Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Sylvia M LaCourse

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Urine Biomarker Assessment of Infant Adherence to Isoniazid Prophylaxis.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Daniel Leon, Nuttada Panpradist, Barbra A Richardson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Jerphason Mecha, Daniel Matemo, Jaclyn N Escudero, John Kinuthia, Barry Lutz, Grace John-Stewart,

We assessed adherence in an infant tuberculosis prevention trial in Kenya with a urine isoniazid metabolite-detecting dipstick. Ninety-seven infants had 155 assays performed; 77 (49.7%) were found to be positive despite caregiver-reported adherence. Positive assays were associated with maternal secondary education, HIV suppression and no reported missed doses in past ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(1):e43-e45]

Cited: 0 times

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Using a composite maternal-infant outcome measure in tuberculosis prevention studies among pregnant women.

Grace Montepiedra, Soyeon Kim, Adriana Weinberg, Gerhard Theron, Timothy R Sterling, Sylvia M LaCourse, Sarah Bradford, Nahida Chakhtoura, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Scott Evans, Amita Gupta,

<h4>Background</h4>Tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) among pregnant women reduces the risk of TB in mothers and infants, but the timing of initiation should consider potential adverse effects. We propose an analytical approach to evaluate the risk-benefit of interventions.<h4>Methods</h4>A novel outcome measure that prioritizes maternal and infant events was developed with ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

Cited: 0 times

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Low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among pregnant and postpartum patients with universal screening in Seattle, Washington.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Alisa Kachikis, Michela Blain, LaVone E Simmons, James A Mays, Amber D Pattison, Carol C Salerno, Stephen A McCartney, Nicole M Kretzer, Rebecca Resnick, Rosemary L Shay, Leah M Savitsky, Anna C Curtin, Emily M Huebner, Kimberly K Ma, Shani Delaney, Carlos Delgado, Adrienne Schippers, Jeff Munson, Paul S Pottinger, Seth Cohen, Santiago Neme, Lori Bourassa, Andrew Bryan, Alex Greninger, Keith R Jerome, Alison C Roxby, Erica Lokken, Edith Cheng, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Jane Hitti,

We found a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (2.7% [5/188]) among pregnant and postpartum patients after initiating universal testing. Prevalence among symptomatic patients (22.2% [4/18]) was similar to initial targeted screening approaches (19.1% [8/42]). Among 170 asymptomatic patients, two were positive or inconclusive, respectively; repeat testing at 24 hours was negative. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

Cited: 0 times

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COVID-19 pharmacologic treatments for children: research priorities and approach to pediatric studies.

Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Nicole Salazar-Austin, James H Conway, Kendra Radtke, Sylvia M LaCourse, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Anneke C Hesseling, Rada M Savic, Sharon Nachman,

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared to adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Effects of Pregnancy and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy on M. tuberculosis Interferon Gamma Response Assays in Women with HIV.

Adriana Weinberg, Lisa Aaron, Grace Montepiedra, Timothy R Sterling, Renee Browning, Blandina Mmbaga, Tichaona Vhembo, Shilpa Naik, Enid Kabugho, Gaerolwe Masheto, Savita Pahwa, Jyoti S Mathad, Sylvia M LaCourse, Katie McCarthy, Sarah Bradford, Gerhard Theron, Diane Costello, Bonnie Zimmer, Marie F Pierre, Kamunkhwala Gausi, Paolo Denti, David W Haas, Amita Gupta, ,

<h4>Background</h4>Pregnancy is accompanied by immune suppression. We hypothesized that M. tuberculosis-specific inflammatory responses used to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) lose positivity during pregnancy. We also hypothesized that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) may revert LTBI diagnoses because of its sterilizing activity.<h4>Methods</h4>944 women with HIV participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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A randomized controlled trial of isoniazid to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Kenyan HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, A J Warr, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Daniel Matemo, Lisa M Cranmer, Jerphason Mecha, Jaclyn N Escudero, Thomas R Hawn, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Background</h4>HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants in endemic settings are at high risk of tuberculosis (TB). For infants, progression from primary M. tuberculosis infection to TB disease can be rapid. We assessed whether isoniazid (INH) prevents primary Mtb infection.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a randomized non-blinded controlled trial enrolling HEU infants 6 weeks of age ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

Cited: 0 times

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Clinical characteristics of 46 pregnant women with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in Washington State.

Erica M Lokken, Christie L Walker, Shani Delaney, Alisa Kachikis, Nicole M Kretzer, Anne Erickson, Rebecca Resnick, Jeroen Vanderhoeven, Joseph K Hwang, Nena Barnhart, Jasmine Rah, Stephen A McCartney, Kimberly K Ma, Emily M Huebner, Chad Thomas, Jessica S Sheng, Bettina W Paek, Kristin Retzlaff, Carolyn R Kline, Jeff Munson, Michela Blain, Sylvia M LaCourse, Gail Deutsch, Kristina M Adams Waldorf,

<h4>Background</h4>The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk ... Read more >>

Am J Obstet Gynecol (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology)
[2020, 223(6):911.e1-911.e14]

Cited: 13 times

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TB prevention strategies and unanswered questions for pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV: the need for improved evidence.

Jyoti S Mathad, Sylvia M LaCourse, Amita Gupta,

J Int AIDS Soc (Journal of the International AIDS Society)
[2020, 23(3):e25481]

Cited: 0 times

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Infant TB Infection Prevention Study (iTIPS): a randomised trial protocol evaluating isoniazid to prevent M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed uninfected children.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, A J Warr, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Daniel Matemo, Lisa M Cranmer, Jaclyn N Escudero, Thomas R Hawn, Grace C John-Stewart,

INTRODUCTION:HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants in tuberculosis (TB) endemic settings are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and TB disease, even in the absence of known Mtb exposure. Because infancy is a time of rapid progression from primary infection to active TB disease, it is important to define when ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(1):e034308]

Cited: 0 times

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Brief Report: High Programmatic Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) Use in Pregnancy Among HIV-Infected Women.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Anjuli D Wagner, Lisa M Cranmer, Audrey Copeland, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Barbra A Richardson, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Background</h4>The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) to prevent tuberculosis (TB), including pregnant women. Recent trial results suggest increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IPT during pregnancy. Data are limited regarding programmatic IPT use in pregnant PLHIV.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed previous programmatic IPT during ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2019, 82(1):41-45]

Cited: 2 times

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Brief Report: Cofactors of Mortality Among Hospitalized HIV-Infected Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya.

Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Anjuli D Wagner, Sylvia M LaCourse, Cyrus Mugo, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra A Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Identifying factors associated with mortality among acutely ill HIV-infected children presenting with advanced HIV disease may help clinicians optimize care for those at highest risk of death.<h4>Design</h4>Using data from a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880), we determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2019, 81(2):138-144]

Cited: 0 times

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Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated With Tuberculosis Disease and Declines With Anti-TB Treatment in HIV-Infected Children.

Rewa K Choudhary, Kristin M Wall, Irene Njuguna, Patricia B Pavlinac, Sylvia M LaCourse, Vincent Otieno, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Lisa M Cranmer,

<h4>Background</h4>The blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is associated with active tuberculosis (TB) in adults but has not been evaluated as a TB diagnostic biomarker in HIV-infected children in whom respiratory sampling is difficult.<h4>Setting</h4>In a cohort of HIV-infected hospitalized Kenyan children initiating antiretroviral therapy, absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were determined at ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2019, 80(2):174-181]

Cited: 1 time

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Urine Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Judd L Walson, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Patricia B Pavlinac,

Clinical Trials Registration:NCT02063880. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2018, 66(11):1798-1801]

Cited: 2 times

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Symptom screening for active tuberculosis in pregnant women living with HIV.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Adrie Bekker, Karen R Steingart, Danae Black, David J Horne, Eyal Oren, Sherri Pals, Surbhi Modi, Jyoti Mathad,

This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Diagnostic test accuracy). The objectives are as follows: To assess the accuracy of the four-symptom screen (cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) for identifying active TB in pregnant PLHIV who are screened in an outpatient or community setting. To investigate potential ... Read more >>

Cochrane Database Syst Rev (The Cochrane database of systematic reviews)
[2018, 2018(1):]

Cited: 2 times

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Stool Xpert MTB/RIF and urine lipoarabinomannan for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in hospitalized HIV-infected children.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart,

BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and the paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS:Hospitalized, HIV-infected children aged 12 years or less enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2018, 32(1):69-78]

Cited: 17 times

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Evaluation of the Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Care Cascade Among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Ruth W Deya, Susan M Graham, Linnet N Masese, Walter Jaoko, Kischorchandra N Mandaliya, Julie Overbaugh, R Scott McClelland,

<h4>Background</h4>Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs) have a high HIV prevalence, increasing their tuberculosis (TB) risk. Despite recommendations that HIV-positive individuals be offered isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), uptake has been limited.<h4>Methods</h4>In this longitudinal cohort of HIV-positive FSWs, we retrospectively characterized the IPT care cascade between March 2000 and January 2010, including ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2017, 76(1):74-81]

Cited: 3 times

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Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Background</h4>Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women.<h4>Methods</h4>HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2017, 75(1):128-136]

Cited: 3 times

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Tuberculosis Case Finding in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Kenya Reveals Poor Performance of Symptom Screening and Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, David J Horne,

BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy in HIV-infected women is associated with poor maternal and infant outcomes. There are limited data on TB prevalence, optimal TB screening, and performance of rapid diagnostics in pregnant HIV-infected women. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in western Kenya. After ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2016, 71(2):219-227]

Cited: 21 times

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Risk of Adverse Infant Outcomes Associated with Maternal Tuberculosis in a Low Burden Setting: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Sharon A Greene, Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Stephen E Hawes,

<h4>Background</h4>Maternal tuberculosis (TB) may be associated with increased risk of adverse infant outcomes.<h4>Study design</h4>We examined the risk of low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth (<37 weeks) associated with maternal TB in a retrospective population-based Washington State cohort using linked infant birth certificate and maternal ... Read more >>

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol (Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology)
[2016, 2016:6413713]

Cited: 1 time

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Implementation and Operational Research: Implementation of Routine Counselor-Initiated Opt-Out HIV Testing on the Adult Medical Ward at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Frances M Chester, Mitch Matoga, Charles Munthali, Dominic Nsona, Bryce Haac, Irving F Hoffman, Mina C Hosseinipour,

The optimal approach of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for inpatients in high-burden settings is unknown. We prospectively evaluated the implementation of task shifting from clinician-referral to counselor-initiated PITC on the medical wards of Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi. Most of patients (1905/3154, 60.4%) had an unknown admission HIV status. ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2015, 69(1):e31-5]

Cited: 6 times

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Pain and bloody ear discharge in a returning traveler.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Raquel M Martinez, David H Spach, Ferric C Fang,

Cochliomyia hominivorax, the New World screwworm, was a serious livestock pest in the southern United States until the 1960s, when it was successfully eradicated by the release of sterile male flies. It remains endemic in parts of the Caribbean and South America, and there is concern that climate change may ... Read more >>

Am J Trop Med Hyg (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2015, 92(3):599-600]

Cited: 2 times

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Use of Xpert for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in severely malnourished hospitalized Malawian children.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Frances M Chester, Geoffrey Preidis, Leah M McCrary, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Madalitso Maliwichi, Grace James, Eric D McCollum, Mina C Hosseinipour,

<h4>Background </h4>Pulmonary tuberculosis contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in severely malnourished children in endemic settings. Despite high clinical suspicion, few tuberculosis prevalence estimates exist in malnourished African children. Diagnostics such as Xpert MTB/RIF may help to determine pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence, however its performance in severely malnourished children is largely ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2014, 33(11):1200-1202]

Cited: 11 times

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Lay-screeners and use of WHO growth standards increase case finding of hospitalized Malawian children with severe acute malnutrition.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Frances M Chester, Geoffrey Preidis, Leah M McCrary, Madalitso Maliwichi, Eric D McCollum, Mina C Hosseinipour,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Strategies to effectively identify and refer children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) to Nutritional Rehabilitation units (NRU) can reduce morbidity and mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>From December 2011 to May 2012, we conducted a prospective study task-shifting inpatient malnutrition screening of Malawian children 6-60 months to lay-screeners and evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) criteria ... Read more >>

J Trop Pediatr (Journal of tropical pediatrics)
[2015, 61(1):44-53]

Cited: 2 times

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HIV testing and epidemiology in a hospital-based surgical cohort in Malawi.

Bryce E Haac, Anthony G Charles, Mitch Matoga, Sylvia M LaCourse, Dominic Nonsa, Mina Hosseinipour,

<h4>Background</h4>Despite the high prevalence of HIV in adults (11 %) in Malawi, testing among surgical patients is not routine. We examined the feasibility of universal opt-out HIV testing and counseling (HTC) on the surgical wards of Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi, and sought to further delineate the role of ... Read more >>

World J Surg (World journal of surgery)
[2013, 37(9):2122-2128]

Cited: 9 times

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