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Eastern Equine Encephalitis

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Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Irene Huber, Katerina Potapova, Elena Ammosova, Wolfgang Beyer, Sergey Blagodatskiy, Roman Desyatkin, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Margarita Ignateva, Ludmila Kokolova, Stefanie Lemke, Mikhail Neustroev, Ayan Nyukkanov, Galina Protodyakonova, Alexander Reshetnikov, Thomas Romig, Vyacheslav Shadrin, Izabella Samoilova, Sergey Semenov, Konstantin Stepanov, Nadezhda Tarabukina, Liliia Vinokurova, Raisa Zakharova, Konstantin Nifontov,

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems ... Read more >>

Int J Circumpolar Health (International journal of circumpolar health)
[2020, 79(1):1715698]

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Cases of Eastern equine encephalitis in humans associated with Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes with the virus in New York State from 1971 to 2012 by analysis of aggregated published data.

J A Sherwood, S V Stehman, J J Howard, J Oliver,

From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0.03) than with Culiseta morsitans, Aedes ... Read more >>

Epidemiol. Infect. (Epidemiology and infection)
[2020, 148:e72]

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Cryo-EM structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus in complex with heparan sulfate analogues.

Chun-Liang Chen, S Saif Hasan, Thomas Klose, Yingyuan Sun, Geeta Buda, Chengqun Sun, William B Klimstra, Michael G Rossmann,

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne icosahedral alphavirus found mainly in North America, causes human and equine neurotropic infections. EEEV neurovirulence is influenced by the interaction of the viral envelope protein E2 with heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans from the host's plasma membrane during virus entry. Here, we present a ... Read more >>

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2020, :]

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Eastern Equine Encephalitis Surveillance and Response, Rhode Island, 2019.

Daniela N Quilliam, Michael Gosciminski, Utpala Bandy,

R I Med J (2013) (Rhode Island medical journal (2013))
[2020, 103(3):68-70]

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Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States.

Joseph R McMillan, Philip M Armstrong, Theodore G Andreadis,

BACKGROUND:In the northeast United States (U.S.), mosquitoes transmit a number of arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, and West Nile that pose an annual threat to human and animal health. Local transmission of each arbovirus may be driven by the involvement of multiple mosquito species; however, the specificity of ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(2):e0008066]

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Notes from the Field: Multistate Outbreak of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus - United States, 2019.

Nicole P Lindsey, Stacey W Martin, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer,

MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report)
[2020, 69(2):50-51]

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Association of Human Eastern Equine Encephalitis With Precipitation Levels in Massachusetts.

Leonard A Mermel,

JAMA Netw Open (JAMA network open)
[2020, 3(1):e1920261]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Endemic and epidemic human alphavirus infections in Eastern Panama; An Analysis of Population-based Cross-Sectional Surveys

Jean-Paul Carrera, Zulma Cucunubá, Karen Neira, Ben Lambert, Yaneth Pittí, Carmela Jackman, Jesus Liscano, Jorge Garzón, Davis Beltran, Luisa Collado-Mariscal, Lisseth Saenz, Néstor Sosa, Luis Rodriguez-Guzman, Publio González, Andrés Lezcano, Reneé Pereyra-Elías, Anayansi Valderrama, Scott Weaver, Amy Vittor, Blas Armién, Juan-Miguel Pascale, Christl Donnelly,

Abstract Background Madariaga virus (MADV), has recently been associated with severe human disease in Panama, where the closely related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) also circulates. In June, 2017, a fatal MADV infection was confirmed in a community of Darien province. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional outbreak investigation with human ... Read more >>

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Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?

Sylvie Lecollinet, Stéphane Pronost, Muriel Coulpier, Cécile Beck, Gaelle Gonzalez, Agnès Leblond, Pierre Tritz,

Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Emerging Threats to Animals in the United Kingdom by Arthropod-Borne Diseases.

Arran J Folly, Daniel Dorey-Robinson, Luis M Hernández-Triana, L Paul Phipps, Nicholas Johnson,

Worldwide, arthropod-borne disease transmission represents one of the greatest threats to public and animal health. For the British Isles, an island group on the north-western coast of continental Europe consisting of the United Kingdom (UK) and the Republic of Ireland, physical separation offers a barrier to the introduction of many ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:20]

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Coding-Complete Genome Sequence of Yada Yada Virus, a Novel Alphavirus Detected in Australian Mosquitoes.

Jana Batovska, Jan P Buchmann, Edward C Holmes, Stacey E Lynch,

Here, we report the detection of a novel alphavirus in Australian mosquitoes, provisionally named Yada Yada virus (YYV). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that YYV belongs to the mosquito-specific alphavirus complex. The assembled genome is 11,612 nucleotides in length and encodes two open reading frames. ... Read more >>

Microbiol Resour Announc (Microbiology resource announcements)
[2020, 9(2):]

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Role of T Cells in Chikungunya Virus Infection and Utilizing Their Potential in Anti-Viral Immunity.

Chek Meng Poh, Yi-Hao Chan, Lisa F P Ng,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes hallmark debilitating polyarthralgia, fever, and rash in patients. T cell-mediated immunity, especially CD4+ T cells, are known to participate in the pathogenic role of CHIKV immunopathology. The other T cell subsets, notably CD8+, NKT, and gamma-delta (γδ) T cells, can also ... Read more >>

Front Immunol (Frontiers in Immunology)
[2020, 11:287]

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Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus - Another Emergent Arbovirus in the United States.

David M Morens, Gregory K Folkers, Anthony S Fauci,

N. Engl. J. Med. (The New England journal of medicine)
[2019, 381(21):1989-1992]

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2773. Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Vaccine.

Keshtkar-Jahromi Maryam, Ronald B Reisler, Bret K Purcell, Robert G Rivard, Anthony P Cardile, Dani Liggett, Sarah Norris, Phillip R Pitttman,

AbstractBackgroundEastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with a high mortality rate and serious neurological sequelae in infected persons making this virus an important human pathogen.MethodsFollowing written informed consent, eligible subjects received two priming doses of EEEV vaccine, inactivated, TSI-GSD 104, 0.5 mL subcutaneously on days 0 and 28 ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open forum infectious diseases)
[2019, 6(Suppl 2):S978-S979]

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Serological evidence of arboviruses and coccidia infecting horses in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

Fábio Alves Gomes, Ana Maria Jansen, Rosângela Zacarias Machado, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Angélica Silva, Bruna Farias Alves, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo,

BACKGROUND:Arboviruses and protozoans can cause neurologic disorders in horses. In Brazilian Amazon, several horses presenting signs compatible with disorders caused by these infectious agents have been observed. OBJECTIVE:To contribute to the knowledge of this epidemiological picture, we sought to construct a serological diagnostic panel for neurotrophic infectious agents in local ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(12):e0225895]

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Cooperativity between the 3' untranslated region microRNA binding sites is critical for the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

Derek W Trobaugh, Chengqun Sun, Nishank Bhalla, Christina L Gardner, Matthew D Dunn, William B Klimstra,

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne RNA virus, is one of the most acutely virulent viruses endemic to the Americas, causing between 30% and 70% mortality in symptomatic human cases. A major factor in the virulence of EEEV is the presence of four binding sites for the hematopoietic cell-specific ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(10):e1007867]

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Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations of the basal ganglia subsequent to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ayesha Kar, Evin L Guilliams, Joshua A Cuoco, Eric A Marvin,

Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations after intracranial aneurysm rupture has not been reported. Here, we describe a 52-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Imaging demonstrated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, which was treated ... Read more >>

Clin Pract (Clinics and practice)
[2019, 9(4):1187]

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Special Issue "Equine Viruses": Old "Friends" and New Foes?

Romain Paillot,

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million (FAOSTAT 2017).[...]. ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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Influence of climatic variables on the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Lucinéia Claudia De Toni Aquino da Cruz, Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães, Emerson Marques de Souza, Raquel da Silva Ferreira, Raphael de Souza Rosa Gomes, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko, Marina Atanaka,

INTRODUCTION:Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS:Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS:A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% ... Read more >>

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
[2020, 53:e20190185]

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Cerebral Organoid Models for Neurotropic Viruses.

Jenna Antonucci, Lee Gehrke,

Across zoonotic pathogens, RNA viruses are responsible for disproportionate levels of human disease, suffering, and death. Neurotropic RNA viruses (e.g., rabies, Japanese and Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Ebola, West Nile, Powassan) infect the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis, encephalitis, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Mechanistic data explaining the molecular mechanisms of ... Read more >>

ACS Infect Dis (ACS infectious diseases)
[2019, 5(12):1976-1979]

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First Detection of Madariaga virus in Mosquitoes Collected in a Wild Environment of Northeastern Argentina.

Ornela Sofia Stechina, Griselda Inés Oria, Carolina Torres, Luis Adrián Diaz, Marta Contigiani, Marina Stein,

Madariaga virus (MADV), previously known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus (SA EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), is a mosquito-borne virus associated mainly with equine disease. In 2010, the first human outbreak by MADV was reported in Central America, but the mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts involved in the ... Read more >>

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2019, 101(4):916-918]

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Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Regulatory T Cells in Neurotropic Virus Infections.

Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Andreas Beineke,

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(5):]

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Genome-Scale Phylogeny and Evolutionary Analysis of Ross River Virus Reveals Periodic Sweeps of Lineage Dominance in Western Australia, 1977-2014.

Alice Michie, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran, Michael D A Lindsay, Peter J Neville, Jay Nicholson, Andrew Jardine, John S Mackenzie, David W Smith, Allison Imrie,

Ross River virus (RRV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the most medically significant mosquito-borne virus of Australia. Past RRV phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have been based on partial genome analyses only. Three geographically distinct RRV lineages, the Eastern, the Western, and the supposedly extinct North-Eastern lineage, were classified ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(2):]

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Co-infection of Dirofilaria immitis and Japanese encephalitis virus in a spotted seal (Phoca largha) in the Republic of Korea.

Ji Youl Jung, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kyunghyun Lee, Jun Gu Choi, Yeon Hee Kim, Kyoung Ki Lee, Young Dae Kim, ByungJae So, Hae Eun Kang, Eun Jin Choi,

A 10-year-old male spotted seal presented with loss of appetite and decreased activity. Grossly, the internal organs revealed several filarial nematodes in the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary vessels. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with glial nodules and neuronophagia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) ... Read more >>

J. Vet. Sci. (Journal of veterinary science)
[2019, 20(6):e65]

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