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The current state of immunization against Gram-negative bacteria in children: a review of the literature.

Jonathan Broad, Kirsty Le Doare, Paul T Heath, Philippa Hallchurch, Isabelle Whelan, Hannah Boyd, Elspeth Carruthers, Mike Sharland, Shamez Ladhani,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are a major cause of infection worldwide and multidrug resistance in infants and children. The major pathogens include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. With new antibiotic options limited, immunization is likely to play a critical role in prevention. This ... Read more >>

Curr Opin Infect Dis (Current opinion in infectious diseases)
[2020, 33(6):517-529]

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The Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative reveals significant reductions in invasive bacterial infections during the COVID-19 pandemic

Angela Brueggemann, Melissa Jansen van Rensburg, David Shaw, Noel McCarthy, Keith Jolley, Martin CJ Maiden, Mark PG van der Linden, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Désirée Bennett, Ray Borrow, Maria-Cristina Brandileone, Karen Broughton, Ruth Campbell, Bin Cao, Carlo Casanova, Eun Hwa Choi, Yiu Wai Chu, Stephen Clark, Heike Claus, Juliana Coelho, Mary Corcoran, Simon Cottrell, Robert Cunney, Tine Dalby, Heather Davies, Linda de Gouveia, Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Walter Demczuk, Stefanie Desmet, Richard Drew, Mignon du Plessis, Helga Erlendsdottir, Norman Fry, Kurt Fuursted, Steve Gray, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Thomas Hale, Markus Hilty, Steen Hoffmann, Hilary Humphreys, Margaret Ip, Susanne Jacobsson, Jillian Johnston, Jana Kozakova, Karl Kristinsson, Pavla Krizova, Alicja Kuch, Shamez Ladhani, Thiên-Trí Lâm, Vera Lebedova, Laura Lindholm, David Litt, Irene Martin, Delphine Martiny, Wesley Mattheus, Martha McElligott, Mary Meehan, Susan Meiring, Paula Mölling, Eva Morfeldt, Julie Morgan, Robert Mulhall, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, David Murdoch, Joy Murphy, Martin Musilek, Alexandre Mzabi, Amaresh Perez-Argüello, Monique Perrin, Malorie Perry, Alba Redin, Richard Roberts, Maria Roberts, Assaf Rokney, Merav Ron, Kevin Scott, Carmen Sheppard, Lotta Siira, Anna Skoczyńska, Monica Sloan, Hans-Christian Slotved, Andrew Smith, Joon Young Song, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Maija Toropainen, Dominic Tsang, Anni Vainio, Nina van Sorge, Emmanuelle Varon, Jiri Vlach, Ulrich Vogel, Sandra Vohrnova, Anne von Gottberg, Rosemeire Zanella, Fei Zhou,

Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis are leading causes of invasive diseases including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections post-viral respiratory disease. They are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets. We investigated rates of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early phase of the ... Read more >>

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Secondary attack rate and family clustering of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children of healthcare workers with confirmed COVID-19.

Shamez N Ladhani, Nick Andrews, Felicity Aiano, Frances Baawuah, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Kevin E Brown, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Mary E Ramsay, Thomas Waterfield, ,

We measured serum SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 215 children of healthcare workers to estimate secondary attack rates (SAR). Twenty-one families had a parent with confirmed COVID-19. There was strong evidence of family clustering (P<0.001): 20/21 (95.2%) children were seropositive in 9 families and none of 23 children in 12 other families. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection

Jianmin Zuo, Alex Dowell, Hayden Pearce, Kriti Verma, Heather Long, Jusnara Begym, Felicity Aiano, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Bassam Hallis, Lorrain Stapley, Ray Barrow, Ezra Linley, Shazaad Ahmad, Ben Parker, Alex Horsley, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Kevin Brown, Mary Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani, Paul Moss,

Abstract The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in both controlling primary infection and preventing re-infection. However, there is concern that immune responses following natural infection may not be sustained and that this may predispose to recurrent infection. We analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response ... Read more >>

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High Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Care Homes Affected by COVID-19; Prospective Cohort Study, England

Shamez Ladhani, Anna Jeffery-Smith, Monika Patel, Roshni Janarthanan, Jonathan Fok, Emma Crawley-Boevey, Amoolya Vusirikala, Elena Fernandez, Marina Sanchez Perez, Suzanne Tang, Kate Dun-Campbell, Edward Wynne-Evans, Anita Bell, Bharat Patel, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Karthik Paranthaman, Thomas Ma, Maria Saavedra-Campos, Joanna Ellis, Meera Chand, Kevin Brown, Mary Ramsay, Susan Hopkins, Nandini Shetty, Yimmy Chow, Robin Gopal, Maria Zambon,

Background: We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found very high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up investigations including antibody testing in the same care homes five weeks later.<br><br>Methods: Residents and staff involved in the initial investigation had a repeat ... Read more >>

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Characteristics of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Emerging Serotypes After the Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in England: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study, 2014-2018.

Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Sarah Collins, Carmen Sheppard, David Litt, Norman K Fry, Nick Andrews, Shamez N Ladhani,

BACKGROUND:England is experiencing a rapid increase in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotypes 8, 12F, and 9N; their clinical characteristics and outcomes have not been described. METHODS:Public Health England conducts national IPD surveillance. Cases due to emerging serotypes were compared with those included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, 71(8):e235-e243]

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Serological surveillance of SARS-CoV-2: trends and humoral response in a cohort of public health workers

Ross Harris, Heather Whitaker, Nick Andrews, Felicity Aiano, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Jessica Flood, Ray Borrow, Ezra Linley, Shazaad Ahmad, Lorrain Stapley, Bassam Hallis, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Ben Parker, Alex Horsley, Timothy Brooks, Kevin Brown, Mary Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani,

Abstract Background There is considerable debate about the rate of antibody waning after SARS-CoV-2 infection, raising questions around long-term immunity following both natural infection and vaccination. We undertook prospective serosurveillance in a large cohort of healthy adults from the start of the epidemic in England. Methods The serosurveillance cohort included ... Read more >>

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Seropositivity and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in staff working in care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Thomas A J Rowland, Heather Whitaker, Anna Jeffery-Smith, Nicola Lang, Kate Sendall, Rob McLaren, Kevin E Brown, Mary Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani, Maria Zambon,

J Infect (The Journal of infection)
[2020, :]

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Summary of evidence to reduce the two-dose infant priming schedule to a single dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the national immunisation programme in the UK.

Shamez N Ladhani, Nick Andrews, Mary E Ramsay,

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal infections in all age groups through a combination of direct and indirect protection. In many industrialised countries with established PCV programmes, the maximum benefit of the PCV programme has already been achieved, with most cases now due ... Read more >>

Lancet Infect Dis (The Lancet. Infectious diseases)
[2020, :]

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and the Risk of Pneumococcal Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2: Prospective National Cohort Surveillance, England

Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Anna Mensah, Carmen Sheppard, David Litt, Norman Fry, Nick Andrews, Mary Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani,

Background: <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> coinfection with seasonal and pandemic influenza results in synergistic lethality, but there are limited data on pneumococcal coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 during the current COVID-19 pandemic.<br><br>Methods: Public Health England conducts invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and COVID-19 surveillance in England. IPD trends from 2000/01 to 2019/20 were analysed and ... Read more >>

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Kinetics and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children.

Cathal Roarty, Claire Tonry, Lisa McFetridge, Hannah Mitchell, Chris Watson, Thomas Waterfield, ,

Lancet Infect Dis (The Lancet. Infectious diseases)
[2020, :]

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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Risk of Pneumococcal Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2: prospective national cohort study, England.

Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Anna Mensah, Carmen Sheppard, David Litt, Norman K Fry, Nick Andrews, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani,

BACKGROUND:Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection with influenza results in synergistic lethality, but there are limited data on pneumococcal coinfection with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS:Public Health England conducts invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in England. IPD trends during 2000/01-2019/20 were analysed and cases between during February-June 2020 were linked with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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High prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in care homes affected by COVID-19: Prospective cohort study, England.

Shamez N Ladhani, Anna Jeffery-Smith, Monika Patel, Roshni Janarthanan, Jonathan Fok, Emma Crawley-Boevey, Amoolya Vusirikala, Elena Fernandez Ruiz De Olano, Marina Sanchez Perez, Suzanne Tang, Kate Dun-Campbell, Edward Wynne- Evans, Anita Bell, Bharat Patel, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Karthik Paranthaman, Thomas Ma, Maria Saavedra-Campos, Joanna Ellis, Meera Chand, Kevin Brown, Mary E Ramsay, Susan Hopkins, Nandini Shetty, J Yimmy Chow, Robin Gopal, Maria Zambon,

Background:We investigated six London care homes experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak and found high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents and staff. Here we report follow-up investigations including antibody testing in the same care homes five weeks later. Methods:Residents and staff in the initial investigation had a repeat nasal swab for ... Read more >>

EClinicalMedicine (EClinicalMedicine)
[2020, :100597]

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Shining the light on congenital syphilis: from TORCH to SCORTCH.

Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes, Shamez Ladhani,

Arch Dis Child (Archives of disease in childhood)
[2020, :]

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Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children: a prospective multicentre cohort study.

Thomas Waterfield, Chris Watson, Rebecca Moore, Kathryn Ferris, Claire Tonry, Alison Watt, Claire McGinn, Steven Foster, Jennifer Evans, Mark David Lyttle, Shazaad Ahmad, Shamez Ladhani, Michael Corr, Lisa McFetridge, Hannah Mitchell, Kevin Brown, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Julie-Ann Maney, Sharon Christie,

BACKGROUND:Studies based on molecular testing of oral/nasal swabs underestimate SARS-CoV-2 infection due to issues with test sensitivity, test timing and selection bias. The objective of this study was to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, consistent with previous infection. DESIGN:This multicentre observational cohort study, conducted between 16 April to 3 ... Read more >>

Arch Dis Child (Archives of disease in childhood)
[2020, :]

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Characteristics and outcomes of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK: a prospective national cohort study using active surveillance.

Chris Gale, Maria A Quigley, Anna Placzek, Marian Knight, Shamez Ladhani, Elizabeth S Draper, Don Sharkey, Cora Doherty, Helen Mactier, Jennifer J Kurinczuk,

BACKGROUND:Babies differ from older children with regard to their exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data describing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this group are scarce, and guidance is variable. We aimed to describe the incidence, characteristics, transmission, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates who ... Read more >>

Lancet Child Adolesc Health (The Lancet. Child & adolescent health)
[2020, :]

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Change in obstetric attendance and activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Asma Khalil, Peter von Dadelszen, Erkan Kalafat, Mercede Sebghati, Shamez Ladhani, Austin Ugwumadu, Tim Draycott, Pat O'Brien, Laura Magee, ,

Lancet Infect Dis (The Lancet. Infectious diseases)
[2020, :]

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Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children and Adolescents Compared With Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Russell M Viner, Oliver T Mytton, Chris Bonell, G J Melendez-Torres, Joseph Ward, Lee Hudson, Claire Waddington, James Thomas, Simon Russell, Fiona van der Klis, Archana Koirala, Shamez Ladhani, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Nicholas G Davies, Robert Booy, Rosalind M Eggo,

Importance:The degree to which children and adolescents are infected by and transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. The role of children and adolescents in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on susceptibility, symptoms, viral load, social contact patterns, and behavior. Objective:To systematically review the susceptibility to and ... Read more >>

JAMA Pediatr (JAMA pediatrics)
[2020, :]

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COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity in Children of Healthcare Workers in London

Thomas Waterfield, Chris Watson, Rebecca Moore, Kathryn Ferris, Claire McGinn, Jessica Flood, Claire Tonry, Shazaad Ahmad, Julie-Ann Maney, Felicity Aiano, Jennifer Evans, Sharon Christie, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Steven Foster, Maria Zambon, Kevin Brown, Lisa McFetridge, Frances Baawuah, Hannah Mitchell, Michael Corr, Mary Ramsay, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Shamez Ladhani,

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic in the UK began in late January 2020 and peaked in mid-April before declining. Children typically develop only very mild symptoms and it remains unclear what role children play in the spread of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 ... Read more >>

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Change in obstetric attendance and activities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Asma Khalil, Peter von Dadelszen, Erkan Kalafat, Mercede Sebghati, Shamez Ladhani, Austin Ugwumadu, Tim Draycott, Pat O'Brien, Laura Magee, ,

Lancet Infect Dis (The Lancet. Infectious diseases)
[2020, :]

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Clinical characteristics of children and young people admitted to hospital with covid-19 in United Kingdom: prospective multicentre observational cohort study.

Olivia V Swann, Karl A Holden, Lance Turtle, Louisa Pollock, Cameron J Fairfield, Thomas M Drake, Sohan Seth, Conor Egan, Hayley E Hardwick, Sophie Halpin, Michelle Girvan, Chloe Donohue, Mark Pritchard, Latifa B Patel, Shamez Ladhani, Louise Sigfrid, Ian P Sinha, Piero L Olliaro, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Peter W Horby, Laura Merson, Gail Carson, Jake Dunning, Peter J M Openshaw, J Kenneth Baillie, Ewen M Harrison, Annemarie B Docherty, Malcolm G Semple, ,

OBJECTIVE:To characterise the clinical features of children and young people admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the UK and explore factors associated with admission to critical care, mortality, and development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents temporarily related to ... Read more >>

BMJ (BMJ (Clinical research ed.))
[2020, 370:m3249]

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Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in six care homes in London, April 2020.

Shamez N Ladhani, J Yimmy Chow, Roshni Janarthanan, Jonathan Fok, Emma Crawley-Boevey, Amoolya Vusirikala, Elena Fernandez, Marina Sanchez Perez, Suzanne Tang, Kate Dun-Campbell, Edward Wynne- Evans, Anita Bell, Bharat Patel, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Karthik Paranthaman, Thomas Ma, Maria Saavedra-Campos, Richard Myers, Joanna Ellis, Angie Lackenby, Robin Gopal, Monika Patel, Colin Brown, Meera Chand, Kevin Brown, Mary E Ramsay, Susan Hopkins, Nandini Shetty, Maria Zambon,

BACKGROUND:Care homes are experiencing large outbreaks of COVID-19 associated with high case-fatality rates. We conducted detailed investigations in six London care homes reporting suspected COVID-19 outbreaks during April 2020. METHODS:Residents and staff had nasal swabs for SARS CoV-2 testing using RT-PCR and were followed-up for 14 days. They were categorized ... Read more >>

EClinicalMedicine (EClinicalMedicine)
[2020, 26:100533]

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First real world evidence of meningococcal group B vaccine, 4CMenB, protection against meningococcal group W disease; prospective enhanced national surveillance, England.

Shamez N Ladhani, Helen Campbell, Nick Andrews, Sydel R Parikh, Joanne White, Michael Edelstein, Stephen A Clark, Jay Lucidarme, Ray Borrow, Mary E Ramsay,

BACKGROUND:4CMenB is a protein-based meningococcal group B vaccine but the vaccine antigens may also be present on non-group B meningococci. In September 2015, the UK implemented 4CMenB into the national infant immunisation programme, alongside an emergency adolescent meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) programme to control a national outbreak of group W (MenW) ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Geographically widespread invasive meningococcal disease caused by a ciprofloxacin resistant non-groupable strain of the ST-175 clonal complex.

Laura Willerton, Jay Lucidarme, Helen Campbell, Dominique A Caugant, Heike Claus, Susanne Jacobsson, Shamez N Ladhani, Paula Mölling, Arianna Neri, Paola Stefanelli, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ulrich Vogel, Ray Borrow,

INTRODUCTION:Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by non-serogroupable (NG) strains mainly affects immunocompromised individuals. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin in meningococci is increasing in Europe but ciprofloxacin resistance remains rare. In 2019, three travel-related meningococcal disease cases caused by a ciprofloxacin-resistant NG strain were identified in England, leading Germany to report four ... Read more >>

J Infect (The Journal of infection)
[2020, 81(4):575-584]

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: cross-sectional analysis of clusters and outbreaks in England

Sharif Ismail, Vanessa Saliba, Jamie Lopez Bernal, Mary Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani,

BACKGROUND There are limited data on SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings. This information is critical for policy makers and practitioners to ensure the safety of staff, students and the wider community during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance following the reopening of educational ... Read more >>

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