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Genomic and serologic characterization of enterovirus A71 brainstem encephalitis.

Kristoffer E Leon, Ryan D Schubert, Didac Casas-Alba, Isobel A Hawes, Prashanth S Ramachandran, Akshaya Ramesh, John E Pak, Wesley Wu, Carly K Cheung, Emily D Crawford, Lillian M Khan, Cristian Launes, Hannah A Sample, Kelsey C Zorn, Maria Cabrerizo, Ana Valero-Rello, Charles Langelier, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Joseph L DeRisi, Michael R Wilson,

OBJECTIVE:In 2016, Catalonia experienced a pediatric brainstem encephalitis outbreak caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Conventional testing identified EV in the periphery but rarely in CSF. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and CSF pan-viral serology (VirScan) were deployed to enhance viral detection and characterization. METHODS:RNA was extracted from the CSF (n = ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(3):]

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Pathogen or bystander: clinical significance of detecting HHV-6 in pediatric CSF.

Utsav Pandey, Alexander L Greninger, Greg R Levin, Keith R Jerome, Vikram C Anand, Jennifer Dien Bard,

Detection of HHV-6 using FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel led to rapid establishment of etiology and antimicrobial optimization amongst the twenty-five patients with HHV-6 DNA detected in their CSF at our institution. Five of the 25 patients were diagnosed with HHV-6 meningitis/meningoencephalitis.Objective: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is an important cause of meningitis ... Read more >>

J. Clin. Microbiol. (Journal of clinical microbiology)
[2020, :]

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Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings Are Poor Predictors of Appropriate FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Utilization in Pediatric Patients.

Mimi R Precit, Rebecca Yee, Utsav Pandey, Margil Fahit, Cheryl Pool, Samia N Naccache, Jennifer Dien Bard,

Molecular testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the BioFire FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel permits rapid, simultaneous pathogen detection. Due to the broad spectrum of targeted organisms, FA-M/E testing may be restricted to patients with abnormal CSF findings. We sought to determine if restriction is appropriate in our previously healthy and/or ... Read more >>

J. Clin. Microbiol. (Journal of clinical microbiology)
[2020, 58(3):]

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Surveillance of a kdr Resistance Mutation in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus in California.

Melissa Hardstone Yoshimizu, Kerry Padgett, Vicki Kramer,

Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say are the primary vectors of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in California. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids (synthetic pyrethrins) are the most widely used insecticides to control adult stage mosquitoes to prevent disease transmission. The most abundant and widespread mutation associated with pyrethroid ... Read more >>

J. Med. Entomol. (Journal of medical entomology)
[2020, 57(2):645-648]

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Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States.

Joseph R McMillan, Philip M Armstrong, Theodore G Andreadis,

BACKGROUND:In the northeast United States (U.S.), mosquitoes transmit a number of arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, and West Nile that pose an annual threat to human and animal health. Local transmission of each arbovirus may be driven by the involvement of multiple mosquito species; however, the specificity of ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(2):e0008066]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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A Systematic Review of Sodium Disorders in HHV-6 Encephalitis.

Nikolas C Victoria, Tuan L Phan, Krishna A Agarwal,

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis has a high mortality rate. Among those who survive, ~80% develop some type of permanent neurologic disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may help prevent long-term sequelae. There have been several case reports as well as retrospective and prospective studies associating HHV-6 encephalitis with some form ... Read more >>

Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. (Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
[2020, :]

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Exploratory analysis of the potential for advanced diagnostic testing to reduce healthcare expenditures of patients hospitalized with meningitis or encephalitis.

Brent D Fulton, David G Proudman, Hannah A Sample, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Charles Y Chiu, Joseph L DeRisi, Michael R Wilson,

OBJECTIVE:To estimate healthcare expenditures that could be impacted by advanced diagnostic testing for patients hospitalized with meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS:Patients hospitalized with meningitis (N = 23,933) or encephalitis (N = 7,858) in the U.S. were identified in the 2010-2014 Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database using ICD-9-CM diagnostic ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(1):e0226895]

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Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis assay for the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii.

Tam T Van, Tae Hun Kim, Susan M Butler-Wu,

OBJECTIVES:Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Laboratory diagnostics for CM includes antigen detection, staining, and culture. Data on the performance of the Biofire® FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel for detecting Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii is limited, with several reports describing false negativity for this target. ... Read more >>

Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
[2020, :]

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Presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with greater HIV RNA and inflammation.

Tommaso Lupia, Maria Grazia Milia, Cristiana Atzori, Sara Gianella, Sabrina Audagnotto, Daniele Imperiale, Lorenzo Mighetto, Veronica Pirriatore, Gabriella Gregori, Filippo Lipani, Valeria Ghisetti, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno,

OBJECTIVE:The current study aimed to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was associated with viral, inflammatory and neuronal damage biomarkers in people living with HIV (PLWH). DESIGN:A cross-sectional diagnostic study on CSF fluid samples in patients undergoing lumbar punctures for clinical reasons, to better ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(3):373-380]

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Perspectives Regarding the Risk of Introduction of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) in the United States.

Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Leela E Noronha, Dana Mitzel, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro,

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic, emerging disease transmitted by mosquito vectors infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Its potential for emergence into susceptible regions is high, including in the United States (US), and is a reason of economic concern among the agricultural community, and to public health due ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:48]

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Changes in inflammation are related to depression and amount of aerobic exercise in first episode schizophrenia.

Joseph Ventura, Sarah McEwen, Kenneth L Subotnik, Gerhard S Hellemann, Manali Ghadiali, Amir Rahimdel, Min Jee Seo, Michael R Irwin, Keith H Nuechterlein,

INTRODUCTION:Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in meta-analyses of multi-episode schizophrenia patients when compared to controls. However, little is known about whether these same relationships are present in the early course of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE:To assess first episode schizophrenia patients for depression and to assay blood samples collected at ... Read more >>

Early Interv Psychiatry (Early intervention in psychiatry)
[2020, :]

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Phase 1 study of epacadostat in combination with atezolizumab for patients with previously treated advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Matthew D Hellmann, Scott Gettinger, Laura Q M Chow, Michael Gordon, Mark M Awad, Edward Cha, Xiaohua Gong, Gongfu Zhou, Chris Walker, Lance Leopold, Rebecca S Heist,

Epacadostat is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). Here we report results from the open-label, dose-escalation, Phase 1b ECHO-110 study evaluating epacadostat plus atezolizumab in patients with previously treated Stage IIIB/IV nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients had received ≥1 prior line of platinum-based ... Read more >>

Int. J. Cancer (International journal of cancer)
[2020, :]

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Powassan Virus in a Hunter Returning from a Trip in the Adirondack Park.

David Colman, Samuel Peaslee,

Powassan virus is a rare flavivirus that may be transmitted by tick bite and is associated with encephalitis. Infections have been described in the northern United States, Canada, and Russia. We present the case of a 56-y-old man who presented to our hospital with symptoms of confusion, altered behavior, and ... Read more >>

Wilderness Environ Med (Wilderness & environmental medicine)
[2020, 31(1):87-90]

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Jamestown Canyon virus encephalitis in a heart transplant patient.

Wajih Askar, Puneet Menaria, Vinay Thohan, Charles F Brummitt,

Jamestown Canyon virus (JtCV) is an arbovirus and a member of the California serogroup. To our knowledge, all the cases of JtCV have been reported in immunocompetent patients since it was first detected in 1997. We report a case of JtCV encephalitis in a solid organ transplant patient. A 48-year-old ... Read more >>

Transpl Infect Dis (Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society)
[2020, 22(1):e13210]

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The role of cofilin in age-related neuroinflammation.

Amsha S Alsegiani, Zahoor A Shah,

Aging brain becomes susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases due to the shifting of microglia and astrocyte phenotypes to an active "pro-inflammatory" state, causing chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Despite the fact that the role of neuroinflammation during aging has been extensively studied in recent years, the underlying causes remain unclear. The identification of ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(8):1451-1459]

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Rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases in the emergency department.

Donia Bouzid, Marie-Céline Zanella, Solen Kerneis, Benoît Visseaux, Larissa May, Jacques Schrenzel, Vincent Cattoir,

BACKGROUND:Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases, with a turn-around time <2 hours, are promising tools that could improve patient care, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention in the emergency department (ED) setting. Numerous RDTs have been developed but not necessarily for the ED environment. Their successful implementation in the ED relies ... Read more >>

Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
[2020, :]

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Pediatric Paraneoplastic Necrotizing Encephalitis Associated With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Linda Nguyen, John Ross Crawford,

BACKGROUND:Paraneoplastic encephalitis encompasses a diverse spectrum of neurological disorders associated with a variety of pediatric tumor types. METHODS:We describe a seven-year-old boy with paraneoplastic necrotizing encephalitis associated with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. RESULTS:The initial presentation involved acute-onset upper extremity weakness, seizure-like activity, and agitation. Extensive evaluation revealed pancytopenia, elevated ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Neurol. (Pediatric neurology)
[2020, 105:55-58]

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T cell responses induced by attenuated flavivirus vaccination are specific and show limited cross-reactivity with other flavivirus species.

Alba Grifoni, Hannah Voic, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Conner K Kidd, James D Brien, Søren Buus, Anette Stryhn, Anna P Durbin, Stephen Whitehead, Sean A Diehl, Aruna D De Silva, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette,

Members of the flavivirus genus share a high level of sequence similarity and often circulate in the same geographical regions. However, whether T cells induced by one viral species cross-react with other related flaviviruses has not been globally addressed. Here, we tested pools of epitopes derived from dengue (DENV), zika ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, :]

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Editorial: Viral Evasion Mechanisms of the Host Response.

Ricardo Martín Gómez, Eugenio Antonio Carrera Silva, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Siew Pheng Lim, Aleem Siddiqui,

Front Cell Infect Microbiol (Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology)
[2020, 10:90]

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Performance of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Viral Meningoencephalitis in a Resource-Limited Setting.

Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Nguyen To Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Le Nguyen Truc Nhu, Tran Tan Thanh, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Xutao Deng, H Rogier van Doorn, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Eric Delwart, Guy Thwaites, Le Van Tan,

Background:Meningoencephalitis is a devastating disease worldwide. Current diagnosis fails to establish the cause in ≥50% of patients. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as pan-pathogen assays for infectious diseases diagnosis, but few studies have been conducted in resource-limited settings. Methods:We assessed the performance of mNGS in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open forum infectious diseases)
[2020, 7(3):ofaa046]

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A Probable Case of Recurrent Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis With Fulminant Course in a Pediatric Patient.

Amjad Chamsi Basha, Naser Kolko, Jonathan D Santoro, Hakem Alomani,

INTRODUCTION:Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is a rare, often postinfectious, syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered consciousness. Here, we present a probable case of recurrent, pediatric Bickerstaff encephalitis, whereby the patient acutely developed loss of consciousness and eventually brain death despite optimal management. CASE REPORT:A 3-year-old male ... Read more >>

Neurologist (The neurologist)
[2020, 25(1):14-16]

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Immunological mechanisms in poststroke dementia.

Kristian P Doyle, Marion S Buckwalter,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review new evidence on links between poststroke dementia and inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS:Although there are still no treatments for poststroke dementia, recent evidence has improved our understanding that stroke increases the risk of incident dementia and worsens cognitive trajectory for at least a decade afterwards. Within approximately the ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (Current opinion in neurology)
[2020, 33(1):30-36]

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A systematic review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymoma: Treatment modalities, recurrence, and outcomes in resected cases.

Jasmine Zhao, Vikrant Bhatnagar, Li Ding, Scott M Atay, Elizabeth A David, P Michael McFadden, Stephanie Stamnes, Elizabeth Lechtholz-Zey, Sean C Wightman, Frank C Detterbeck, Anthony W Kim,

OBJECTIVE:Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymomas remain incompletely understood. The objective was to examine the association between surgically resected thymomas and paraneoplastic syndromes over the past half century. METHODS:A primary PubMed/MEDLINE search was used to identify published articles describing paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymomas from 1960 to 2019. A secondary search ... Read more >>

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery)
[2019, :]

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Seizure outcomes in children with Rasmussen's encephalitis undergoing resective or hemispheric epilepsy surgery: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

William B Harris, H Westley Phillips, Jia Shu Chen, Alexander G Weil, George M Ibrahim, Aria Fallah,

OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to perform an individual participant data meta-analysis to identify preoperative factors associated with a good seizure outcome in children with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) undergoing resective or hemispheric epilepsy surgery. METHODS:Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL) were searched with no language or date restrictions ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Pediatr (Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics)
[2019, :1-10]

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