc Graus, Eyal Muscal, William Gallentine, Marisa S Klein-Gitelman, Susanne M Benseler, Jennifer Frankovich, Mark P Gorman, Keith Van Haren, Josep Dalmau, Russell C Dale,

OBJECTIVE:Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important and treatable cause of acute encephalitis. Diagnosis of AE in a developing child is challenging because of overlap in clinical presentations with other diseases and complexity of normal behavior changes. Existing diagnostic criteria for adult AE require modification to be applied to children, who ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(2):]

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A Comparison Of Conventional Electroencephalography With Amplitude-Integrated EEG In Detection Of Neonatal Seizures.

Maliheh Kadivar, Elahe Movahedi Moghadam, Reza Shervin Badv, Raziye Sangsari, Maryam Saeedy,

Introduction:Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is widely used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) to monitor neonatal seizures. This method is still not well established compared to conventional electroencephalogram (cEEG), the diagnostic gold standard. However, aEEG can be a good screening tool for the diagnosis of seizures in infants. Our aim in ... Read more >>

Med Devices (Auckl) (Medical devices (Auckland, N.Z.))
[2019, 12:489-496]

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EEG Patterns in Patients With Calcified Neurocysticercosis With or Without Hippocampal Atrophy.

Naoum P Issa, Mark J Sedler, Victor J Del Brutto, Elizabeth Darsan, Lucía Milla, Jessica Montes, Mauricio Zambrano, Oscar H Del Brutto,

PURPOSE:To assess whether hippocampal atrophy develops in conjunction with clinical or subclinical epileptiform or encephalopathic activity in subjects with neurocysticercosis (NCC). METHODS:Using a population-based and nested case-control study design, scalp EEGs and brain MRIs were performed in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who have imaging-confirmed NCC (case patients), as well ... Read more >>

J Clin Neurophysiol (Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society)
[2018, 35(4):332-338]

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Relevance of Surface Neuronal Protein Autoantibodies as Biomarkers in Seizure-Associated Disorders.

Gabriela Dumitrita Stanciu, Veronica Bild, Daniela Carmen Ababei, Razvan Nicolae Rusu, Sorin Ioan Beschea Chiriac, Elena Rezuş, Andrei Luca,

The detection of neuronal surface protein autoantibody-related disorders has contributed to several changes in our understanding of central nervous system autoimmunity. The clinical presentation of these disorders may be associated (or not) with tumors, and often patients develop an inexplicable onset of epilepsy, catatonic or autistic features, or memory and ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2019, 20(18):]

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Can Chaotic Analysis of Electroencephalogram Aid the Diagnosis of Encephalopathy?

Jisu Elsa Jacob, Ajith Cherian, K Gopakumar, Thomas Iype, Doris George Yohannan, K P Divya,

Chaotic analysis is a relatively novel area in the study of physiological signals. Chaotic features of electroencephalogram have been analyzed in various disease states like epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, sleep disorders, and depression. All these diseases have primary involvement of the brain. Our study examines the chaotic parameters in metabolic encephalopathy, ... Read more >>

Neurol Res Int (Neurology research international)
[2018, 2018:8192820]

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Diagnosis of Encephalopathy Based on Energies of EEG Subbands Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine.

Jisu Elsa Jacob, Gopakumar Kuttappan Nair, Thomas Iype, Ajith Cherian,

EEG analysis in the field of neurology is customarily done using frequency domain methods like fast Fourier transform. A complex biomedical signal such as EEG is best analysed using a time-frequency algorithm. Wavelet decomposition based analysis is a relatively novel area in EEG analysis and for extracting its subbands. This ... Read more >>

Neurol Res Int (Neurology research international)
[2018, 2018:1613456]

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Cefepime-Induced Encephalopathy and Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus: Dispelling an Artificial Dichotomy.

Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Matthew W Luedke,

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic known to have neurotoxic side effects. Recent reports have described patients on cefepime presenting with altered mentation and concurrent triphasic wave discharges on electroencephalogram (EEG). Some have described this clinical presentation as cefepime-induced encephalopathy, while others have termed it as cefepime-induced nonconvulsive status epilepticus ... Read more >>

Neurohospitalist (The Neurohospitalist)
[2019, 9(2):100-104]

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Ion channels in EEG: isolating channel dysfunction in NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis.

Mkael Symmonds, Catherine H Moran, M Isabel Leite, Camilla Buckley, Sarosh R Irani, Klaas Enno Stephan, Karl J Friston, Rosalyn J Moran,

See Roberts and Breakspear (doi:10.1093/brain/awy136) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neurological and psychiatric practice frequently lack diagnostic probes that can assess mechanisms of neuronal communication non-invasively in humans. In N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis, functional molecular assays are particularly important given the presence of NMDA antibodies in healthy populations, ... Read more >>

Brain (Brain : a journal of neurology)
[2018, 141(6):1691-1702]

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Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Cheri M John, Deepa E Mathew, Maysara Abdelaziz, Adel A H Mahmoud, Ali D AlOtaibi, Aman P S Sohal,

Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor) encephalitis is a potentially severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1 and NR2 subunits of the NMDAR. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a treatable cause of encephalitis. An underlying tumor should be actively looked for as this is also considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report ... Read more >>

J Pediatr Neurosci (Journal of pediatric neurosciences)
[2019, 14(4):180-185]

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Group B streptococcus meningitis complicated by periodic lateralising epileptiform discharges in an elderly patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nicholas Germano, Maria Gunnes Sibbel, Douglas Summerfield, Abbey Pitzenberger,

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus or GBS) is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, but is rarely the cause in adults. Across all non-pregnant adults it comprises 7% of bacterial meningitis cases, with a mortality rate of 56% in the elderly. Therefore, while rare, GBS should be ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ Case Reports)
[2019, 12(8):]

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Severe Cardiorespiratory and Neurologic Symptoms in a Neonate due to Mepivacaine Intoxication.

Maurike de Groot-van der Mooren, Sabine Quint, Ingmar Knobbe, Doug Cronie, Mirjam van Weissenbruch,

Local anesthesia with mepivacaine is used for vaginal deliveries and for minor surgeries of the vagina and perineum as repair of an episiotomy or perineal laceration. Neonatal intoxication caused by local anesthesia with mepivacaine for maternal episiotomy has been rarely reported. We present a case of a term female infant ... Read more >>

Case Rep Pediatr (Case reports in pediatrics)
[2019, 2019:4013564]

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Secondary Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Mimicking Meningioma.

Miguel Garcia-Grimshaw, Diego Posadas-Pinto, Jesus Delgado-de la Mora, Amado Jimenez-Ruiz,

Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors accounting for up to 30% of non-glial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS); on neuroimaging studies, they usually appear as a lobular, extra-axial mass with well-circumscribed margins mostly located in the parasagittal aspect of the cerebral convexity. On magnetic resonance imaging ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2019, 11(10):e5833]

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Differential phenotypic expression of a novel PDHA1 mutation in a female monozygotic twin pair.

Alejandro Horga, Catherine E Woodward, Alberto Mills, Isabel Pareés, Iain P Hargreaves, Ruth M Brown, Enrico Bugiardini, Tony Brooks, Andreea Manole, Elena Remzova, Shamima Rahman, Mary M Reilly, Henry Houlden, Mary G Sweeney, Garry K Brown, James M Polke, Federico Gago, Matthew J Parton, Robert D S Pitceathly, Michael G Hanna,

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency caused by mutations in the X-linked PDHA1 gene has a broad clinical presentation, and the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation has been proposed as a major factor contributing to its variable expressivity in heterozygous females. Here, we report the first set of monozygotic twin females with ... Read more >>

Hum. Genet. (Human genetics)
[2019, 138(11-12):1313-1322]

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Understanding Childhood Neuroimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Sara Matricardi, Giovanni Farello, Salvatore Savasta, Alberto Verrotti,

Immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood are a heterogeneous group of rare conditions sharing the inflammatory involvement of the CNS. This review highlights the growing knowledge of childhood neuroimmune diseases that primarily affect the CNS, outlining the clinical and diagnostic features, the pathobiological mechanisms and genetics, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2019, 7:511]

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Impact of therapeutic hypothermia on infantile spasms: an observational cohort study.

Farah Abu Dhais, Brian McNamara, Olivia O'Mahony, Niamh McSweeney, Vicki Livingstone, Deirdre M Murray, Geraldine B Boylan,

AIM:To establish the incidence of infantile spasms in children in the southern region of the Republic of Ireland and to compare the incidence of infantile spasms before and after the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHOD:Children born between 2003 and 2015 and diagnosed with infantile spasms (epileptic ... Read more >>

Dev Med Child Neurol (Developmental medicine and child neurology)
[2020, 62(1):62-68]

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A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

Alla Laila, Rania M El-Lababidi, Mohamed Hisham, Mohammad Mooty,

We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection that failed to improve with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); who responded with plasmapheresis. A 21- year- old female with an unremarkable medical history, initially presented to an outside hospital with fever and an influenza-like illness ... Read more >>

IDCases (IDCases)
[2018, 12:41-43]

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Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: Clinical range and outcome of a rare neurometabolic disease in a single-center.

Çiğdem Genç Sel, Mustafa Kılıç, Deniz Yüksel, Ayşe Aksoy, Çiğdem Seher Kasapkara, Serdar Ceylaner, Kader Karlı Oğuz,

BACKGROUND:Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive severe life-threatening catostrophic metabolic disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The present study was conducted in a tertiary reference center in Turkey for six years period. The accurate diagnosis of six NKH patients was based on clinical history of the patients, neurological examinations, seizure semiology, serial ... Read more >>

Brain Dev. (Brain & development)
[2018, 40(10):865-875]

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Neonatal Encephalopathy: Need for Recognition of Multiple Etiologies for Optimal Management.

Saima Aslam, Tammy Strickland, Eleanor J Molloy,

Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Factors predisposing to NE can be antenatal, perinatal, or a combination of both. Antenatal maternal factors, familial factors, genetic predisposition, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infections, placental abnormalities, thrombophilia, coagulation defects, and metabolic disorders all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in Pediatrics)
[2019, 7:142]

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