Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Tracy K. Richmond

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Cross-classified multilevel models (CCMM) in health research: A systematic review of published empirical studies and recommendations for best practices.

Kathryn M Barker, Erin C Dunn, Tracy K Richmond, Sarah Ahmed, Matthew Hawrilenko, Clare R Evans,

Recognizing that health outcomes are influenced by and occur within multiple social and physical contexts, researchers have used multilevel modeling techniques for decades to analyze hierarchical or nested data. Cross-Classified Multilevel Models (CCMM) are a statistical technique proposed in the 1990s that extend standard multilevel modeling and enable the simultaneous ... Read more >>

SSM Popul Health (SSM - population health)
[2020, 12:100661]

Cited: 0 times

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"It's Healthy Because It's Natural." Perceptions of "Clean" Eating among U.S. Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

Suman Ambwani, Gina Sellinger, Kelsey L Rose, Tracy K Richmond, Kendrin R Sonneville,

Definitions for the culturally trendy "clean" eating phenomenon vary: whereas some characterize it as natural and healthy, others adopt more restrictive, moralizing, and affectively-laden definitions that may reflect disordered eating. We examined levels of familiarity with "clean" eating, sources of information, and perceptions of this dietary trend among a large, ... Read more >>

Nutrients (Nutrients)
[2020, 12(6):]

Cited: 0 times

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A survey of physician practices on the inpatient medical stabilization of patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.

Carly E Guss, Tracy K Richmond, Sara Forman,

Background:Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition in 2013. ARFID can result in impaired growth and significant nutritional deficiency; individuals with ARFID may be so nutritionally compromised that they require medical stabilization in a hospital. Prior to the new ... Read more >>

(Journal of eating disorders)
[2018, 6:22]

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Does an uneven sample size distribution across settings matter in cross-classified multilevel modeling? Results of a simulation study.

Carly E Milliren, Clare R Evans, Tracy K Richmond, Erin C Dunn,

BACKGROUND:Recent advances in multilevel modeling allow for modeling non-hierarchical levels (e.g., youth in non-nested schools and neighborhoods) using cross-classified multilevel models (CCMM). Current practice is to cluster samples from one context (e.g., schools) and utilize the observations however they are distributed from the second context (e.g., neighborhoods). However, it is ... Read more >>

Health Place (Health & place)
[2018, 52:121-126]

Cited: 0 times

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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent Health: An Interprofessional Case Discussion.

Jerel P Calzo, Maurice Melchiono, Tracy K Richmond, Scott F Leibowitz, Russell L Argenal, Adrianne Goncalves, Sarah Pitts, Holly C Gooding, Pamela Burke,

Introduction:Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents frequently endure considerable adversity as they encounter identity-related stigma. As a result, LGBT adolescents are often at disproportionate risk for experiencing negative social and health outcomes. Methods:This four-module curriculum allows learners to explore challenges common to the clinical care of LGBT adolescents while ... Read more >>

MedEdPORTAL (MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources)
[2017, 13:10615]

Cited: 5 times

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity.

Inyang A Isong, Sowmya R Rao, Marie-Abèle Bind, Mauricio Avendaño, Ichiro Kawachi, Tracy K Richmond,

OBJECTIVES:The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to ... Read more >>

Pediatrics (Pediatrics)
[2018, 141(1):]

Cited: 7 times

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Disentangling overlapping influences of neighborhoods and schools on adolescent body mass index.

Tracy K Richmond, Erin C Dunn, Carly E Milliren, Clare Rosenfeld Evans, S V Subramanian,

To compare the simultaneous influence of schools and neighborhoods on adolescent body mass index (BMI).Analyzing data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (n = 18,200), cross-classified multilevel modeling was used to examine the fixed and random effects of individuals, schools, and neighborhoods on adolescent ... Read more >>

Obesity (Silver Spring) (Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.))
[2016, 24(12):2570-2577]

Cited: 4 times

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Weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity associated with disordered eating behaviors.

Kendrin R Sonneville, Idia B Thurston, Carly E Milliren, Holly C Gooding, Tracy K Richmond,

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity and disordered eating behaviors. METHOD:In a subsample of young adults with overweight or obesity participating in Wave III (2001-2002) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 5,184), we ... Read more >>

Int J Eat Disord (The International journal of eating disorders)
[2016, 49(10):937-946]

Cited: 21 times

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Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

Karen E Peterson, Jennifer L Spadano-Gasbarro, Mary L Greaney, S Bryn Austin, Solomon Mezgebu, Anne T Hunt, Emily A Blood, Chrissy Horan, Henry A Feldman, Stavroula K Osganian, Maria F Bettencourt, Tracy K Richmond,

Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC), a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2015, 10(8):e0134470]

Cited: 4 times

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Achieving Cardiovascular Health in Young Adulthood-Which Adolescent Factors Matter?

Holly C Gooding, Carly Milliren, Christina M Shay, Tracy K Richmond, Alison E Field, Matthew W Gillman,

To examine associations of adolescent body mass index (BMI), tobacco use, and physical activity with optimal physiologic cardiovascular health (CVH) in adulthood.Data were from 12,139 participants in Waves I (1995-1996) and IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We defined optimal CVH as normal blood pressure, glucose, ... Read more >>

J Adolesc Health (The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine)
[2016, 58(1):119-121]

Cited: 7 times

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Using cross-classified multilevel models to disentangle school and neighborhood effects: an example focusing on smoking behaviors among adolescents in the United States.

Erin C Dunn, Tracy K Richmond, Carly E Milliren, S V Subramanian,

BACKGROUND:Despite much interest in understanding the influence of contexts on health, most research has focused on one context at a time, ignoring the reality that individuals have simultaneous memberships in multiple settings. METHOD:Using the example of smoking behavior among adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we applied ... Read more >>

Health Place (Health & place)
[2015, 31:224-232]

Cited: 18 times

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School social capital and body mass index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

Tracy K Richmond, Carly Milliren, Courtney E Walls, Ichiro Kawachi,

Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI).Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal ... Read more >>

J Sch Health (The Journal of school health)
[2014, 84(12):759-768]

Cited: 9 times

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Disentangling the relative influence of schools and neighborhoods on adolescents' risk for depressive symptoms.

Erin C Dunn, Carly E Milliren, Clare R Evans, S V Subramanian, Tracy K Richmond,

Although schools and neighborhoods influence health, little is known about their relative importance, or the influence of one context after the influence of the other has been taken into account. We simultaneously examined the influence of each setting on depression among adolescents.Analyzing data from wave 1 (1994-1995) of the National ... Read more >>

Am J Public Health (American journal of public health)
[2015, 105(4):732-740]

Cited: 14 times

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Child maltreatment and blood pressure in young adulthood.

Holly C Gooding, Carly Milliren, Katie A McLaughlin, Tracy K Richmond, Sabra L Katz-Wise, Janet Rich-Edwards, S Bryn Austin,

Adverse childhood experiences are associated with hypertension in older adults. This study assessed whether an association between child maltreatment and blood pressure is detectable in young adults and whether any association differs by sex or is modified by genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in stress sensitivity. We examined these ... Read more >>

Child Abuse Negl (Child abuse & neglect)
[2014, 38(11):1747-1754]

Cited: 3 times

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Racial/ethnic differences in accuracy of body mass index reporting in a diverse cohort of young adults.

T K Richmond, I Thurston, K Sonneville, C E Milliren, C E Walls, S B Austin,

Surveillance data describing the weight status of the U.S. population often rely on self-reported height and weight, despite likely differences in reporting accuracy by demographics. Our objective was to determine if there were racial/ethnic differences in accuracy of self-reported body mass index (BMI) in a diverse nationally representative sample of ... Read more >>

Int J Obes (Lond) (International journal of obesity (2005))
[2015, 39(3):546-548]

Cited: 15 times

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School programs and characteristics and their influence on student BMI: findings from healthy passages.

Tracy K Richmond, Marc N Elliott, Luisa Franzini, Ichiro Kawachi, Margaret O Caughy, M Janice Gilliland, Courtney E Walls, Frank A Franklin, Richard Lowry, Stephen W Banspach, Mark A Schuster,

Little is known about the contribution of school contextual factors to individual student body mass index (BMI). We set out to determine if school characteristics/resources: (1) are associated with student BMI; (2) explain racial/ethnic disparities in student BMI; and (3) explain school-level differences in student BMI.Using gender-stratified multi-level modeling strategies ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2014, 9(1):e83254]

Cited: 3 times

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Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

Sabra L Katz-Wise, Emily A Blood, Carly E Milliren, Jerel P Calzo, Tracy K Richmond, Holly C Gooding, S Bryn Austin,

Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across ... Read more >>

J Obes (Journal of obesity)
[2014, 2014:537242]

Cited: 16 times

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Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

Holly C Gooding, Shannon McGinty, Tracy K Richmond, Matthew W Gillman, Alison E Field,

Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension.To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates ... Read more >>

J Gen Intern Med (Journal of general internal medicine)
[2014, 29(8):1098-1104]

Cited: 23 times

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Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

Tracy K Richmond, Jennifer L Spadano-Gasbarro, Courtney E Walls, S Bryn Austin, Mary L Greaney, Monica L Wang, Solomon Mezegebu, Karen E Peterson,

Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools.The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools.Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school ... Read more >>

Prev Med (Preventive medicine)
[2013, 57(5):735-738]

Cited: 6 times

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The association of adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height: variation across racial/ethnic groups.

Tracy K Richmond, Courtney E Walls, S V Subramanian,

Numerous studies have demonstrated the association of childhood socioeconomic position and adult height. Many have suggested the use of adult height as a marker of overall childhood well-being. However, few studies have examined the relationship between child/adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height in a racially/ethnically diverse cohort. Using the National ... Read more >>

Econ Hum Biol (Economics and human biology)
[2013, 11(2):178-184]

Cited: 3 times

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Sexual orientation and bias in self-reported BMI.

Tracy K Richmond, Courtney E Walls, S Bryn Austin,

Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of BMI (kg/m(2)) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,197), we examined ... Read more >>

Obesity (Silver Spring) (Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.))
[2012, 20(8):1703-1709]

Cited: 17 times

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Effect of the planet health intervention on eating disorder symptoms in Massachusetts middle schools, 2005-2008.

S Bryn Austin, Jennifer L Spadano-Gasbarro, Mary L Greaney, Emily A Blood, Anne T Hunt, Tracy K Richmond, Monica L Wang, Solomon Mezgebu, Stavroula K Osganian, Karen E Peterson,

The Planet Health obesity prevention curriculum has prevented purging and abuse of diet pills (disordered weight control behavior [DWCB]) in middle-school girls in randomized trials, but the effects of Planet Health on DWCB when implemented by schools under dissemination conditions are not known.Massachusetts Department of Public Health and Blue Cross ... Read more >>

Prev Chronic Dis (Preventing chronic disease)
[2012, 9:E171; quiz E171]

Cited: 9 times

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The association of body mass index and externally perceived attractiveness across race/ethnicity, gender, and time.

Tracy K Richmond, S Bryn Austin, Courtney E Walls, S V Subramanian,

Being perceived by others as unattractive is associated with negative health and social consequences. Overweight individuals may be more likely to be perceived by others as unattractive, thereby further endangering their well-being. Our objective was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with perceptions by others regarding attractiveness ... Read more >>

J Adolesc Health (The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine)
[2012, 50(1):74-79.e2]

Cited: 3 times

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Disordered weight control behaviors in early adolescent boys and girls of color: an under-recognized factor in the epidemic of childhood overweight.

S Bryn Austin, Jennifer Spadano-Gasbarro, Mary L Greaney, Tracy K Richmond, Henry A Feldman, Stavroula K Osganian, Anne T Hunt, Solomon Mezgebu, Karen E Peterson,

Ethnic disparities in childhood overweight are well-documented. In addition, disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) have been linked to overweight and weight gain in multiple ways, but little is known about DWCB in youth of color, especially boys. We examined the distribution and determinants of ethnic and gender disparities in DWCB ... Read more >>

J Adolesc Health (The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine)
[2011, 48(1):109-112]

Cited: 30 times

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School variation in asthma: compositional or contextual?

Tracy K Richmond, S V Subramanian,

BACKGROUND:Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity have been shown to vary by neighborhood. Less is known about between-school variation in asthma prevalence and whether it exists beyond what one might expect due to students at higher risk of asthma clustering within different schools. Our objective was to determine whether between-school variation ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2009, 4(12):e8512]

Cited: 3 times

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