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Central Nervous System Lymphoma in HIV

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Epstein Barr virus associated smooth muscle tumors in the central nervous system: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

V M Willeke, M P Anderson, A Mahadevan, R Rojas, R Bhadelia, A J Thomas, E M Kasper,

PURPOSE:Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumors (SMT) in the central nervous system are rare tumors. EBV-associated SMT mainly occur in patient with compromised immune status. We report on a case of a HIV positive patient, who developed multiple EBV-SMTs, intracranially and in the spine. We systematically review the literature ... Read more >>

J. Neurooncol. (Journal of neuro-oncology)
[2020, :]

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Tumor lysis syndrome as a risk factor for very early mortality in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A 10-year single center experience.

Yea-Yuan Chang, Chih-Hao Chang, Wen-Wei Ku, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Yuan-Bin Yu,

BACKGROUND:Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) remain at a high risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to analyze the demographics and outcomes of the HIV-associated NHLs. METHODS:Between 2005 and 2014, PLWHIV with NHLs were retrospectively enrolled at a tertiary referral ... Read more >>

J Chin Med Assoc (Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA)
[2020, :]

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Atypical radiological findings of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Xuling Lin, Iram Rais Alam Khan, Ying Hao Christopher Seet, Hwei Yee Lee, Wai-Yung Yu,

PURPOSE:Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with atypical radiological findings often leads to delayed diagnosis. We aim to characterize the radiological features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of PCNSL with atypical neuroimaging presentation in our local population. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients with histological diagnosis of CNS lymphoma ... Read more >>

Neuroradiology (Neuroradiology)
[2020, :]

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after CAR T therapy.

Konstantinos Sdrimas, Meilin Diaz-Paez, Jose F Camargo, Lazaros J Lekakis,

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remains a life-threatening central nervous system infection in immunocompromised patients. Although outcomes have improved in cases that immune reconstitution is feasible with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV + patients or natalizumab removal in those with multiple sclerosis, in individuals with hematological malignancies, the prognosis is usually dismal. Anti-viral ... Read more >>

Int. J. Hematol. (International journal of hematology)
[2020, :]

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Hidden disseminated extracutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

Naoki Kawakami, Ho Namkoong, Masayuki Shimoda, Hiroshi Kotani, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Naoki Hasegawa,

A 68-year-old man with past medical history of multiple cerebral infarctions presented to our hospital with subacute paresis. His vital signs on presentation were normal, and his physical examination, other than his neurological findings, was unremarkable. Neurological examinations suggested cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory testing confirmed positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ... Read more >>

IDCases (IDCases)
[2020, 19:e00716]

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Fulminant and Diffuse Cerebral Toxoplasmosis as the First Manifestation of HIV Infection: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

Salman Abbasi Fard, Ali Khajeh, Alireza Khosravi, Afsaneh Mirshekar, Safoora Masoumi, Farhad Tabasi, Tania Hassanzadeh, Martin M Mortazavi,

BACKGROUND One of the most common causes of central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients is toxoplasmosis. It can cause focal or disseminated brain lesions leading to neurological deficit, coma, and death. Prompt management with optimal antibiotics is vital. However, the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is challenging in ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e919624]

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Successful Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Resistant Vacuolar Myelopathy with Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

Lidiia N Prakhova, Aleksandr G Ilves, Svetlana N Kizhlo, Zhanna I Savintseva,

For the first time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM) was detailed in an autopsy-based study of 89 cases in 1985. This condition is the most common cause for spinal cord lesions in HIV patients. VM's pathogenic mechanism remains unclear; however, it is assumed that the disease can be ... Read more >>

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(2):220-222]

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Presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with greater HIV RNA and inflammation.

Tommaso Lupia, Maria Grazia Milia, Cristiana Atzori, Sara Gianella, Sabrina Audagnotto, Daniele Imperiale, Lorenzo Mighetto, Veronica Pirriatore, Gabriella Gregori, Filippo Lipani, Valeria Ghisetti, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno,

OBJECTIVE:The current study aimed to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was associated with viral, inflammatory and neuronal damage biomarkers in people living with HIV (PLWH). DESIGN:A cross-sectional diagnostic study on CSF fluid samples in patients undergoing lumbar punctures for clinical reasons, to better ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(3):373-380]

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Burkitt's lymphoma nodular cystic hepatosplenic, in HIV patient. Case report

Ibis De la Cruz-Hernández, Juan Carlos Mejía-Martínez, Candelario de Jesús Soberanes-Cerino, Carlos Alberto Mejía-Picasso,

Background:Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to develop cancer. Malignant lymphomas are the main cancer group seen in these patients. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma including central nervous system lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma account for 90% of HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Clinical case:A 22-year-old man with fever up to ... Read more >>

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc (Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social)
[2020, 57(3):187-190]

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Management of HIV-infected patients in the intensive care unit.

François Barbier, Mervin Mer, Piotr Szychowiak, Robert F Miller, Éric Mariotte, Lionel Galicier, Lila Bouadma, Pierre Tattevin, Élie Azoulay,

The widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has converted the prognosis of HIV infection from a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal disease to a chronic condition with limited impact on life expectancy. Yet, HIV-infected patients remain at high risk for critical illness due to the occurrence of severe opportunistic ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(2):329-342]

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Rapid cognitive decline in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a case report.

James Forryan, Jun Yong,

BACKGROUND:The use of monoclonal antibodies in various settings has been linked to the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Whilst this association is well-described with agents such as rituximab and natalizumab, the literature describing the occurrence of PML with ofatumumab therapy (especially in a haematology setting) is sparse. This case ... Read more >>

J Med Case Rep (Journal of medical case reports)
[2020, 14(1):39]

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Low-grade Leiomyosarcoma of the Cavernous Sinus in an HIV Positive Patient: Case Report.

Laura Morales R, Angelina Álvarez, Maria Paulina Noreña, Felipe Torres, José Esguerra,

Primary leiomyosarcomas of the central nervous system are extremely rare tumors, with few cases reported in the literature. In this article we report the case of a patient with an intracranial leiomyosarcoma of the cavernous sinus. This is the case of a 23-year-old man with a history of human immunodeficiency virus ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(1):e6758]

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Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Presenting As Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Alexa Semonche, Pablo Gomez, John Paul G Kolcun, Roberto J Perez-Roman, Robert M Starke,

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) rarely manifests in immunocompetent patients. In such cases, these lesions may mimic more common intracranial bleeding or tumors. We present the case of an elderly patient who presented with a presumed chronic subdural hematoma (SDH); upon surgical intervention, an occult mass was discovered with ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(2):e7043]

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Next-generation sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of isolated central nervous system infection caused by Talaromyces marneffei in an immunocompetent patient.

Dong-Mei Wang, Hong-Ling Ma, Miao-Qin Tan, Yong-Ming Wu, Sheng-Nan Wang,

Chin. Med. J. (Chinese medical journal)
[2020, 133(3):374-376]

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Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Involving Entire Ventricular System.

Hemant Kumar, Achal Sharma, Vinod Sharma, Shashi Singhvi,

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that accounts for <1%-4% of primary CNS tumor.[1] PCNSLs are class of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas which are primarily of diffuse large B-cell origin (90%), with remaining being T-cell lymphoma (10%). Author report a rare case of PCNSL presenting as an intracranial ... Read more >>

Asian J Neurosurg (Asian journal of neurosurgery)
[2020, 15(1):126-127]

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Evaluating a pilot process for reviewing late HIV diagnoses in England and Wales.

Ming Jie Lee, Hilary Curtis, Clare van Halsema, David R Chadwick,

Late HIV diagnosis is associated with significant mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH) and high numbers of missed opportunities (MO) for earlier testing have been identified. A pilot of a national late diagnosis review process (LDRP) was undertaken in 15 HIV services evaluating the feasibility of LDRP implementation, as ... Read more >>

Clin Med (Lond) (Clinical medicine (London, England))
[2020, 20(2):189-195]

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Epstein-Barr Encephalitis in a Child with Congenital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Report Calling for No Forgetfulness.

Olga Tsiatsiou, Savvas Papachristou, Eleni Papadimitriou, Elisavet Michailidou, Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou, Anna Papa, Vai Doulioglou, Stavroula Karyda, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Emmanuel Roilides,

BACKGROUND:In resource-rich settings, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically decreased by virtue of a combination of preventive strategies during the last two decades. CASE PRESENTATION:We present a case of progressive developmental milestone loss in a toddler with previously unknown congenitally acquired human immunodeficiency virus ... Read more >>

Curr. HIV Res. (Current HIV research)
[2020, 18(1):63-66]

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Curative effect of methotrexate combined with teniposide in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Yi-Xia Wang, Yan Huang, Xiao-Ping Xu, Bo-Bin Chen, Zhi-Guang Lin, Yan Ma, Tian-Ling Ding, Qian Wang,

The present study aimed to investigate the curative effect of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) combined with teniposide (Vm26) vs. HD-MTX alone in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), in order to provide data for assisting decisions associated with clinical treatment. Data from 56 patients with PCNSL admitted in ... Read more >>

Oncol Lett (Oncology letters)
[2020, 19(3):2097-2106]

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Prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a group of adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Alison Millar, Karin Joubert, Alida Naude,

BACKGROUND:The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global pandemic. With the improvement of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment regimens, life-expectancy of HIV-positive individuals has increased. HIV literature suggests that head and neck manifestations may be the first indication of supressed immunity. Therefore, research regarding the effects of HIV and new treatment ... Read more >>

S Afr J Commun Disord (The South African journal of communication disorders = Die Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir Kommunikasieafwykings)
[2020, 67(1):e1-e7]

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Life-Threatening Infectious Complications in Sickle Cell Disease: A Concise Narrative Review.

Dominik Ochocinski, Mansi Dalal, L Vandy Black, Silvana Carr, Judy Lew, Kevin Sullivan, Niranjan Kissoon,

Sickle cell disease (SCD) results in chronic hemolytic anemia, recurrent vascular occlusion, insidious vital organ deterioration, early mortality, and diminished quality of life. Life-threatening acute physiologic crises may occur on a background of progressive diminishing vital organ function. Sickle hemoglobin polymerizes in the deoxygenated state, resulting in erythrocyte membrane deformation, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:38]

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Escherichia coli: a rare cause of meningitis in immuno-competent adult.

Maryam Zafar, Abubakar Tauseef, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Narmin Khan, Nabeeha Farooqui, Mustafa Dawood, Tanvir Alam, Durre Naman,

A 35-year-old male of Asian ethnicity presented with complaints of high-grade fever, severe headache, vomiting, generalized seizures, deteriorated conscious level and neck stiffness. After all baseline workup Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the brain was done, which turned out to be unremarkable. CT scan was then followed by lumbar puncture ... Read more >>

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect (Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives)
[2020, 10(1):69-72]

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Reactivation of Histoplasmosis Disseminated into the Central Nervous System Presenting as a Stroke.

Linda Klumpp, Gustine Liu-Young, Fagun Modi, Jeffrey Jordan, Rony Shah,

Histoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent endemic mycosis in the United States. Patients with a previous history of histoplasmosis have a risk of reinfection in the future. Individuals with impaired immunity and those who have massive re-exposure to H. capsulatum, their defenses against this organism can be overwhelmed and ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2019, 11(12):e6525]

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When Zoster Virus Hides a Primary Brain Lymphoma.

Rafael Ferreira Nascimento, João Miguel Freitas, Maria da Luz Brazão,

Aim:To describe an unusual presentation of a primary lymphoma of the central nervous system in a patient who, four months prior to admission, was diagnosed with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Case description:A 68-year-old man, with a history of HZO, was admitted to the emergency department with nausea and vomiting that ... Read more >>

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med (European journal of case reports in internal medicine)
[2019, 6(12):001341]

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Beta-2 microglobulin as a prognostic factor of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Jaewon Hyung, Jung Yong Hong, Shin Kim, Jin Sook Ryu, Jooryung Huh, Cheolwon Suh,

Blood Res (Blood research)
[2019, 54(4):285-288]

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Educational Case: Opportunistic Infections of the Central Nervous System.

Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Jorge Trejo-Lopez, Stacy G Beal, Jesse L Kresak,

The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and ... Read more >>

Acad Pathol (Academic pathology)
[2020, 7:2374289520901809]

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