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Relational memory in the early stage of psychotic bipolar disorder.

Rachel A McKinney, Suzanne N Avery, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers,

Relational memory is impaired in psychotic disorders. In non-affective psychotic disorders, relational memory deficits are present in the early stage of illness and become more pronounced in the chronic stage. Previous studies have demonstrated cognitive deficits in early-stage psychotic bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether relational memory is impaired. ... Read more >>

Psychiatry Res (Psychiatry research)
[2020, 294:113508]

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The evolution of Kraepelin's nosological principles.

Stephan Heckers, Kenneth S Kendler,

Emil Kraepelin developed a new psychiatric nosology in the eight editions of his textbook. Previous papers have explored his construction of particular diagnoses, including dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity. Here we are providing a close reading of his introductory textbook chapter, that presents his general principles of nosology. We identify ... Read more >>

World Psychiatry (World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA))
[2020, 19(3):381-388]

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A Case of Concurrent Delirium and Catatonia in a Woman With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Jamelleh Amouri, Patricia S Andrews, Stephan Heckers, E Wesley Ely, Jo Ellen Wilson,

Psychosomatics (Psychosomatics)
[2020, :]

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Thalamic Nuclei Volumes in Psychotic Disorders and in Youths With Psychosis Spectrum Symptoms.

Anna S Huang, Baxter P Rogers, Julia M Sheffield, Maria E Jalbrzikowski, Alan Anticevic, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward,

OBJECTIVE:Thalamus models of psychosis implicate association nuclei in the pathogenesis of psychosis and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Studies to date have provided conflicting findings for structural deficits specific to these nuclei. The authors sought to characterize thalamic structural abnormalities in psychosis and a neurodevelopmental cohort, and to determine whether nuclear ... Read more >>

Am J Psychiatry (The American journal of psychiatry)
[2020, :appiajp202019101099]

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Hippocampal volume and hippocampal neuron density, number and size in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of postmortem studies.

Maxwell J Roeske, Christine Konradi, Stephan Heckers, Alan S Lewis,

Reduced hippocampal volume is a consistent finding in neuroimaging studies of individuals with schizophrenia. While these studies have the advantage of large-sample sizes, they are unable to quantify the cellular basis of structural or functional changes. In contrast, postmortem studies are well suited to explore subfield and cellular alterations, but ... Read more >>

Mol. Psychiatry (Molecular psychiatry)
[2020, :]

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Hippocampal volume in early psychosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

Maureen McHugo, Kristan Armstrong, Maxwell J Roeske, Neil D Woodward, Jennifer U Blackford, Stephan Heckers,

Cross-sectional studies suggest that hippocampal volume declines across stages of psychosis. In contrast, longitudinal studies indicate that hippocampal volume is stable in the critical period following illness onset. How can these seemingly disparate sets of findings be resolved? In the present study, we examine two previously unexplored reasons for this ... Read more >>

Transl Psychiatry (Translational psychiatry)
[2020, 10(1):306]

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Habituation during encoding: A new approach to the evaluation of memory deficits in schizophrenia.

Suzanne N Avery, Maureen McHugo, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer U Blackford, Simon Vandekar, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers,

BACKGROUND:Memory is significantly impaired in schizophrenia. However, memory measures are often complex and confounded by additional impairments such as motivation and task comprehension, which can affect behavioral performance and obscure neural function during memory tasks. Neural signatures of memory encoding that are robust to potential confounds may shed additional light ... Read more >>

Schizophr. Res. (Schizophrenia research)
[2020, :]

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Relational Memory in the Early Stage of Psychosis: A 2-Year Follow-up Study.

Suzanne N Avery, Kristan Armstrong, Maureen McHugo, Simon Vandekar, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers,

BACKGROUND:Relational memory, the ability to bind information into complex memories, is moderately impaired in early psychosis and severely impaired in chronic schizophrenia, suggesting relational memory may worsen throughout the course of illness. METHODS:We examined relational memory in 66 early psychosis patients and 64 healthy control subjects, with 59 patients and ... Read more >>

Schizophr Bull (Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2020, :]

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Evidence for inhibited temperament as a transdiagnostic factor across mood and psychotic disorders.

Brandee Feola, Kristan Armstrong, Elizabeth A Flook, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford,

BACKGROUND:The conceptualization of risk for psychiatric illness is moving from risk factors for specific psychiatric disorders to factors that confer risk for multiple disorders. One potential transdiagnostic risk factor is inhibited temperament, a trait characterized by a fearful or avoidant response to novelty. Inhibited temperament is an established risk factor ... Read more >>

J Affect Disord (Journal of affective disorders)
[2020, 274:995-1003]

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Declined functional connectivity of white matter during rest and working memory tasks associates with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia

Yurui Gao, Muwei Li, Anna Huang, Adam Anderson, Zhaohua Ding, Stephan Heckers, Neil Woodward, John Gore,

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia, characterized by cognitive impairments, arises from a disturbance of brain network. Pathological changes in white matter (WM) have been indicated as playing a role in disturbing neural connectivity in schizophrenia. However, deficits of functional connectivity (FC) in individual WM bundles in schizophrenia have never been explored; neither have ... Read more >>

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Cognitive motor impairments and brain structure in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients with a history of catatonia.

Derek J Dean, Neil Woodward, Sebastian Walther, Maureen McHugo, Kristan Armstrong, Stephan Heckers,

There is growing interest in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of catatonia. Here, we examine cognition and brain structure in schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) patients with a history of catatonia. A total of 172 subjects were selected from a data repository; these included SSD patients with (n = 43) and without ... Read more >>

Schizophr Res (Schizophrenia research)
[2020, 222:335-341]

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Insula functional connectivity in schizophrenia.

Julia M Sheffield, Baxter P Rogers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward,

The insula is structurally abnormal in schizophrenia, demonstrating reductions in volume, cortical thickness, and altered gyrification during prodromal, early and chronic stages of the illness. Despite compelling structural alterations, less is known about its functional connectivity, limited by studies considering the insula as a whole or only within the context ... Read more >>

Schizophr. Res. (Schizophrenia research)
[2020, 220:69-77]

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Close Reading of Old Texts-Towards a Psychiatric Hermeneutics.

Stephan Heckers,

(Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2020, 46(3):455-457]

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Thalamocortical Anatomical Connectivity in Schizophrenia and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.

Julia M Sheffield, Anna S Huang, Baxter P Rogers, Monica Giraldo-Chica, Bennett A Landman, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward,

BACKGROUND:Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and cortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is abnormal in schizophrenia. Overlapping phenotypes, including deficits in executive cognitive abilities dependent on PFC-thalamic circuitry, suggest dysrupted thalamocortical anatomical connectivity may extend to psychotic bipolar disorder. We tested this hypothesis and examined the impact of illness stage ... Read more >>

Schizophr Bull (Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2020, :]

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Visual exploration differences during relational memory encoding in early psychosis.

David Y Suh, Simon N Vandekar, Stephan Heckers, Suzanne N Avery,

Relational memory, or the ability to form contextual associations among items encountered closely in time, is impaired in schizophrenia. The ability to bind items into a relational memory is dependent on the hippocampus, a region that is abnormal in schizophrenia. However, the hippocampus is also involved in exploratory behavior, leaving ... Read more >>

Psychiatry Res (Psychiatry research)
[2020, 287:112910]

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Insula Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia

Julia Sheffield, Baxter Rogers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil Woodward,

Abstract The insula is structurally abnormal in schizophrenia, demonstrating robust reductions in gray matter volume, cortical thickness, and altered gyrification during prodromal, early and chronic stages of the illness. Despite compelling structural alterations, less is known about its functional connectivity, limited by studies considering the insula as a whole or ... Read more >>

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BNST-insula structural connectivity in humans.

Elizabeth A Flook, Brandee Feola, Suzanne N Avery, Danny G Winder, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford,

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is emerging as a critical region in multiple psychiatric disorders including anxiety, PTSD, and alcohol and substance use disorders. In conjunction with growing knowledge of the BNST, an increasing number of studies examine connections of the BNST and how those connections impact ... Read more >>

Neuroimage (NeuroImage)
[2020, 210:116555]

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Correction: Brain function during stages of working memory in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder.

Anna S Huang, Baxter P Rogers, Alan Anticevic, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward,

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. ... Read more >>

Neuropsychopharmacology (Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology)
[2019, 44(12):2143]

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Hyperactivity and Reduced Activation of Anterior Hippocampus in Early Psychosis.

Maureen McHugo, Pratik Talati, Kristan Armstrong, Simon N Vandekar, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers,

OBJECTIVE:In schizophrenia, the anterior hippocampus is hyperactive and shows reduced task-related recruitment, but the relationship between these two findings is unclear. The authors tested the hypothesis that hyperactivity impairs recruitment of the anterior hippocampus during scene processing. METHODS:Functional MRI data from 45 early-psychosis patients and 35 demographically matched healthy control ... Read more >>

Am J Psychiatry (The American journal of psychiatry)
[2019, 176(12):1030-1038]

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Impaired relational memory in the early stage of psychosis.

Suzanne N Avery, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer U Blackford, Neil D Woodward, Neal Cohen, Stephan Heckers,

BACKGROUND:Humans constantly take in vast amounts of information, which must be filtered, flexibly manipulated, and integrated into cohesive relational memories in order to choose relevant behaviors. Relational memory is impaired in chronic schizophrenia, which has been linked to hippocampal dysfunction. It is unclear whether relational memory is impaired in the ... Read more >>

Schizophr Res (Schizophrenia research)
[2019, 212:113-120]

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Disrupted Habituation in the Early Stage of Psychosis.

Suzanne N Avery, Maureen McHugo, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer U Blackford, Neil D Woodward, Stephan Heckers,

BACKGROUND:Learning and memory are impaired in schizophrenia. Some theories have proposed that one form of memory, habituation, is particularly impaired. Preliminary evidence suggests that memory impairment is associated with failed hippocampal habituation in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We studied how abnormal habituation of the hippocampus is related to relational memory ... Read more >>

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging (Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging)
[2019, 4(11):1004-1012]

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Brain function during stages of working memory in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder.

Anna S Huang, Baxter P Rogers, Alan Anticevic, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward,

Working memory (WM) is impaired in psychotic disorders and linked to functional outcome. Most neurobiological models emphasize prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction in the etiology of WM impairment. However, WM is composed of multiple processes, including encoding and maintenance, and the delineation of the neurobiology of these sub-processes has not been ... Read more >>

Neuropsychopharmacology (Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology)
[2019, 44(12):2136-2142]

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Structure and neural mechanisms of catatonia.

Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, Jo Ellen Wilson, Stephan Heckers,

Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome associated with several psychiatric and medical conditions. Psychomotor signs range from stupor to agitation, and include pathognomonic features such as verbigeration and waxy flexibility. Disturbances of volition led to the classification of catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia, but changes in nosology now recognise the ... Read more >>

Lancet Psychiatry (The lancet. Psychiatry)
[2019, 6(7):610-619]

Cited: 4 times

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F63. INHIBITED TEMPERAMENT IS A TRANSDIAGNOSTIC FACTOR ACROSS SCHIZOPHRENIA, PSYCHOTIC BIPOLAR DISORDER, AND MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER.

Brandee Feola, Kristan Armstrong, Neil Woodward, Stephan Heckers, Jennifer Blackford,

AbstractBackgroundDiagnostic categories are a fundamental piece of psychiatric disorders; however, a patient’s symptoms and behaviors seldom fit under one diagnosis. Transdiagnostic approaches have been proposed with a goal of identifying mechanisms that share commonalities across diagnoses, instead of identifying differences. Transdiagnostic vulnerability factors are early-emerging patterns of behavior, thought, or ... Read more >>

Schizophr Bull (Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2019, 45(Suppl 2):S278-S279]

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19. RELATIONAL MEMORY DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND FRONTAL LOBE?

Stephan Heckers,

AbstractHumans constantly integrate new information about their environment with prior experiences in order to successfully navigate the world. The ability to flexibly integrate information into cohesive relational memories is particularly affected in many patients with schizophrenia. Deficits in hippocampal and prefrontal cortex function have been implicated as the neural basis ... Read more >>

(Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2019, 45(Suppl 2):S119-S119]

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