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Cryptococcosis

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Phosphonamidates are the first phosphorus-based zinc binding motif to show inhibition of β-class carbonic anhydrases from bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.

Siham A Alissa, Hanan A Alghulikah, Zeid A Alothman, Sameh M Osman, Sonia Del Prete, Clemente Capasso, Alessio Nocentini, Claudiu T Supuran,

A primary strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance is the identification of novel therapeutic targets and anti-infectives with alternative mechanisms of action. The inhibition of the metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and protozoa) was shown to produce an impairment of the microorganism growth and virulence. As ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):59-64]

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Cryptococcosis in pregnancy and the postpartum period: Case series and systematic review with recommendations for management.

Katelyn A Pastick, Elizabeth Nalintya, Lillian Tugume, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Nicole Stephens, Emily E Evans, Jane Frances Ndyetukira, Edwin Nuwagira, Caleb Skipper, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware, Radha Rajasingham,

Cryptococcal meningitis causes 15% of AIDS-related deaths. Optimal management and clinical outcomes of pregnant women with cryptococcosis are limited to case reports, as pregnant women are often excluded from research. Amongst pregnant women with asymptomatic cryptococcosis, no treatment guidelines exist. We prospectively identified HIV-infected women who were pregnant or recently ... Read more >>

Med. Mycol. (Medical mycology)
[2020, 58(3):282-292]

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Tuberculosis in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis is Associated with an Increased Risk of Death.

Morris K Rutakingirwa, Fiona V Cresswell, Richard Kwizera, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Enock Kagimu, Edwin Nuwagira, Lillian Tugume, Edward Mpoza, Joanna Dobbin, Darlisha A Williams, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Kathy H Hullsiek, Joshua Rhein,

Tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal meningitis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in advanced HIV disease. Data are limited on TB co-infection among individuals with cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a retrospective analysis of HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis from 2010-2017. Baseline demographics were compared between three groups: 'prevalent TB' if ... Read more >>

J Clin Med (Journal of clinical medicine)
[2020, 9(3):]

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Pharmacokinetics of flucytosine in a critically ill patient on continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration.

Rebecca A Greene, Kathleen K Adams, Ralph D Rogers, Christine Berard-Collins, Michael P Lorenzo,

PURPOSE:To describe the pharmacokinetics of flucytosine in a critically ill patient undergoing continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) treated for cryptococcal meningitis. SUMMARY:A 20-year-old female weighing 93.4 kg with a body mass index of 34.3 kg/m2 with a past medical history of systemic lupus erythematous with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (class IV) ... Read more >>

Am J Health Syst Pharm (American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)
[2020, 77(8):609-613]

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MiR-4792 regulates inflammatory responses in Cryptococcus neoformans infected microglia

Jianghan Chen, Guotai Yao, Xiaoli Wang, Qing Hou, Rui Gao, Yilin Wang, Liang Teng, Wenting Lin, Yan Wang, Zhongzhi Wang, Yi Jin,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Investigating the factors that influence inflammatory response of microglial cells is important to understand the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). MicroRNA (miRNA) have been shown to play an important role in inducing host defenses and activating immune response in the process of microbial infection; however, ... Read more >>

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Decreasing fluconazole susceptibility of clinical South African Cryptococcus neoformans isolates over a decade.

Serisha D Naicker, Ruth S Mpembe, Tsidiso G Maphanga, Thokozile G Zulu, Daniel Desanto, Jeannette Wadula, Nomonde Mvelase, Caroline Maluleka, Kessendri Reddy, Halima Dawood, Motlatji Maloba, Nelesh P Govender, ,

BACKGROUND:Fluconazole is used in combination with amphotericin B for induction treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and as monotherapy for consolidation and maintenance treatment. More than 90% of isolates from first episodes of cryptococcal disease had a fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤4 μg/ml in a Gauteng population-based surveillance study of Cryptococcus ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(3):e0008137]

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Pulmonary Cryptococcosis Accidentally Detected by 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT in a Patient With Multiple Myeloma.

Qingqing Pan, Yaping Luo, Xinxin Cao, Jian Li, Fang Li,

Ga-pentixafor PET/CT in a 66-year-old woman with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma showed extensive disease in bone and bone marrow. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient was in complete remission but complained of fever and coughing. Follow-up Ga-pentixafor PET/CT showed significantly reduced uptake in bone and bone marrow, consistent with ... Read more >>

Clin Nucl Med (Clinical nuclear medicine)
[2020, :]

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Efficacy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta-d-Glucan Diagnostic Testing for Fungal Meningitis: a Systematic Review.

Christian Davis, L Joseph Wheat, Thein Myint, David R Boulware, Nathan C Bahr,

Several case reports and cohort studies have examined the use of (1,3)-beta-d-glucan measurement with cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose fungal meningitis. This systematic review aims to characterize the evidence regarding cerebrospinal fluid (1,3)-beta-d-glucan measurement to detect fungal meningitis. We searched PubMed for (1,3)-beta-d-glucan and each of several distinct fungi, cerebrospinal fluid, ... Read more >>

J. Clin. Microbiol. (Journal of clinical microbiology)
[2020, 58(4):]

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Cost-effectiveness of reflex laboratory-based cryptococcal antigen screening for the prevention and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Botswana

Mark Tenforde, Charles Muthoga, Andrew Callaghan, Ponego Ponatshego, Julia Ngidi, Madisa Mine, Alexander Jordan, Tom Chiller, Bruce Larson, Joseph Jarvis,

Background: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening for antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults with advanced HIV/AIDS can reduce the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and all-cause mortality. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of laboratory-based “reflex” CrAg screening for ART-naïve CrAg-positive patients with CD4<100 cells/µL (those currently targeted in guidelines) and ART-experienced CrAg-positive patients with ... Read more >>

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A case report of cryptococcal meningitis associated with ruxolitinib.

Daisuke Tsukui, Hiroaki Fujita, Keisuke Suzuki, Koichi Hirata,

We herein report a 76-year-old Japanese man with myelofibrosis who developed cryptococcal meningitis. After treatment for 5 months with ruxolitinib, the patient presented with fever and disturbance of consciousness. Marked nuchal stiffness was noted. The magnetic resonance imaging results of the brain were normal. Lumbar puncture showed an opening cerebrospinal ... Read more >>

Medicine (Baltimore) (Medicine)
[2020, 99(13):e19587]

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Clinical characteristics of HIV-negativepatients with cryptococcemia in a Chinese tertiary-care hospital: 
A 10-year study

Liang-an Chen, Liling Liang, Zhixin Liang,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Objective: Cryptococcosis is a severe opportunistic fungal infection. Cryptococcemia is a rare manifestation of cryptococcosis with high mortality. Objective: To characterize patients with cryptococcemia in Chinese PLA General Hospital since 2010 to 2019.Methods: We identified retrospectively those blood cultures with Cryptococcus sp. growth, and then obtained ... Read more >>

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Clinical impact of advance chronic kidney disease in patients with non-HIV pulmonary cryptococcosis

Hiroki Tashiro, Tetsuro Haraguchi, Koichiro Takahashi, Hironori Sadamatsu, Ryo Tajiri, Ayako Takamori, Shinya Kimura, Naoko Aragane,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an uncommon infectious disease that can develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was reported to be one of the risk factors for pulmonary cryptococcosis, but its clinical characteristics have not been fully assessed. The purpose ... Read more >>

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Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient.

Rahul Bollam, Mohamed Yassin, Tung Phan,

Cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic infection. It is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients. The primary organ affected is the lungs, but infection of the central nervous system and other organ systems are also seen. Here we reported a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in ... Read more >>

Respir Med Case Rep (Respiratory medicine case reports)
[2020, 30:101034]

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Assessing the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans causing meningitis in HIV infected and uninfected patients in Vietnam.

Lam Tuan Thanh, Dena L Toffaletti, Jennifer L Tenor, Charles Giamberardino, Gregory D Sempowski, Yohannes Asfaw, Hai Trieu Phan, Anh Van Duong, Nguyen Mai Trinh, Guy E Thwaites, Philip M Ashton, Nguyen Va Vinh Chau, Stephen G Baker, John R Perfect, Jeremy N Day,

We previously observed a substantial burden of cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam atypically arising in individuals who are uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This disease was associated with a single genotype of Cryptococcus neoformans (sequence type [ST]5), which was significantly less common in HIV-infected individuals. Aiming to compare the phenotypic ... Read more >>

Med. Mycol. (Medical mycology)
[2020, :]

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Cryptococcal antigenemia and its predictors among HIV infected patients in resource limited settings: a systematic review

Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Tamrat Abebe,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects people with advanced HIV/AIDS and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. By far the most common presentation of the disease is cryptococcal meningitis (CM), which leads to an estimated 15-20% of ... Read more >>

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Human IgM Inhibits the Formation of Titan-Like Cells in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Kaila M Pianalto, Connie B Nichols, Oscar Zaragoza, J Andrew Alspaugh, Liise-Anne Pirofski,

Human studies have shown associations between cryptococcal meningitis and reduced IgM memory B cell levels, and studies in IgM- and/or B cell-deficient mice have demonstrated increased Cryptococcus neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain. Since immunoglobulins are part of the immune milieu that C. neoformans confronts in a human host, and ... Read more >>

Infect. Immun. (Infection and immunity)
[2020, 88(4):]

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What is AIDS in the Amazon and the Guianas in the 90-90-90 era?

Mathieu Nacher, Antoine Adenis, Basma Guarmit, Aude Lucarelli, Denis Blanchet, Magalie Demar, Felix Djossou, Philippe Abboud, Loïc Epelboin, Pierre Couppié,

Introduction In the past decade, new diagnostic methods and strategies have appeared, HIV testing efforts and the generalization of antiretroviral therapy may have influenced the number of opportunistic diagnoses and mortality of HIV-infected patients. To test this hypothesis we compiled data on the top opportunistic infections and causes of early ... Read more >>

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B Cell Compartmentalization in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid of HIV-Infected Ugandans with Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Samuel Okurut, David B Meya, Freddie Bwanga, Joseph Olobo, Michael A Eller, Fatim Cham-Jallow, Paul R Bohjanen, Harsh Pratap, Brent E Palmer, Katharine H Hullsiek, Yukari C Manabe, David R Boulware, Edward N Janoff,

Activated B cells modulate infection by differentiating into pathogen-specific antibody-producing effector plasmablasts/plasma cells, memory cells, and immune regulatory B cells. In this context, the B cell phenotypes that infiltrate the central nervous system during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cryptococcal meningitis coinfection are ill defined. We characterized clinical parameters, mortality, ... Read more >>

Infect. Immun. (Infection and immunity)
[2020, 88(3):]

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Current burden of serious fungal infections in Republic of Congo.

Fructueux M Amona, David W Denning, Donatien Moukassa, Christophe Hennequin,

BACKGROUND:The Republic of Congo (RoC) is characterized by a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, which largely drive the epidemiology of serious fungal infections. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to estimate the current burden of serious fungal infections in RoC. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Using local, regional, or global data and estimates of population and ... Read more >>

Mycoses (Mycoses)
[2020, :]

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Time to embrace access programmes for medicines: Lessons from the South African flucytosine access programme.

Amir Shroufi, Nelesh P Govender, Graeme Meintjes, John Black, Jeremy Nel, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Colin Menezes, Halima Dawood, Douglas Wilson, Laura Trivino Duran, Olawale Ajose, Richard A Murphy, Thomas Harrison, Angela Loyse, Carol Ruffell, Gilles Van Cutsem,

BACKGROUND:Cryptococcal Meningitis (CM) is estimated to cause 181,000 deaths annually; with the majority occurring in Sub Saharan Africa. Flucytosine is recommended by the World Health Organization as part of the treatment for CM. Widespread use of flucytosine could reduce mortality in hospital by as much as 40% compared to the ... Read more >>

Int. J. Infect. Dis. (International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases)
[2020, :]

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Triple infection with Cryptococcus, varicella-zoster virus, and Mycobacterium abscessus in a patient with anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies: a case report.

Pongprueth Rujirachun, Jirath Sangwongwanich, Methee Chayakulkeeree,

BACKGROUND:The most common infection in patients positive for anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies (anti-IFN-γ AAbs) is disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (dNTM) infection. Here, we report a rare case of triple infection caused by Cryptococcus, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and nontuberculous mycobacterium in a patient with anti-IFN-γ AAbs. CASE PRESENTATION:A 53-year-old Thai man presented with a ... Read more >>

BMC Infect. Dis. (BMC infectious diseases)
[2020, 20(1):232]

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Disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent elderly long-term pigeon fancier.

Taketoshi Futatsuya, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki, Akinobu Shoji, Yasutaka Hoshino, Masahiro Abe,

Cutaneous cryptococcosis is classified as localized cutaneous cryptococcosis and cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. The former presents as lesions, confined to isolated parts of the skin, which are neither systemically disseminated nor associated with cryptococcal fungemia or antigenemia. The latter presents as lesions through dissemination of Cryptococcus from visceral organs ... Read more >>

J. Dermatol. (The Journal of dermatology)
[2020, :]

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Blood vessel occlusion by Cryptococcus neoformans is a mechanism for haemorrhagic dissemination of infection

Josie Gibson, Aleksandra Bojarczuk, Robert Evans, Alfred Kamuyango, Richard Hotham, Anne Lagendijk, Benjamin Hogan, Philip Ingham, Stephen Renshaw, Simon Johnston,

Abstract Meningitis caused by infectious pathogens are associated with vessel damage and infarct formation, however the physiological cause is unknown. Cryptococcus neoformans , is a human fungal pathogen and causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, where vascular events are observed in up to 30% of cases, predominantly in severe infection. Therefore, ... Read more >>

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Intra-cavitary pulmonary cryptococcoma in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

Najibu Kalyango, Richard Kwizera, Joseph B Baluku, Felix Bongomin,

A 59-year-old HIV-negative Ugandan man presented with a long-standing history of respiratory symptoms and was found to have an intra-cavitary pulmonary cryptococoma by chest imaging and sputum culture. The serum cryptococcal antigen was negative. The sputum Xpert® MTB RIF Ultra assay was negative. He was previously treated for cavitary pulmonary ... Read more >>

Med Mycol Case Rep (Medical mycology case reports)
[2020, 28:1-3]

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Failure of multiplex meningitis/encephalitis (ME) NAT during cryptococcal meningitis in solid organ recipients.

B Pilmis, M-E Bougnoux, R Guery, Y Senghor, A Le Monnier, F Lanternier, S Bretagne, A Alanio, O Lortholary,

Cryptococcal meningitis is a severe cause of central nervous system infections among immunocompromised solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. While new diagnostic methods as multiplex meningitis/encephalitis (ME) NAT (nucleic acid test) are increasingly used as a first-line tool in hospital practice, data in HIV-negative patients including SOT remain scarce. We report ... Read more >>

Transpl Infect Dis (Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society)
[2020, :e13263]

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