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EEG in Dementia and Encephalopathy

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An enigmatic case of cortical anopsia: Antemortem diagnosis of a 14-3-3 negative Heidenhain-variant MM1-sCJD.

Julius Obergassel, Lisa Lohmann, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Wiendl, Oliver Grauer, Christopher Nelke,

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the predominant type of human prion disease. While routine diagnostic in phenotypic cases has advanced considerably, the clinical heterogeneity and rarity of subtypes continue to constitute a major clinical and diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a peculiar case of the Heidenhain-variant of MM1 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ... Read more >>

Prion (Prion)
[2020, 14(1):24-28]

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Prion Disease Biomarkers in Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

Franc Llorens, Anna Villar-Piqué, Peter Hermann, Matthias Schmitz, Olga Calero, Christiane Stehmann, Shannon Sarros, Fabio Moda, Isidre Ferrer, Anna Poleggi, Maurizio Pocchiari, Marcella Catania, Sigrid Klotz, Carl O'Regan, Francesca Brett, Josephine Heffernan, Anna Ladogana, Steven J Collins, Miguel Calero, Gabor G Kovacs, Inga Zerr,

Human prion diseases are classified into sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms. Within this last group, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) is caused by human-to-human transmission through surgical and medical procedures. After reaching an incidence peak in the 1990s, it is believed that the iCJD historical period is probably coming to an ... Read more >>

Biomolecules (Biomolecules)
[2020, 10(2):]

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Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity Presenting with Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Admitted as a Stroke Alert.

John M Cunningham, Katherine V Sachs, Rebecca Allyn,

BACKGROUND Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity has been described in intensive care units (ICUs) and neuro ICU settings, occurring in patients started on cefepime for management of severe infections and sepsis. Most cases occur within 1 to 10 days after starting the drug. We publish a case that occurred on the general medical ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e921643]

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Acute visual impairment as a main presenting symptom of non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report.

Yi Yang, Shunyuan Zhang, Jinfeng Duan, Xianwen Zhang, Yufeng Tang,

BACKGROUND:Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a state of ongoing seizure activity without convulsions. The heterogeneous and subtle clinical features of NCSE make diagnosis and treatment challenging. Here, we report a patient with NCSE who showed a main presenting symptom of acute visual impairment, which is a rare and atypical clinical ... Read more >>

BMC Neurol (BMC neurology)
[2020, 20(1):51]

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Wallerian degeneration of bilateral cerebral peduncles after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

Sui-Yi Xu, Chang-Xin Li, Le-Yi Li, Yu Song, Yi Sui,

BACKGROUND:Cases of Wallerian degeneration of bilateral cerebral peduncles after acute carbon monoxide poisoning have not yet been reported. To date, most of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) lesions captured in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been located in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Here ... Read more >>

BMC Neurol (BMC neurology)
[2020, 20(1):96]

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A probable role of copper in the comorbidity in Wilson's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's Diseases: a case report.

Effrosyni Koutsouraki, Dimitrios Michmizos, Olga Patsi, John Tzartos, Martha Spilioti, Marianthi Arnaoutoglou, Magda Tsolaki,

BACKGROUND:To the best of our knowledgedd, there is currently no case in the literature reporting the comorbidity of Wilson's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), linked through copper. CASE PRESENTATION:A 44-year-old male with a history of inherited Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration), which manifested as mild liver injury and psychiatric symptoms, was admitted ... Read more >>

Virol. J. (Virology journal)
[2020, 17(1):35]

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High Diagnostic Accuracy of RT-QuIC Assay in a Prospective Study of Patients with Suspected sCJD.

Michele Fiorini, Giorgia Iselle, Daniela Perra, Matilde Bongianni, Stefano Capaldi, Luca Sacchetto, Sergio Ferrari, Aldo Mombello, Sarah Vascellari, Silvia Testi, Salvatore Monaco, Gianluigi Zanusso,

The early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is essential in order to differentiate CJD from treatable rapidly progressive dementias. Diagnostic investigations supportive of clinical CJD diagnosis include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), 14-3-3 protein detection, and/or real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay positivity in the ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(3):]

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Deep Learning in Physiological Signal Data: A Survey.

Beanbonyka Rim, Nak-Jun Sung, Sedong Min, Min Hong,

Deep Learning (DL), a successful promising approach for discriminative and generative tasks, has recently proved its high potential in 2D medical imaging analysis; however, physiological data in the form of 1D signals have yet to be beneficially exploited from this novel approach to fulfil the desired medical tasks. Therefore, in ... Read more >>

Sensors (Basel) (Sensors (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 20(4):]

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Lack of a Sense of Threat and Higher Emotional Lability in Patients With Chronic Microvascular Ischemia as Measured by Non-linear EEG Parameters.

Galina V. Portnova,

We aimed to investigate the non-linear features of the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in patients with chronic microvascular ischemia (CMI) in order to determine the brain correlates of emotional impairment that could impact the risk of developing acute ischemia. We compared the EEG responses of patients with CMI and age-matched healthy ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in Neurology)
[2020, 11:]

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Gyriform restricted diffusion in adults: looking beyond thrombo-occlusions.

Vivek Pai, Yih Yian Sitoh, Bela Purohit,

Gyriform restricted diffusion (GRD) refers to hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) with corresponding hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. These changes are commonly seen following a vascular occlusion, reflecting the limitation of water molecule movement across cell membranes (restricted diffusion) due to the failure ... Read more >>

Insights Imaging (Insights into imaging)
[2020, 11(1):20]

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Novel CDKL5 mutations were found in patients in China: retrospective investigation in cases of CDKL5-related disorders.

Yumei Yan, Dake He, Jing Wu, Ruolin Hou, Kun Sun, Ling Li,

OBJECTIVE:CDKL5-related disorders (CDD) is an epileptic encephalopathy resulted of gene mutations of CDKL5. This study aimed to explore the development process of CDD and to expand its mutation spectrum. METHODS:Clinic datawas collected about three infantile epileptic encephalopathy cases diagnosed at Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine. ... Read more >>

Ital J Pediatr (Italian journal of pediatrics)
[2020, 46(1):27]

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Animal models of transient ischemic attack: a review.

Jiahui Wang, Ping Zhang, Zhouping Tang,

Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is defined as a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal cerebral ischemia. TIA is a critical early warning signal of stroke. Patients with TIA may have long-term cognitive decline. The pathogenesis and pathological changes of TIA have not been fully elucidated. Animal models can ... Read more >>

Acta Neurol Belg (Acta neurologica Belgica)
[2020, 120(2):267-275]

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The first reported case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from Nepal.

Himal Kharel, Pabitra Adhikari, Nishan B Pokhrel, Zeni Kharel, Gaurav Nepal,

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can also be diagnosed in a resource-limited setting through good clinical analysis. The diagnosis of CJD should be considered in patients with rapidly evolving neurological signs associated with cognitive disturbances even in countries with limited available sophisticated tools and where CJD was never reported before. ... Read more >>

Clin Case Rep (Clinical case reports)
[2020, 8(1):198-202]

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Status Epilepticus Manifested as Continuous Epileptic Spasms.

Jianxiang Liao, Tieshuan Huang, Myriam Srour, Yuhan Xiao, Yan Chen, Sufang Lin, Li Chen, Yan Hu, Lina Men, Jialun Wen, Bing Li, Feiqiu Wen, Lan Xiong,

Objective: The etiology and outcome of status epilepticus with continuous epileptic spasms have not been fully understood; and only rare cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we described 11 children, who manifested continuous epileptic spasms with various etiologies and different outcomes. Methods: This is a case series study ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:65]

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Principles of Electrophysiological Assessments for Movement Disorders.

Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen, Robert Chen,

Electrophysiological studies can provide objective and quantifiable assessments of movement disorders. They are useful in the diagnosis of hyperkinetic movement disorders, particularly tremors and myoclonus. The most commonly used measures are surface electromyography (sEMG), electroencephalography (EEG) and accelerometry. Frequency and coherence analyses of sEMG signals may reveal the nature of ... Read more >>

J Mov Disord (Journal of movement disorders)
[2020, 13(1):27-38]

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MELAS Missed for Years: Stroke-Like Lesions Are No Indication for Brain Biopsy.

J Finsterer,

A 56-year-old female with a history of chronic alcoholism until age 38 y with a relapse between ages 45 and 46 y developed seizures, psychosis, and hemianopia to the left at age 46 y. Imaging revealed a right parieto-occipital lesion with intralesional bleeding. Five months after the first lesion she developed a second ... Read more >>

Case Rep Neurol Med (Case reports in neurological medicine)
[2019, 2019:9312451]

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Seizures in Mouse Models of Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Merrick S Fallah, James H Eubanks,

Genetic neurodevelopmental disorders - that often include epilepsy as part of their phenotype - are a heterogeneous and clinically challenging spectrum of disorders in children. Although seizures often contribute significantly to morbidity in these affected populations, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in these conditions remain poorly understood. Different model systems have ... Read more >>

Neuroscience (Neuroscience)
[2020, :]

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Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Alzheimer's Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

Tatsushi Mutoh, Kaoru Eguchi, Shuzo Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Yasui, Yasuyuki Taki,

BACKGROUND The diagnosis of early non-convulsant status epilepticus (NCSE) can be challenging and can overlap with other critical conditions. Two patients with Alzheimer's disease are reported with clinically suspected NCSE presenting in the emergency setting who were diagnosed using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) sequences. CASE REPORT In Case ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2019, 20:1883-1887]

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Paraneoplastic Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Jonathan Galli, John Greenlee,

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are nonmetastatic complications of malignancy secondary to immune-mediated neuronal dysfunction or death. Pathogenesis may occur from cell surface binding of antineuronal antibodies leading to dysfunction of the target protein, or from antibodies binding against intracellular antigens which ultimately leads to cell death. There are several classical neurological ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Dielectric Constant and Conductivity of Blood Plasma: Possible Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease.

Ernest Dallé, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels,

Alzheimer's disease is a complex debilitating neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure. The lack of reliable biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease has made the evaluation of the efficacy of new treatments difficult and reliant on only clinical symptoms. In an aged population where cognitive function may be deteriorating for ... Read more >>

Oxid Med Cell Longev (Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity)
[2020, 2020:5756382]

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Anesthesia and Cognitive Outcome in Elderly Patients: A Narrative Viewpoint.

James E Cottrell, John Hartung,

Better ways to manage preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care of surgical patients is the bailiwick of anesthesiologists. Although we care for patients of all ages, protecting the cognitive capacity of elderly patients more frequently requires procedures and practices that go beyond routine care for nonelderly adults. This narrative review will ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol (Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology)
[2020, 32(1):9-17]

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Familial CJD- A Brief Commentary.

Satish Chandra, Anita Mahadevan, S K Shankar,

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2019, 22(4):462-463]

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Diagnostic challenge of rapidly progressing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Gi Tae Kwon, Min Sung Kwon,

Antemortem assessment of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) can be significantly hampered due to its rarity, low index of clinical suspicion and its non-specific clinical features. We present an atypical case of definitive sCJD. The patient died within 5 weeks of the disease onset. This unusually short duration of disease presented a ... Read more >>

BMJ Case Rep (BMJ Case Reports)
[2019, 12(9):]

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Clinical Laboratory Tests Used To Aid in Diagnosis of Human Prion Disease.

Allyson Connor, Han Wang, Brian S Appleby, Daniel D Rhoads,

Prion diseases are a group of rapidly progressive and always fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by misfolded prion protein in the brain. Although autopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool, antemortem laboratory testing can be performed to aid in the diagnosis of prion disease. This review is meant to help laboratory directors ... Read more >>

J. Clin. Microbiol. (Journal of clinical microbiology)
[2019, 57(10):]

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Memory and Cognition-Related Neuroplasticity Enhancement by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Rodents: A Systematic Review.

Carla Cavaleiro, João Martins, Joana Gonçalves, Miguel Castelo-Branco,

Brain stimulation techniques, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), were identified as promising therapeutic tools to modulate synaptic plasticity abnormalities and minimize memory and learning deficits in many neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we revised the effect of tDCS on the modulation of neuroplasticity and cognition in several animal disease models of ... Read more >>

Neural Plast. (Neural Plasticity)
[2020, 2020:4795267]

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