Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Tracy T Smith

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Detecting participant noncompliance across multiple time points by modeling a longitudinal biomarker.

Ross L Peterson, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Tracy T Smith, Sharon E Murphy, Eric C Donny, David M Vock,

INTRODUCTION:Participant noncompliance, in which participants do not follow their assigned treatment protocol, has long complicated the interpretation of randomized clinical trials. No gold standard has been identified for detecting noncompliance, but in some trials participants' biomarkers can provide objective information that suggests exposure to non-study treatments. However, existing methods are ... Read more >>

Clin Trials (Clinical trials (London, England))
[2020, :1740774520956949]

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Intention to Quit Vaping Among United States Adolescents.

Tracy T Smith, Georges J Nahhas, Matthew J Carpenter, Lindsay M Squeglia, Vanessa A Diaz, Adam M Leventhal, Jennifer Dahne,

JAMA Pediatr (JAMA pediatrics)
[2020, :]

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Polarization within the field of tobacco and nicotine science and its potential impact on trainees.

Dana Mowls Carroll, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Sarah Dermody, Jessica L King, Melissa Mercincavage, Lauren R Pacek, Tracy T Smith, Hollie L Tripp, Cassidy M White,

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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The Public Health Gains Had Cigarette Companies Chosen to Sell Very Low Nicotine Cigarettes.

David T Levy, K Michael Cummings, Bryan W Heckman, Yameng Li, Zhe Yuan, Tracy T Smith, Rafael Meza,

INTRODUCTION:The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed lowering the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level to increase smoking cessation and reduce initiation. This study has two aims: (1) to determine when cigarette manufacturers had the technical capability to reduce cigarette nicotine content and (2) to ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes Disrupt the Feedback Loop of Affective States and Smoking Behavior.

Jason D Robinson, George Kypriotakis, Mustafa Al'absi, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, David J Drobes, Scott J Leischow, F Joseph McClernon, Lauren R Pacek, Herbert H Severson, Tracy T Smith, Eric C Donny, Xianghua Luo, Joni A Jensen, Lori G Strayer, Paul M Cinciripini, Dorothy K Hatsukami,

INTRODUCTION:Smoking to reduce negative affect has been identified as a key motivational feature of tobacco use. Our recent work suggests that smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes reduces the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior over a 6-week period. Here, we sought to extend our findings by evaluating ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, 22(8):1294-1300]

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The differential impact of nicotine replacement therapy sampling on cessation outcomes across established tobacco disparities groups.

Jennifer Dahne, Amy E Wahlquist, Tracy T Smith, Matthew J Carpenter,

Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated among marginalized populations with limited access to evidence-based cessation treatment. This includes racial/ethnic minorities, lower income individuals, those with lower educational attainment, and residents of rural areas. To reach Healthy People 2020 objectives, successful cessation interventions must narrow these disparities. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling ... Read more >>

Prev Med (Preventive medicine)
[2020, 136:106096]

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Electronic cigarette dependence and demand among pod mod users as a function of smoking status.

Eleanor L S Leavens, Tracy T Smith, Noelle Natale, Matthew J Carpenter,

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to proliferate with fast-paced product evolution. Pod mod e-cigarettes emerged in the market in 2015 and have changed the tobacco landscape again. However, little is known regarding their addiction potential among users. The current study describes e-cigarette dependence and demand among pod mod users as ... Read more >>

Psychol Addict Behav (Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors)
[2020, :]

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The Impact of E-liquid Propylene Glycol and Vegetable Glycerin Ratio on Ratings of Subjective Effects, Reinforcement Value, and Use in Current Smokers.

Tracy T Smith, Bryan W Heckman, Amy E Wahlquist, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter,

INTRODUCTION:Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) vary on a wide range of characteristics that may affect reinforcement value and use. One characteristic is the ratio of two solvents commonly used in most e-liquids: propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). The goal of this study was to understand how PG/VG ratio ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, 22(5):791-797]

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The Impact of Exclusive Use of Very Low Nicotine Cigarettes on Compensatory Smoking: An Inpatient Crossover Clinical Trial.

Tracy T Smith, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Cassidy M White, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Lauren R Pacek, Víctor R De Jesús, Lanqing Wang, Clifford Watson, Benjamin C Blount, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neal L Benowitz, Eric C Donny, Matthew J Carpenter,

BACKGROUND:The FDA is considering a mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. Clinical trials have been limited by non-study cigarette use (noncompliance), which could mask compensation. The goal of this study was to assess whether compensation occurs when smokers provided with very low nicotine cigarettes cannot access normal nicotine ... Read more >>

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology)
[2020, 29(4):880-886]

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Mouth-Level Nicotine Intake Estimates from Discarded Filter Butts to Examine Compensatory Smoking in Low Nicotine Cigarettes.

Tracy T Smith, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Katelyn M Tessier, Neal L Benowitz, Sharon E Murphy, Andrew A Strasser, Jennifer W Tidey, Benjamin C Blount, Liza Valentin, Roberto Bravo Cardenas, Clifford Watson, James L Pirkle, Eric C Donny,

BACKGROUND:A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes could reduce smoking rate and prevalence. However, one concern is that smokers may compensate by increasing the intensity with which they smoke each cigarette to obtain more nicotine. This study assessed whether smokers engage in compensatory smoking by estimating the mouth-level ... Read more >>

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology)
[2020, 29(3):643-649]

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Impact of E-cigarette Sampling on Cigarette Dependence and Reinforcement Value.

Tracy T Smith, Amy E Wahlquist, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter,

INTRODUCTION:E-cigarettes have risen in prevalence in recent years, and most public health experts agree they deliver fewer toxicants than combustible tobacco products such as cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand how use of e-cigarettes by current smokers impacts dependence on combustible cigarettes. METHODS:The present study is a secondary analysis ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, 22(2):297-301]

Cited: 1 time

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The Impact of Gradual and Immediate Nicotine Reduction on Subjective Cigarette Ratings.

Tracy T Smith, Eric C Donny, Xianghua Luo, Alicia M Allen, Dana M Carroll, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Sarah S Dermody, Joseph S Koopmeiners, F Joseph McClernon, Lauren R Pacek, Ryan Vandrey, Dorothy K Hatsukami,

BACKGROUND:A recent clinical trial showed that an immediate transition to very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes, compared with a gradual transition, produced greater reductions in smoking behavior, smoke exposure, and dependence. However, there was less compliance with the instruction to smoke only VLNC cigarettes in the immediate versus gradual reduction ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2019, 21(Suppl 1):S73-S80]

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The Role of Compensation in Nicotine Reduction.

Neal L Benowitz, Eric C Donny, Kathryn C Edwards, Dorothy Hatsukami, Tracy T Smith,

The available research on switching from normal nicotine to very low nicotine content cigarettes shows minimal evidence of compensatory smoking. Mathematical estimations suggest that substantial compensation after switching to very low nicotine cigarettes would be impossible. It is likely that smokers who are unable to tolerate the extent of proposed ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2019, 21(Suppl 1):S16-S18]

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Behavioral Outcomes of Nicotine Reduction in Current Adult Smokers.

Tracy T Smith, Bryan W Heckman, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, K Michael Cummings,

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2019, 21(Suppl 1):S125-S127]

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Anticipated Effects of Nicotine Reduction on Youth Smoking Initiation and Maintenance.

Suzanne M Colby, Rachel N Cassidy, Rachel Denlinger-Apte, Tracy T Smith, Lauren R Pacek, F Joseph McClernon, Jennifer W Tidey,

This commentary summarizes emerging findings on the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy on youth and young adults. We conclude that: (1) adolescent smokers and nonsmokers alike are likely to be less sensitive to reinforcement from very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes compared with adults; (2) reducing nicotine in ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2019, 21(Suppl 1):S46-S48]

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Effects of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Smoking Behavior and Biomarkers of Exposure in Menthol and Non-menthol Smokers.

Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Michael Kotlyar, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Jennifer W Tidey, Xianghua Luo, Neal L Benowitz, Joni A Jensen, Joshua O Ikuemonisan, Lauren R Pacek, Tracy T Smith, Ryan Vandrey, Eric C Donny, Dorothy K Hatsukami,

INTRODUCTION:Because 30% of cigarettes sold in the United States are characterized as menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand how menthol preference may affect the impact of a nicotine reduction policy. METHODS:In a recent trial, non-treatment-seeking smokers were randomly assigned to receive very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNC; 0.4 mg nicotine/g ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2019, 21(Suppl 1):S63-S72]

Cited: 0 times

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Randomized Trial of Low-Nicotine Cigarettes and Transdermal Nicotine.

Tracy T Smith, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Katelyn M Tessier, Esa M Davis, Cynthia A Conklin, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Tonya Lane, Sharon E Murphy, Jennifer W Tidey, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Eric C Donny,

INTRODUCTION:A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may decrease smoking, but also increase demand for other nicotine products. The present study tested the impact of smoking cigarettes with very low nicotine content and concurrent use of a transdermal nicotine patch. STUDY DESIGN:A balanced 2 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial ... Read more >>

Am J Prev Med (American journal of preventive medicine)
[2019, 57(4):515-524]

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The rise of e-cigarettes, pod mod devices, and JUUL among youth: Factors influencing use, health implications, and downstream effects.

Matthew C Fadus, Tracy T Smith, Lindsay M Squeglia,

BACKGROUND:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were first introduced in the U.S. market in 2006, with the more recent evolution of "pod-mod" e-cigarettes such as JUUL introduced in 2015. Although marketed as a smoking cessation tool, e-cigarettes are rarely used for this purpose in youth. This review aims to synthesize the literature regarding ... Read more >>

Drug Alcohol Depend (Drug and alcohol dependence)
[2019, 201:85-93]

Cited: 7 times

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Correlates of support for a nicotine-reduction policy in smokers with 6-week exposure to very low nicotine cigarettes.

Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Jennifer W Tidey, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Tracy T Smith, Lauren R Pacek, F Joseph McClernon, Eric C Donny,

BACKGROUND:The US Food and Drug Administration recently issued an advanced notice of proposed rule-making for reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes to a minimally addictive level. Very little is known about whether use of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes affects support for a nicotine reduction policy. OBJECTIVE:This study examined ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2019, 28(3):352-355]

Cited: 0 times

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Effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes on individual withdrawal symptoms over time and during abstinence.

Sarah S Dermody, F Joseph McClernon, Neal Benowitz, Xianghua Luo, Jennifer W Tidey, Tracy T Smith, Ryan Vandrey, Dorothy Hatsukami, Eric C Donny,

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has initiated a public dialogue about reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes. A reduced-nicotine standard could increase withdrawal symptoms among current smokers. We examined the impact of switching smokers to cigarettes that varied in nicotine content on withdrawal symptoms over ... Read more >>

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol (Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology)
[2018, 26(3):223-232]

Cited: 2 times

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Whether to push or pull? Nicotine reduction and non-combusted alternatives - Two strategies for reducing smoking and improving public health.

Tracy T Smith, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neal L Benowitz, Suzanne M Colby, F Joseph McClernon, Andrew A Strasser, Jennifer W Tidey, Cassidy M White, Eric C Donny,

Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two ... Read more >>

Prev Med (Preventive medicine)
[2018, 117:8-14]

Cited: 6 times

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Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

Tracy T Smith, Laura E Rupprecht, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Jillian J Weeks, Rachel S Panas, Eric C Donny, Alan F Sved,

A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2017, 19(9):1005-1015]

Cited: 6 times

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Perceived nicotine content of reduced nicotine content cigarettes is a correlate of perceived health risks.

Lauren R Pacek, F Joseph McClernon, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Melissa Mercincavage, Andrew A Strasser, Sarah S Dermody, Ryan Vandrey, Tracy T Smith, Natalie Nardone, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Rachel V Kozink, Eric C Donny,

BACKGROUND:Reducing cigarette nicotine content may reduce smoking. Studies suggest that smokers believe that nicotine plays a role in smoking-related morbidity. This may lead smokers to assume that reduced nicotine means reduced risk, and attenuate potential positive effects on smoking behaviour. METHODS:Data came from a multisite randomised trial in which smokers ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2018, 27(4):420-426]

Cited: 7 times

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Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.

Laura E Rupprecht, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Sarah S Dermody, Jason A Oliver, Mustafa al'Absi, Neal L Benowitz, Rachel Denlinger-Apte, David J Drobes, Dorothy Hatsukami, F Joseph McClernon, Lauren R Pacek, Tracy T Smith, Alan F Sved, Jennifer Tidey, Ryan Vandrey, Eric C Donny,

BACKGROUND:The Food and Drug Administration can reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes to very low levels. This potential regulatory action is hypothesised to improve public health by reducing smoking, but may have unintended consequences related to weight gain. METHODS:Weight gain was evaluated from a double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial of ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2017, 26(e1):e43-e48]

Cited: 7 times

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Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

Laura E Rupprecht, Tracy T Smith, Eric C Donny, Alan F Sved,

Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in ... Read more >>

Physiol. Behav. (Physiology & behavior)
[2017, 176:71-75]

Cited: 3 times

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