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Central Nervous System Complications in HIV

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Predictors of outcome in childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Harsita Patel, Claire Dunican, Aubrey J Cunnington,

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is classified as either uncomplicated or severe, determining clinical management and providing a framework for understanding pathogenesis. Severe malaria in children is defined by the presence of one or more features associated with adverse outcome, but there is wide variation in the predictive value of these features. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):199-221]

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The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: a review of a multicenter database.

Thomas V Brogan, Ravi R Thiagarajan, Roberto Lorusso, D Michael McMullan, Matteo Di Nardo, Mark T Ogino, Heidi J Dalton, Christopher R Burke, Gerry Capatos,

AIM:We chose to evaluate the survival of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation among patients with human immunodeficiency virus in a multicenter registry. METHODS:Retrospective case review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry respiratory failure of all patients with human immunodeficiency virus supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. RESULTS:A total of 126 patients were ... Read more >>

Perfusion (Perfusion)
[2020, :267659120906966]

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Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

James Loan, Michael Poon, Steven Tominey, Ncedile Mankahla, Graeme Meintjes, Graham Fieggen,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background Hydrocephalus is a common, life threatening complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related central nervous system opportunistic infection which can be treated by insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). In HIV-infected patients there is concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high mortality. To identify ... Read more >>

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Positional Vertigo and Unilateral Gradual Hearing Loss Following Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Case Report.

Mohsen Tabasi, Seyed Alireza Javadinia, Seyed Davar Siadat, Sana Eybpoosh, Mohammad Reza Yazdannasab, Milad Kheirvari, Fezzeh Elyasinia, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Amin Radmanesh, Ahmadreza Soroush,

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective treatment option in patients with morbid obesity, with rare long-term sideeffects. In this report, we present a 42-year-old woman who reported positional vertigo and unilateral gradual hearing loss plus continuous tinnitus after LSG. The patient had no signs or symptoms of mental health ... Read more >>

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes (Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy)
[2020, 13:387-390]

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Acute Pancreatitis Due to Disseminated Varicella Zoster Infection in an Individual with Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Sasmit Roy, Subhasish Bose, Ramesh K Pandey, Srikanth Naramala, Muhammad Rajib Hossain,

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is generally considered as a benign and self-limiting disease. However, individuals with VZV infection can have disseminated to various organs leading to serious complications, particularly in adults. This pattern is more prevalent in immunosuppressed individuals. Disseminated varicella is historically known to involve the central nervous system ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(2):e7027]

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Life-Threatening Infectious Complications in Sickle Cell Disease: A Concise Narrative Review.

Dominik Ochocinski, Mansi Dalal, L Vandy Black, Silvana Carr, Judy Lew, Kevin Sullivan, Niranjan Kissoon,

Sickle cell disease (SCD) results in chronic hemolytic anemia, recurrent vascular occlusion, insidious vital organ deterioration, early mortality, and diminished quality of life. Life-threatening acute physiologic crises may occur on a background of progressive diminishing vital organ function. Sickle hemoglobin polymerizes in the deoxygenated state, resulting in erythrocyte membrane deformation, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:38]

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Prevalence Of Syphilis, Neurosyphilis And Associated Factors In a Cross-Sectional Analysis Of HIV Infected Patients Attending Bugando Medical Centre Mwanza Tanzania

Adeodatus Haule, Betrand Msemwa, Evarista Mgaya, Peter Masikini, Samuel Kalluvya,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> BACKGROUND HIV-syphilis co-infection is a combination that enhances rapid progression of early syphilis or late latent syphilis to neurosyphilis and can cause catastrophic neurological complications. In studies in Mwanza, syphilis affects ~8% of healthy outpatients, and older studies have suggested that up to 23.5% of HIV-syphilis ... Read more >>

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Pulmonary Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed on Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in a Mechanically Ventilated Patient.

Delyse Garg, Nikhil Madan, Omar Qaqish, Sandhya Nagarakanti, Vipul Patel,

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world's population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or consuming undercooked meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is subclinical in immunocompetent hosts. Invasive toxoplasmosis ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2020, 2020:9710182]

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Rapid cognitive decline in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a case report.

James Forryan, Jun Yong,

BACKGROUND:The use of monoclonal antibodies in various settings has been linked to the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Whilst this association is well-described with agents such as rituximab and natalizumab, the literature describing the occurrence of PML with ofatumumab therapy (especially in a haematology setting) is sparse. This case ... Read more >>

J Med Case Rep (Journal of medical case reports)
[2020, 14(1):39]

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Causes and predictors of mortality among Ghanaians hospitalised with endocrine disorders.

Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Eunice Oparebea Ansah, Ishmael Kyei, Nana Ama Barnes,

BACKGROUND:Endocrine disorders have been noted to be on the increase in the developing world, but little is known about their outcomes on the African continent. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study to evaluate the demographic characteristics and determinants of endocrine-related mortality among adult patients over 9 y in a leading ... Read more >>

Int Health (International health)
[2020, 12(2):107-115]

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An unusual presentation of gross cerebral vascular dilatation in a TB/HIV co-infected individual.

Matthew Laurence Fielies, Iain Scott Walker,

Aneurysmal dilatation secondary to HIV vasculitis is well described being more common in patients under 45 years of age with advanced stage HIV infection (CD4 < 200 cells/µl). Tuberculous meningitis is far more common than previously anticipated with centres in Cape Town publishing that more than half of all cases of adult meningitis ... Read more >>

Br J Neurosurg (British journal of neurosurgery)
[2020, :1-4]

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Management of HIV-infected patients in the intensive care unit.

François Barbier, Mervin Mer, Piotr Szychowiak, Robert F Miller, Éric Mariotte, Lionel Galicier, Lila Bouadma, Pierre Tattevin, Élie Azoulay,

The widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has converted the prognosis of HIV infection from a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal disease to a chronic condition with limited impact on life expectancy. Yet, HIV-infected patients remain at high risk for critical illness due to the occurrence of severe opportunistic ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(2):329-342]

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Association of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with serum leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profile in overweight adults.

Mahsa Mehrdad, Saeid Doaei, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Majid Fardaei, Mohammad Fararouei, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari,

FTO gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity and food intake. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism genotypes with serum glucose, lipid profile and serum hormones level. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 196 randomly selected overweight adults. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass ... Read more >>

Adipocyte (Adipocyte)
[2020, 9(1):51-56]

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A risk scoring system for predicting Streptococcus suis hearing loss: A 13-year retrospective cohort study.

Ajaree Rayanakorn, Wasan Katip, Bey Hing Goh, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Learn Han Lee,

BACKGROUND:Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an emerging zoonosis disease with a high prevalence in Southeast Asia. There are over 1,500 cases reported globally in which majority of cases are from Thailand followed by Vietnam. The disease leads to meningitis in human with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) as the most common complication ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(2):e0228488]

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A Rare Cause of Optic Neuropathy.

Isabel O Cruz, Sara Alves Pereira, Bruna Vieira, Inês Chora, Paulo Coelho,

Lyme disease is a multisystem infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi that mainly affects the joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Neurological complications usually manifest in untreated patients and present as meningitis, cranial neuropathies, and radiculoneuritis. The authors present the case of a 48-year-old male who developed loss of vision ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(2):e6906]

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A Multicenter, Longitudinal Cohort Study of Cryptococcosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative People in the United States.

Kieren A Marr, Yifei Sun, Andrej Spec, Na Lu, Anil Panackal, John Bennett, Peter Pappas, Darin Ostrander, Kausik Datta, Sean X Zhang, Peter R Williamson, ,

BACKGROUND:Cryptococcosis is increasingly recognized in people without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS:A multicenter, prospective cohort study was performed in 25 US centers. Consenting patients were prospectively followed for ≤2 years. Neurological morbidities were assessed with longitudinal event depiction and functional scores (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]). Risks of death were analyzed ... Read more >>

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, 70(2):252-261]

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Continuous renal replacement therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS.

Hebing Guo, Jingyuan Liu, Lin Pu, Jingjing Hao, Ningning Yin, Yufeng Liu, Haofeng Xiong, Ang Li,

BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a useful method and instrument in critically ill patients with fluid overload and metabolic disarray, especially in those who are unable to tolerate the ... Read more >>

BMC Nephrol (BMC nephrology)
[2020, 21(1):95]

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Chorea associated with persistent low-level viremia in a patient living with HIV: a case report.

G K Rajakaruna, C M Italiano, M John, D Nolan,

J Virus Erad (Journal of virus eradication)
[2020, 6(1):27-29]

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Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Regulatory T Cells in Neurotropic Virus Infections.

Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Andreas Beineke,

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(5):]

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Escherichia coli: a rare cause of meningitis in immuno-competent adult.

Maryam Zafar, Abubakar Tauseef, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Narmin Khan, Nabeeha Farooqui, Mustafa Dawood, Tanvir Alam, Durre Naman,

A 35-year-old male of Asian ethnicity presented with complaints of high-grade fever, severe headache, vomiting, generalized seizures, deteriorated conscious level and neck stiffness. After all baseline workup Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the brain was done, which turned out to be unremarkable. CT scan was then followed by lumbar puncture ... Read more >>

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect (Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives)
[2020, 10(1):69-72]

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The prevalence and risk factors of stroke among Sudanese individuals with diabetes: Cross-sectional survey.

Ahmed Omer Almobarak, Safaa Badi, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Hanan Tahir, Mohamed H Ahmed,

INTRODUCTION:Diabetes complications in Sudan were increasing at an alarming rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of stroke among Sudanese individuals with diabetes. METHODOLOGY:This cross-sectional study recruited 283 individuals with diabetes from three diabetes centers in Sudan. Data were collected using a standardized pretested questionnaire, and ... Read more >>

Brain Circ (Brain circulation)
[2020, 6(1):26-30]

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The "wing-heeled" traveler.

Taylor Kain, Jordan Weinstein, Aaron Thompson, Andrea K Boggild,

Intoxication syndromes may be travel acquired, and are related to intentional or accidental inhalational or percutaneous exposures or ingestions. Due to their myriad clinical presentations, initial differential diagnosis of such intoxications in returned travelers is broad, and typically requires detailed history and laboratory investigations to disentangle. We herein use a ... Read more >>

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines (Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines)
[2020, 6:2]

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When a Stroke is not Just a Stroke: Escherichia Coli Meningitis with Ventriculitis and Vasculitis: A Case Report.

Barbara Ribeiro, Peter Bishop, Sima Jalili,

Introduction:Community-acquired Escherichia coli ventriculitis is considered a rare condition. Central nervous system (CNS) infection due to gram-negative bacilli is usually associated with previous neurosurgical interventions. The recent publication of cases of Escherichia coli meningitis and ventriculitis suggests its prevalence may be underestimated by the literature. Case presentation:A case of community-acquired ... Read more >>

J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) (Journal of critical care medicine (Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Targu-Mures))
[2020, 6(1):65-70]

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Phytochemicals against TNFα-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Diseases.

Lalita Subedi, Si Eun Lee, Syeda Madiha, Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Mirim Jin, Silvia Yumnam, Sun Yeou Kim,

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine responsible for the modulation of the immune system. TNF-α plays a critical role in almost every type of inflammatory disorder, including central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Although TNF-α is a well-studied component of inflammatory responses, its functioning in diverse cell types ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(3):]

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Sequelae of Lassa Fever: Postviral Cerebellar Ataxia.

Chiomah Ezeomah, Adeyi Adoga, Chikwe Ihekweazu, Slobodan Paessler, Irma Cisneros, Oyewale Tomori, David Walker,

Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in some West African countries. It is exported to countries in America, Asia, and Europe. Antivirals against Lassa fever are important to provide a cure in patients with the disease and provide protection against it. In addition, due to the potential utilization of ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open forum infectious diseases)
[2019, 6(12):ofz512]

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