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HIV incidence and compliance with deferral criteria over three progressively shorter time deferrals for men who have sex with men in Canada.

Niamh Caffrey, Mindy Goldman, Lori Osmond, Qi-Long Yi, Wenli Fan, Sheila F O'Brien,

In Canada, the deferral for men who have sex with men (MSM) has been progressively reduced from a permanent deferral for MSM since 1977, to 5 years, 1 year, and, most recently, 3 months. We estimated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) residual risk and compliance with the MSM time deferral after each change. Four ... Read more >>

Transfusion (Transfusion)
[2021, :]

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Source plasma deferral trends: A 3-year analysis of 255 centers in the United States.

Amy E Schmidt, Jaime MacKercher, Barbara Youngling, Toby L Simon,

<h4>Background</h4>Plasma contains many important proteins of therapeutic interest including albumin, clotting factors, and antibodies. Source plasma (SP) is in great demand particularly due to a shortage of immunoglobulin. To better understand how to increase supply, we examined SP donor deferrals for the previous 3 years.<h4>Study design</h4>This is a description of donor ... Read more >>

J Clin Apher (Journal of clinical apheresis)
[2021, :]

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EXPRESS: A meta-analysis of the effects of episodic future thinking on delay discounting.

Jun-Yan Ye, Qing-Yu Ding, Ji-Fang Cui, Zhe Liu, Lu-Xia Jia, Xiao-Jing Qin, Hua Xu, Ya Wang,

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon in which the subjective value of future rewards is reduced over time. There are individual differences in the DD rate, and increased discounting has been observed in those with various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the act of vividly imagining events ... Read more >>

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) (Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006))
[2021, :17470218211066282]

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Effects of immediate-reinforcement training on delay discounting behavior in rats.

Adam E Fox,

Chronic exposure to delayed reinforcement has been shown to increase choice for larger, later reinforcement in a subsequent delay discounting task. In the 3 experiments presented in this paper, the opposite was tested: effects of chronic exposure to immediate reinforcement on choice in a subsequent delay discounting task. In Experiment ... Read more >>

J Exp Anal Behav (Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior)
[2021, :]

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Delay discounting in suicidal behavior: Myopic preference or inconsistent valuation?

Aliona Tsypes, Katalin Szanto, Jeffrey A Bridge, Vanessa M Brown, John G Keilp, Alexandre Y Dombrovski,

Prior studies sought to explain the predisposition to suicidal behavior in terms of myopic preference for immediate versus delayed reward, generating mixed evidence. Data from gambling and bandit tasks, however, suggest that suboptimal decisions in suicidal individuals are explained by inconsistent valuation rather than myopic preferences. We tested these two ... Read more >>

J Abnorm Psychol (Journal of abnormal psychology)
[2021, :]

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The effect of COVID-19-induced mortality salience on delay discounting: a replication

Fatih Sonmez,

This study is a conceptual replication of Kelley & Schmeichel (PLOS ONE 10: e0144228, 2015), which found that thinking about death reduces delay discounting. Unlike the original study, the current study was conducted in an environment where there was a real and tangible mortality threat across the world, that is, ... Read more >>

(Journal of the Economic Science Association : Duplicate, marked for deletion)
[2021, :1-8]

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Imagining the Future: Future Imagination Training Decreases Delay Discounting Among Internet Addicts and Non-Problematic Users.

Hongxia Li,

To test whether future imagination can reduce the delay discounting rate of the Internet addicts, we recruited 40 Internet addicts (treatment sample) and 39 non-problematic users (control sample). We used a 2 (participant type: individuals with Internet addiction vs. non-problematic users) × 2 (training type: future event imagination training vs. ... Read more >>

Front Psychol (Frontiers in psychology)
[2021, 12:731708]

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Reward-Related Decision-Making in Current and Past Disordered Gambling: Implications for Impulsive Choice and Risk Preference in the Maintenance of Gambling Disorder.

Magdalen G Schluter, David C Hodgins,

Impulsive reward-related decision-making (RRDM) is robustly associated with gambling disorder (GD), although its role in the development and perpetuation of GD is still being investigated. This project sought to examine the possible roles of impulsive and risky choice, two aspects of RRDM, in the perpetuation of GD. Additionally, the potential ... Read more >>

Front Behav Neurosci (Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience)
[2021, 15:758329]

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The sooner the better: clinical and neural correlates of impulsive choice in Tourette disorder.

Cyril Atkinson-Clement, Astrid de Liege, Yanica Klein, Benoit Beranger, Romain Valabregue, Cecile Delorme, Emmanuel Roze, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Andreas Hartmann, Trevor W Robbins, Yulia Worbe,

Reward sensitivity has been suggested as one of the central pathophysiological mechanisms in Tourette disorder. However, the subjective valuation of a reward by introduction of delay has received little attention in Tourette disorder, even though it has been suggested as a trans-diagnostic feature of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to ... Read more >>

Transl Psychiatry (Translational psychiatry)
[2021, 11(1):560]

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The effects of cueing episodic future thinking on delay discounting in children, adolescents, and adults.

Patrick Burns, Cristina Atance, A Patrick O'Connor, Teresa McCormack,

Discounting the value of delayed rewards such that even a relatively small, immediately available reward is preferred to a larger delayed reward is a commonly observed human trait. Children are particularly steep discounters of delayed rewards as evidenced by delay of gratification studies. In recent years, however, a growing literature ... Read more >>

Cognition (Cognition)
[2022, 218:104934]

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Choice bundling, unpacked: Observed and predicted effects on intertemporal choice in an additive model of hyperbolic delay discounting.

Jeffrey S Stein, Gregory J Madden,

One method known to increase preference for larger, later rewards (LLRs) over smaller, sooner rewards (SSRs) is choice bundling, in which a single choice produces a series of repeating consequences over time. The present study examined whether effects of choice bundling on preference for LLRs: (1) increase with the number ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2021, 16(11):e0259830]

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Age-related effects in delay discounting for food.

Yaeeun Joy Lee, Erin B Rasmussen,

Developmental influences of growth, such as hormones and metabolic factors, increase food intake and weight across the lifespan. Delay discounting (DD), a choice procedure that characterizes preferences for immediate rewards, such as food, over larger, more delayed ones may be useful in understanding developmental and metabolic changes in decision making ... Read more >>

Appetite (Appetite)
[2021, :105783]

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Additive roles of tobacco and cannabis co-use in relation to delay discounting in a sample of heavy drinkers.

Steven J Nieto, Alexandra Venegas, Elizabeth M Burnette, James MacKillop, Lara A Ray,

<h4>Rationale</h4>Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with steeper delay discounting rates; however, it is unknown whether substance co-use, particularly cannabis use, has an additive effect on discounting rates among heavy drinkers. Furthermore, it is unclear whether substance co-use and delay discounting are independently associated with AUD severity.<h4>Objectives</h4>The purpose of this ... Read more >>

Psychopharmacology (Berl) (Psychopharmacology)
[2021, :]

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Increased Prevalence of Neuropsychiatric Disorders during COVID-19 Pandemic in People Needing a Non-Deferrable Neurological Evaluation

Giacomo Tondo, Davide Aprile, Fabiana Tesser, Cristoforo Comi,

Background: The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak provoked a profound healthcare system reorganization. This study aimed to compare the reasons for requesting a non-deferrable neurological evaluation before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the lockdown. Methods: Retrospective observational study including non-deferrable neurological outpatients before the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 group, n ... Read more >>

J Clin Med (Journal of clinical medicine)
[2021, 10(21):]

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Donor Screening and Deferral.

Lisa Rosochacki, Jaleah Hawkins,

The maintenance of an adequate and safe blood supply begins with choosing the right donor at the right time. The evolution of donor screening has been shaped by experience, donor satisfaction, and the ever-challenging emergence of relevant infectious diseases. Screening donors has been standardized over the past 6 decades to ... Read more >>

Clin Lab Med (Clinics in laboratory medicine)
[2021, 41(4):563-577]

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The neural basis of delayed gratification.

Zilong Gao, Hanqing Wang, Chen Lu, Tiezhan Lu, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Ming Chen, Xiao-Jing Wang, Ji Hu, Wenzhi Sun,

[Figure: see text]. ... Read more >>

Sci Adv (Science advances)
[2021, 7(49):eabg6611]

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Impulsivity and neural mechanisms that mediate preference for immediate food rewards in people with vs without excess weight.

Xing Liu, Ofir Turel, Zhibing Xiao, Jinbo He, Qinghua He,

People with excess weight (overweight or obese; body mass index [BMI]>25) are generally characterized as impulsive with regards to food. However, the underlying brain mechanisms of this impulsivity are not fully understood. As such, this study aims at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying impulsivity toward food rewards, as well as ... Read more >>

Appetite (Appetite)
[2021, :105798]

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Financial accounting for deferred taxes: a systematic review of empirical evidence

Anna Görlitz, Michael Dobler,

Deferred taxes—resulting from differences between financial and tax accounts—have been a long-standing, contentious issue in financial accounting regulation, practice, and research. Debates on concepts and standards have been accompanied by doubts around whether and the extent to which deferred taxes provide relevant information for financial statement users and are employed ... Read more >>

(Management Review Quarterly)
[2021, :1-53]

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Tailored Cigarette Warning Messages: How Individualized Loss Aversion and Delay Discounting Rates Can Influence Perceived Message Effectiveness.

Hollie L Tripp, Justin C Strickland, Melissa Mercincavage, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Eric C Donny, Andrew A Strasser,

Current text-only cigarette warning labels (long-term, loss-framed messages) may not motivate positive changes in smoking behavior. The current project was a cross-sectional study examining the effects of tailored cigarette warnings on perceived message effectiveness (PME) in adult smokers (<i>n</i> = 512) conducted using Amazon Mechanical Turk (M-Turk) in January-February 2020. ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2021, 18(19):]

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The Effect of Delay Duration on Delay Discounting across Adulthood.

Shelby Leverett, Christopher Garza, Kendra Seaman,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Literature about the relationship between age and delay discounting, or the willingness to wait for delayed rewards, is mixed. We posit that some of this heterogeneity may be attributable to inconsistent delay durations across studies. Here we investigate how delay duration influences discounting across adulthood by systematically varying the duration ... Read more >>

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci (The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences)
[2021, :]

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Increased Prevalence of Neuropsychiatric Disorders during COVID-19 Pandemic in People Needing a Non-Deferrable Neurological Evaluation.

Giacomo Tondo, Davide Aprile, Fabiana Tesser, Cristoforo Comi,

<h4>Background</h4>The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak provoked a profound healthcare system reorganization. This study aimed to compare the reasons for requesting a non-deferrable neurological evaluation before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the lockdown.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective observational study including non-deferrable neurological outpatients before the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 group, <i>n</i> = 223) and ... Read more >>

J Clin Med (Journal of clinical medicine)
[2021, 10(21):]

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Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and growth in adolescent substance use: The mediating role of delay discounting.

Julia W Felton, Anahí Collado, Morgan Cinader, Carl W Lejuez, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Richard Yi,

Maternal depression is associated with instability within the family environment and increases in offspring substance use across adolescence. Rates of delay discounting, or the tendency to select smaller rewards that are immediately available relative to larger, but delayed rewards, are also associated with steeper increases in substance use among youth. ... Read more >>

Dev Psychopathol (Development and psychopathology)
[2021, 33(4):1279-1289]

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Music-induced emotions influence intertemporal decision making.

Linshu Zhou, Yufang Yang, Shu Li,

People tend to choose smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. This phenomenon is thought to be associated with emotional engagement. However, few studies have demonstrated the real-time impact of incidental emotions on intertemporal choices. This research investigated the effects of music-induced incidental emotions on intertemporal choices, during which happy ... Read more >>

Cogn Emot (Cognition & emotion)
[2021, :1-19]

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Visits to general practitioners after iron-related deferrals from blood donation in middle-aged and older Australian blood donors.

Surendra Karki, Tanya E Davison, Bette Liu, Katy Bell, John K Olynyk, Andrew Hayen, David O Irving,

<h4>Background</h4>Australian Red Cross Lifeblood (Lifeblood) advises donors to visit their general practitioner (GP) for medical follow-up if they are deferred from donating due to having a lower than acceptable level of hemoglobin (Hb) and/or serum ferritin (iron-related deferrals).<h4>Methods</h4>We used the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study data linked to Lifeblood's ... Read more >>

Transfusion (Transfusion)
[2021, :]

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[Deferred prostatectomy after active surveillance-results from a single center].

Zaid Al-Kailani, Johannes Linxweiler, Stefan Siemer, Michael Stöckle, Matthias Saar,

<h4>Background</h4>Follow-up during Active Surveillance (AS) may result in psychological burden and discomfort due to the constant clinical monitoring. Therefore, successful implementation of AS is to some extent a challenge for the patient and the caregiver.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>In this monocentric study, we analyzed the reasons for termination of AS and the rate ... Read more >>

Urologe A (Der Urologe. Ausg. A)
[2021, :]

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