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CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV

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Fulminant and Diffuse Cerebral Toxoplasmosis as the First Manifestation of HIV Infection: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

Salman Abbasi Fard, Ali Khajeh, Alireza Khosravi, Afsaneh Mirshekar, Safoora Masoumi, Farhad Tabasi, Tania Hassanzadeh, Martin M Mortazavi,

BACKGROUND One of the most common causes of central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients is toxoplasmosis. It can cause focal or disseminated brain lesions leading to neurological deficit, coma, and death. Prompt management with optimal antibiotics is vital. However, the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is challenging in ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e919624]

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Educational Case: Opportunistic Infections of the Central Nervous System.

Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Jorge Trejo-Lopez, Stacy G Beal, Jesse L Kresak,

The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and ... Read more >>

Acad Pathol (Academic pathology)
[2020, 7:2374289520901809]

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Management of HIV-infected patients in the intensive care unit.

François Barbier, Mervin Mer, Piotr Szychowiak, Robert F Miller, Éric Mariotte, Lionel Galicier, Lila Bouadma, Pierre Tattevin, Élie Azoulay,

The widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has converted the prognosis of HIV infection from a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal disease to a chronic condition with limited impact on life expectancy. Yet, HIV-infected patients remain at high risk for critical illness due to the occurrence of severe opportunistic ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(2):329-342]

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Congenital nephrotic syndrome as a complication of whooping cough: a case report.

Ayah Kouli, Sana Sheikh Trab, Shahed Alshaghel, Mohamad Bassel Mouti, Hiba Hamdoun,

Bordetella organisms are responsible for whooping cough, which is an extremely contagious respiratory illness with substantial morbidity in infants. It is also considered one of the 10 predominant reasons for childhood decease globally, particularly before vaccination was available. Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) presents within the first 3 months of life. It ... Read more >>

Oxf Med Case Reports (Oxford medical case reports)
[2020, 2020(2):omaa007]

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Prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a group of adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Alison Millar, Karin Joubert, Alida Naude,

BACKGROUND:The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global pandemic. With the improvement of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment regimens, life-expectancy of HIV-positive individuals has increased. HIV literature suggests that head and neck manifestations may be the first indication of supressed immunity. Therefore, research regarding the effects of HIV and new treatment ... Read more >>

S Afr J Commun Disord (The South African journal of communication disorders = Die Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir Kommunikasieafwykings)
[2020, 67(1):e1-e7]

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A Fulminant Case of Demyelinating Encephalitis With Extensive Cortical Involvement Associated With Anti-MOG Antibodies.

Sonja Hochmeister, Thomas Gattringer, Martin Asslaber, Verena Stangl, Michaela Tanja Haindl, Christian Enzinger, Romana Höftberger,

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (MOG-Abs) are commonly associated with clinical presentations as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in both adults and children and anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and related syndromes such as optic neuritis, myelitis, and brainstem encephalitis. Most often, the presence of MOG-Abs is associated ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:31]

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Intramedullary spinal cord lesions in an immunocompromised host due to Mycobacterium haemophilum.

Shelley Kon, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Kellie L. Hawkins,

Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) group. M. haemophilum typically causes cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children, cutaneous diseases, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. However, it rarely causes isolated spinal cord disease. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of isolated intramedullary spinal lesions ... Read more >>

IDCases (IDCases)
[2020, 19:]

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A rare case of Blastomyces dermatitidis brain abscess in an immunocompetent host.

Magdalena Slomka, James Doub,

Here we present a case of a 41-year old immunocompetent female from central Maryland, who presented with new onset seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed a solitary ring-enhancing lesion. Stereotactic brain biopsy confirmed Blastomyces dermatitidis brain abscess. Patient's clinical course was complicated by voriconazole-induced pancytopenia that prompted surgical resection ... Read more >>

Med Mycol Case Rep (Medical mycology case reports)
[2020, 28:8-11]

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The Broad Clinical Spectrum of Disseminated Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A 30 Years' Experience in French Guiana.

Pierre Couppié, Katarina Herceg, Morgane Bourne-Watrin, Vincent Thomas, Denis Blanchet, Kinan Drak Alsibai, Dominique Louvel, Felix Djossou, Magalie Demar, Romain Blaizot, Antoine Adenis,

Histoplasmosis is a common but neglected AIDS-defining condition in endemic areas for Histoplasma capsulatum. At the advanced stage of HIV infection, the broad spectrum of clinical features may mimic other frequent opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and makes it difficult for clinicians to diagnose histoplasmosis in a timely manner. Diagnosis ... Read more >>

J Fungi (Basel) (Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland))
[2019, 5(4):]

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A 9-month retrospective evaluation of the aetiology and management of patients presenting with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at a South London hospital.

Tehmina Bharucha, Lina Nashef, Nick Moran, Sue Watkins, David Brown, Mark Zuckerman,

Encephalitis causes high morbidity and mortality. An incidence of 4.3 cases of encephalitis/100 000 population has been reported in the UK. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the diagnosis and management of adults admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis/meningoencephalitis. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collated from ... Read more >>

Epidemiol. Infect. (Epidemiology and infection)
[2020, 148:e23]

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Opportunistic Disease or Metastatic Lesions: A Rare Finding in a Patient with Bladder Cancer.

Michael Simon, Natalie Elkayam, Jonathan Smerling, Michael Marcelin, Stephan Kamholz,

A 66-year-old male with a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection and metastatic bladder cancer presented to our hospital for a further workup of a focal seizure involving the patients left upper extremity. The patient was undergoing active chemotherapy at the time of admission and had a CD4 count of ... Read more >>

Curr Urol (Current urology)
[2019, 13(1):54-56]

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Novel MRI Finding of Bilateral Globus Pallidal Involvement in Accelerated Phase of Chédiak -Higashi Syndrome.

Minal V Kekatpure, Venkatraman Bhat,

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(1):126-129]

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Predictors of Clinical and Immunological Failure Among Patients on First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Southwest Ethiopia.

Adane Asefa, Zufan Asaye, Abiot Girma, Desta Hiko,

Background:Global expanded access to antiretroviral therapy has led to a rapid fall in the number of people dying from HIV-related causes. However, the remarkable achievement recorded in reducing morbidity and mortality has been affected due to the occurrence of first-line ART failure. The study was intended to identify predictors of ... Read more >>

HIV AIDS (Auckl) (HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.))
[2019, 11:377-386]

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-like Syndrome after Chikungunya.

Felipe César Andrade, Vinicius Vergetti, Gabriella Cozza, Maria Clara Falcao, Gustavo Azevedo,

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome refers to a group of conditions whose outcome is similar to that of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but with different characteristics in the initial phase and response to therapy. The involvement of an earlier age group, the subacute course, and the stabilization or improvement of the ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2019, 11(10):e5876]

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Miliary cerebrospinal lesions caused by Nocardia beijingensis in an immunocompetent patient.

Hajime Tanaka, Katsunari Kiko, Yudai Watanabe, Takashi Yaguchi, Shigeru Oya, Toshiaki Shiojiri,

The genus Nocardia usually infect immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary nocardiosis is the most common Nocardia-induced infection while central nervous system (CNS) is the most common extrapulmonary site to develop nocardial disease. Approximately 54 % cases of previously reported nocardial brain abscesses were solitary lesions, while 38 % cases had multiple lesions; ... Read more >>

IDCases (IDCases)
[2020, 20:e00737]

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Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Epilepsy in the Elderly: A Hospital-Based Study from a Tertiary Care Referral Center of Niamey, Niger.

Hamid Assadeck, Moussa Toudou-Daouda, Zakaria Mamadou, Mahadi Moussa-Konate, Fatimata Hassane-Djibo, Dijbo Douma-Maiga,

Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the management of epilepsy in the elderly at a tertiary referral center in Niger to obtain a comprehensive understanding to determine the intrahospital deficiencies to improve and to make recommendations in terms to improve the management of epilepsy in the elderly ... Read more >>

J Neurosci Rural Pract (Journal of neurosciences in rural practice)
[2019, 10(4):571-575]

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Diagnostic Difficulties in a Severely Ill HIV Patient with Multiple Superinfections - A Case Report.

Cristina Mănășturean, Cristiana Oprea, Dan Oțelea, Anca Meda Georgescu,

Introduction:As chronic HIV infection is prone to co-infections more than any other infectious condition, many severely immune-depressed patients require advanced diagnostic investigations and complex treatment. Case report:The case of a 30-year-old severely immune-depressed patient with AIDS, who developed neurological impairment and was diagnosed with encephalitis is presented. Multiple diagnostic approaches ... Read more >>

J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) (Journal of critical care medicine (Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Targu-Mures))
[2019, 5(4):136-139]

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Cerebellar Neurocysticercosis as Long-Term Complication of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Haploidentical Donor.

Federico Meconi, Giulia Ciangola, Benedetta Mariotti, Raffaella Cerretti, Laura Cudillo, William Arcese, Alessandra Picardi,

Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is uncommon in developed countries. We report a case of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a haploidentical donor complicated, in the long term, by T. solium infection of the central nervous system ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2019, 2019:4603130]

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Brain MR Imaging of Patients with Perinatal Chikungunya Virus Infection.

D G Corrêa, T A L Freddi, H Werner, F P P L Lopes, M E L Moreira, F C P de Almeida Di Maio Ferreira, J M de Andrade Lopes, F C Rueda-Lopes, L C H da Cruz,

Since 2005, it has been known that mother-to-child transmission of the chikungunya virus is possible. Transmission generally occurs in the perinatal period. In the present study, we describe the brain lesions seen on MR imaging of 6 cases of perinatal chikungunya infection. Patients who underwent brain MR imaging in the ... Read more >>

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology)
[2020, 41(1):174-177]

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Central Nervous System Tuberculoma Complicated with Spinal Arachnoiditis in Immunocompetent Patient.

A A Ayu Suryapraba, Ni Made Susilawathi, I Wayan Niryana,

BACKGROUND:Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) can manifest as meningitis, abscess, tuberculoma or other manifestations. CNS TB is a rare TB complication, and its diagnosis remains a challenge since it has clinical and imaging features that resemble other diseases. The antituberculosis treatment has a significant role in determining a patient's ... Read more >>

Open Access Maced J Med Sci (Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences)
[2019, 7(12):2002-2005]

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Ocular side effects of antirheumatic medications: a qualitative review.

Clara M Castillejo Becerra, Yue Ding, Beatrice Kenol, Andrew Hendershot, Alexa Simon Meara,

Topic:This paper reviews the ocular side effects of medications used in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. Clinical relevance:Rheumatic diseases are inflammatory conditions that may affect the skin, blood vessels, joints, muscles and internal organs. Immunosuppressive agents are often used as treatment and while powerful, they carry side effects and toxicities ... Read more >>

BMJ Open Ophthalmol (BMJ open ophthalmology)
[2020, 5(1):e000331]

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Nearly Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Phlebovirus-Like Virus Detected in a Human Plasma Sample by High-Throughput Sequencing.

Florian Laubscher, Samuel Cordey, Mary-Anne Hartley, Gael Vieille, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Valerie d'Acremont, Laurent Kaiser,

Here, we report a novel phlebovirus-like virus sequence detected in a plasma sample from a febrile adult patient collected in the United Republic of Tanzania in 2014. A nearly complete RNA sequence was generated by high-throughput sequencing on a HiSeq 2500 instrument and further confirmed after repeating the analysis, starting ... Read more >>

Microbiol Resour Announc (Microbiology resource announcements)
[2019, 8(35):]

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Focal Intramedullary Spinal Cord Lesion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Toxoplasmosis Versus Lymphoma.

Jyodi Mohole, Allen L Ho, Eric S Sussman, Arjun V Pendharkar, Marco Lee,

BACKGROUND:Neurologic complications are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Although both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system can be affected, 80% of patients with HIV/AIDS have CNS involvement during the course of their illness. The brain is the primary site of HIV/AIDS-associated ... Read more >>

World Neurosurg (World neurosurgery)
[2019, 127:227-231]

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Clinical Course of Opportunistic Infections-Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Slovakia.

Katarína Šimeková, Elena Nováková, Róbert Rosoľanka, Jana Masná, Daniela Antolová,

: The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has affected the health status of the population in many countries. Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL), which can be associated with opportunistic infections, e.g., toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This study followed the occurrence of PGL, toxoplasmosis, and Cytomegalovirus ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2019, 8(4):]

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Vaccination challenges and strategies against long-lived Toxoplasma gondii.

Fei-Kean Loh, Sheila Nathan, Sek-Chuen Chow, Chee-Mun Fang,

Since the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii in 1908, it is estimated that one-third of the global population has been exposed to this ubiquitous intracellular protozoan. The complex life cycle of T. gondii has enabled itself to overcome stress and transmit easily within a broad host range thus achieving a high ... Read more >>

Vaccine (Vaccine)
[2019, :]

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