Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Timothy E J Behrens


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Episodic memory retrieval success is associated with rapid replay of episode content.

G Elliott Wimmer, Yunzhe Liu, Neža Vehar, Timothy E J Behrens, Raymond J Dolan,

Retrieval of everyday experiences is fundamental for informing our future decisions. The fine-grained neurophysiological mechanisms that support such memory retrieval are largely unknown. We studied participants who first experienced, without repetition, unique multicomponent 40-80-s episodes. One day later, they engaged in cued retrieval of these episodes while undergoing magnetoencephalography. By ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2020, 23(8):1025-1033]

Cited: 0 times

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Reinforcement Learning: Full Glass or Empty - Depends Who You Ask.

Jacob J W Bakermans, Timothy H Muller, Timothy E J Behrens,

An extension of the prediction error theory of dopamine, imported from artificial intelligence, represents the full distribution over future rewards rather than only the average and better explains dopamine responses. ... Read more >>

Curr. Biol. (Current biology : CB)
[2020, 30(7):R321-R324]

Cited: 0 times

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Human Replay Spontaneously Reorganizes Experience.

Yunzhe Liu, Raymond J Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Timothy E J Behrens,

Knowledge abstracted from previous experiences can be transferred to aid new learning. Here, we asked whether such abstract knowledge immediately guides the replay of new experiences. We first trained participants on a rule defining an ordering of objects and then presented a novel set of objects in a scrambled order. ... Read more >>

Cell (Cell)
[2019, 178(3):640-652.e14]

Cited: 7 times

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The Hippocampus and Neocortical Inhibitory Engrams Protect against Memory Interference.

Renée S Koolschijn, Uzay E Emir, Alexandros C Pantelides, Hamed Nili, Timothy E J Behrens, Helen C Barron,

Our experiences often overlap with each other, yet we are able to selectively recall individual memories to guide decisions and future actions. The neural mechanisms that support such precise memory recall remain unclear. Here, using ultra-high field 7T MRI we reveal two distinct mechanisms that protect memories from interference. The ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2019, 101(3):528-541.e6]

Cited: 3 times

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What Is a Cognitive Map? Organizing Knowledge for Flexible Behavior.

Timothy E J Behrens, Timothy H Muller, James C R Whittington, Shirley Mark, Alon B Baram, Kimberly L Stachenfeld, Zeb Kurth-Nelson,

It is proposed that a cognitive map encoding the relationships between entities in the world supports flexible behavior, but the majority of the neural evidence for such a system comes from studies of spatial navigation. Recent work describing neuronal parallels between spatial and non-spatial behaviors has rekindled the notion of ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2018, 100(2):490-509]

Cited: 19 times

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Triple dissociation of attention and decision computations across prefrontal cortex.

Laurence T Hunt, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Archy O de Berker, Bruno Miranda, Simon F Farmer, Timothy E J Behrens, Steven W Kennerley,

Naturalistic decision-making typically involves sequential deployment of attention to choice alternatives to gather information before a decision is made. Attention filters how information enters decision circuits, thus implying that attentional control may shape how decision computations unfold. We recorded neuronal activity from three subregions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2018, 21(10):1471-1481]

Cited: 13 times

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Simultaneous representation of a spectrum of dynamically changing value estimates during decision making.

David Meder, Nils Kolling, Lennart Verhagen, Marco K Wittmann, Jacqueline Scholl, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oliver J Hulme, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F S Rushworth,

Decisions are based on value expectations derived from experience. We show that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and three other brain regions hold multiple representations of choice value based on different timescales of experience organized in terms of systematic gradients across the cortex. Some parts of each area represent value estimates ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2017, 8(1):1942]

Cited: 8 times

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Repetition suppression: a means to index neural representations using BOLD?

Helen C Barron, Mona M Garvert, Timothy E J Behrens,

Understanding how the human brain gives rise to complex cognitive processes remains one of the biggest challenges of contemporary neuroscience. While invasive recording in animal models can provide insight into neural processes that are conserved across species, our understanding of cognition more broadly relies upon investigation of the human brain ... Read more >>

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences)
[2016, 371(1705):]

Cited: 32 times

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Organizing conceptual knowledge in humans with a gridlike code.

Alexandra O Constantinescu, Jill X O'Reilly, Timothy E J Behrens,

It has been hypothesized that the brain organizes concepts into a mental map, allowing conceptual relationships to be navigated in a manner similar to that of space. Grid cells use a hexagonally symmetric code to organize spatial representations and are the likely source of a precise hexagonal symmetry in the ... Read more >>

Science (Science (New York, N.Y.))
[2016, 352(6292):1464-1468]

Cited: 93 times

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The Human Connectome Project's neuroimaging approach.

Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Daniel S Marcus, Jesper L R Andersson, Edward J Auerbach, Timothy E J Behrens, Timothy S Coalson, Michael P Harms, Mark Jenkinson, Steen Moeller, Emma C Robinson, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Junqian Xu, Essa Yacoub, Kamil Ugurbil, David C Van Essen,

Noninvasive human neuroimaging has yielded many discoveries about the brain. Numerous methodological advances have also occurred, though inertia has slowed their adoption. This paper presents an integrated approach to data acquisition, analysis and sharing that builds upon recent advances, particularly from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 'HCP-style' paradigm has ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2016, 19(9):1175-1187]

Cited: 135 times

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Fusion in diffusion MRI for improved fibre orientation estimation: An application to the 3T and 7T data of the Human Connectome Project.

Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Moisés Hernández-Fernández, An T Vu, Jesper L Andersson, Steen Moeller, Essa Yacoub, Christophe Lenglet, Kamil Ugurbil, Timothy E J Behrens, Saad Jbabdi,

Determining the acquisition parameters in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is governed by a series of trade-offs. Images of lower resolution have less spatial specificity but higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). At the same time higher angular contrast, important for resolving complex fibre patterns, also yields lower SNR. Considering ... Read more >>

Neuroimage (NeuroImage)
[2016, 134:396-409]

Cited: 28 times

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Reward-Guided Learning with and without Causal Attribution.

Gerhard Jocham, Kay H Brodersen, Alexandra O Constantinescu, Martin C Kahn, Angela M Ianni, Mark E Walton, Matthew F S Rushworth, Timothy E J Behrens,

When an organism receives a reward, it is crucial to know which of many candidate actions caused this reward. However, recent work suggests that learning is possible even when this most fundamental assumption is not met. We used novel reward-guided learning paradigms in two fMRI studies to show that humans ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2016, 90(1):177-190]

Cited: 19 times

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Capturing the temporal evolution of choice across prefrontal cortex.

Laurence T Hunt, Timothy E J Behrens, Takayuki Hosokawa, Jonathan D Wallis, Steven W Kennerley,

Activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been richly described using economic models of choice. Yet such descriptions fail to capture the dynamics of decision formation. Describing dynamic neural processes has proven challenging due to the problem of indexing the internal state of PFC and its trial-by-trial variation. Using primate neurophysiology ... Read more >>

Elife (eLife)
[2015, 4:]

Cited: 23 times

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A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior.

Stephen M Smith, Thomas E Nichols, Diego Vidaurre, Anderson M Winkler, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F Glasser, Kamil Ugurbil, Deanna M Barch, David C Van Essen, Karla L Miller,

We investigated the relationship between individual subjects' functional connectomes and 280 behavioral and demographic measures in a single holistic multivariate analysis relating imaging to non-imaging data from 461 subjects in the Human Connectome Project. We identified one strong mode of population co-variation: subjects were predominantly spread along a single 'positive-negative' ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2015, 18(11):1565-1567]

Cited: 160 times

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Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers.

Matthew S M Lim, Gerhard Jocham, Laurence T Hunt, Timothy E J Behrens, Robert D Rogers,

Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise ... Read more >>

Int Gambl Stud (International gambling studies)
[2015, 15(3):489-505]

Cited: 0 times

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Reassessing VMPFC: full of confidence?

Helen C Barron, Mona M Garvert, Timothy E J Behrens,

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2015, 18(8):1064-1066]

Cited: 5 times

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Correction: Accelerating Fibre Orientation Estimation from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using GPUs.

Moisés Hernández, Ginés D Guerrero, José M Cecilia, José M García, Alberto Inuggi, Saad Jbabdi, Timothy E J Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos,

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2015, 10(6):e0130915]

Cited: 0 times

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Learning-induced plasticity in medial prefrontal cortex predicts preference malleability.

Mona M Garvert, Michael Moutoussis, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Timothy E J Behrens, Raymond J Dolan,

Learning induces plasticity in neuronal networks. As neuronal populations contribute to multiple representations, we reasoned plasticity in one representation might influence others. We used human fMRI repetition suppression to show that plasticity induced by learning another individual's values impacts upon a value representation for oneself in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2015, 85(2):418-428]

Cited: 35 times

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Hierarchical competitions subserving multi-attribute choice.

Laurence T Hunt, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy E J Behrens,

Valuation is a key tenet of decision neuroscience, where it is generally assumed that different attributes of competing options are assimilated into unitary values. Such values are central to current neural models of choice. By contrast, psychological studies emphasize complex interactions between choice and valuation. Principles of neuronal selection also ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2014, 17(11):1613-1622]

Cited: 43 times

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The neural network underlying incentive-based learning: implications for interpreting circuit disruptions in psychiatric disorders.

Suzanne N Haber, Timothy E J Behrens,

Coupling stimuli and actions with positive or negative outcomes facilitates the selection of appropriate actions. Several brain regions are involved in the development of goal-directed behaviors and habit formation during incentive-based learning. This Review focuses on higher cognitive control of decision making and the cortical and subcortical structures and connections ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2014, 83(5):1019-1039]

Cited: 75 times

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Trial-type dependent frames of reference for value comparison.

Laurence T Hunt, Mark W Woolrich, Matthew F S Rushworth, Timothy E J Behrens,

A central question in cognitive neuroscience regards the means by which options are compared and decisions are resolved during value-guided choice. It is clear that several component processes are needed; these include identifying options, a value-based comparison, and implementation of actions to execute the decision. What is less clear is ... Read more >>

PLoS Comput. Biol. (PLoS computational biology)
[2013, 9(9):e1003225]

Cited: 27 times

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Online evaluation of novel choices by simultaneous representation of multiple memories.

Helen C Barron, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy E J Behrens,

Prior experience is critical for decision-making. It enables explicit representation of potential outcomes and provides training to valuation mechanisms. However, we can also make choices in the absence of prior experience by merely imagining the consequences of a new experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging repetition suppression in humans, we ... Read more >>

Nat. Neurosci. (Nature neuroscience)
[2013, 16(10):1492-1498]

Cited: 83 times

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The WU-Minn Human Connectome Project: an overview.

David C Van Essen, Stephen M Smith, Deanna M Barch, Timothy E J Behrens, Essa Yacoub, Kamil Ugurbil, ,

The Human Connectome Project consortium led by Washington University, University of Minnesota, and Oxford University is undertaking a systematic effort to map macroscopic human brain circuits and their relationship to behavior in a large population of healthy adults. This overview article focuses on progress made during the first half of ... Read more >>

Neuroimage (NeuroImage)
[2013, 80:62-79]

Cited: 802 times

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Dissociable effects of surprise and model update in parietal and anterior cingulate cortex.

Jill X O'Reilly, Urs Schüffelgen, Steven F Cuell, Timothy E J Behrens, Rogier B Mars, Matthew F S Rushworth,

Brains use predictive models to facilitate the processing of expected stimuli or planned actions. Under a predictive model, surprising (low probability) stimuli or actions necessitate the immediate reallocation of processing resources, but they can also signal the need to update the underlying predictive model to reflect changes in the environment. ... Read more >>

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2013, 110(38):E3660-9]

Cited: 95 times

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Pushing spatial and temporal resolution for functional and diffusion MRI in the Human Connectome Project.

Kamil Uğurbil, Junqian Xu, Edward J Auerbach, Steen Moeller, An T Vu, Julio M Duarte-Carvajalino, Christophe Lenglet, Xiaoping Wu, Sebastian Schmitter, Pierre Francois Van de Moortele, John Strupp, Guillermo Sapiro, Federico De Martino, Dingxin Wang, Noam Harel, Michael Garwood, Liyong Chen, David A Feinberg, Stephen M Smith, Karla L Miller, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Jesper L R Andersson, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F Glasser, David C Van Essen, Essa Yacoub, ,

The Human Connectome Project (HCP) relies primarily on three complementary magnetic resonance (MR) methods. These are: 1) resting state functional MR imaging (rfMRI) which uses correlations in the temporal fluctuations in an fMRI time series to deduce 'functional connectivity'; 2) diffusion imaging (dMRI), which provides the input for tractography algorithms ... Read more >>

Neuroimage (NeuroImage)
[2013, 80:80-104]

Cited: 257 times

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