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Author Sara C Hitchman

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Changes in Smoking and Vaping over 18 Months among Smokers and Recent Ex-Smokers: Longitudinal Findings from the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys.

Shannon Gravely, Gang Meng, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Karin A Kasza, Ann McNeill, Mary E Thompson, Sara C Hitchman, David T Levy, James F Thrasher, Anne C K Quah, Nadia Martin, Janine Ouimet, Christian Boudreau, Geoffrey T Fong,

This descriptive study of smokers (smoked at least monthly) and recent ex-smokers (quit for ≤2 years) examined transitions over an 18 month period in their smoking and vaping behaviors. Data are from Waves 1 (W1: 2016) and 2 (W2: 2018) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, a ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(19):]

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Gender differences in reasons for using electronic cigarettes and product characteristics: Findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Pongkwan Yimsaard, Ann McNeill, Hua-Hie Yong, K Michael Cummings, Janet Chung-Hall, Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T Fong, Richard J O'Connor, Sara C Hitchman,

INTRODUCTION:Little is known about why males are more likely to use electronic cigarettes (ECs) compared to females. This study examined gender differences in reasons for vaping and characteristics of EC used (device type, device capacity, e-liquid nicotine strength, and flavour). METHODS:Data from 3938 current adult (18+ years) at-least-weekly EC users ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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Awareness, trial and use of heated tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users: findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Connor R Miller, Edward Sutanto, Danielle M Smith, Sara C Hitchman, Shannon Gravely, Hua H Yong, Ron Borland, Richard J O'Connor, K Michael Cummings, Geoffrey T Fong, Andrew Hyland, Anne C K Quah, Maciej L Goniewicz,

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate heated tobacco product (HTP) awareness, trial and current use among adult cigarette smokers and vaping product users in four countries with varying regulations governing HTP sales. DESIGN:Data came from Wave 2 of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, collected from February to July 2018. Respondents were ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

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Increased support for standardised packaging in the UK: a longitudinal online survey.

Crawford Moodie, Catherine Best, Nathan Critchlow, Martine Stead, Sara C Hitchman, Ann McNeill,

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

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What kind of smoking identity following quitting would elevate smokers relapse risk?

Laura Callaghan, Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, Sara C Hitchman, Geoffrey T Fong,

BACKGROUND:Research has suggested that smokers who quit smoking and continue to identify themselves as a smoker versus a non-smoker are at greater risk of relapse. This study examines the relationship between post-quit smoker identities and relapse risk of former smokers in Australia and the UK comparing those who still identified ... Read more >>

Addict Behav (Addictive behaviors)
[2021, 112:106654]

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Effectiveness of tobacco warning labels before and after implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive-findings from the longitudinal EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe surveys.

Sarah Kahnert, Pete Driezen, James Balmford, Christina N Kyriakos, Sarah Aleyan, Sara C Hitchman, Sarah Nogueira, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Witold A Zatoński, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, Ute Mons, ,

BACKGROUND:Tobacco product packaging is a key part of marketing efforts to make tobacco use appealing. In contrast, large, prominent health warnings are intended to inform individuals about the risks of smoking. In the European Union, since May 2016, the Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU (TPD2) requires tobacco product packages to carry ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii84-iii90]

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Transitions in product use during the implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive: cohort study findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Constantine I Vardavas, Christina N Kyriakos, Pete Driezen, Charis Girvalaki, Katerina Nikitara, Filippos T Filippidis, Esteve Fernández, Ute Mons, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Witold Zatoński, Marc Willemsen, Geoffrey T Fong, ,

BACKGROUND:The emergence of new types of tobacco and tobacco-related products on the European Union (EU) market has precipitated the possibility for both poly-tobacco use and transitions between products. In the EU, the regulatory environment has shifted with the implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) in May 2016, which ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii10-iii17]

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Awareness and use of heated tobacco products among adult smokers in six European countries: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Lucia Maria Lotrean, Antigona Trofor, Cornel Radu-Loghin, Marius Eremia, Florin Mihaltan, Pete Driezen, Christina N Kyriakos, Ute Mons, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Filippos T Filippidis, Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:The study assessed awareness and use of heated tobacco products (HTPs) and factors that influenced these issues among cigarette smokers from six European countries in 2016 (Wave 1) and 2018 (Wave 2). METHODS:A survey was conducted among a nationally representative sample of cigarette smokers aged 18 years or older from Germany, ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii78-iii83]

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Do smokers want to protect non-smokers from the harms of second-hand smoke in cars? Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sarah O Nogueira, Olena Tigova, Pete Driezen, Marcela Fu, Christina N Kyriakos, Mateusz Zatoński, Ute Mons, Anne C K Quah, Tibor Demjén, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, Esteve Fernández, ,

BACKGROUND:There is currently no comprehensive legislation protecting non-smokers and children from second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars at the European Union (EU) level. This study aims to assess smokers' support for smoke-free cars legislation in six EU countries. METHODS:Data come from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys: Wave 1 (2016, ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii108-iii112]

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Cessation behaviours among smokers of menthol and flavoured cigarettes following the implementation of the EU Tobacco Products Directive: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Mateusz Zatoński, Aleksandra Herbeć, Witold Zatoński, Kinga Janik-Koncewicz, Pete Driezen, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Geoffrey T Fong, Anne C K Quah, Christina N Kyriakos, Ann McNeill, Marc Willemsen, Ute Mons, Yannis Tountas, Antigona C Trofor, Constantine I Vardavas, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, ,

The European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) introduced a ban on characterizing flavours in cigarettes (2016), including menthol (2020). The longitudinal data analysis of the EUREST-PLUS International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Europe Surveys (n = 16 534; Wave 1 in 2016 and Wave 2 in 2018) found significant but small declines in the weighted ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii34-iii37]

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Support for e-cigarette policies among smokers in seven European countries: longitudinal findings from the 2016-18 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Janet Chung-Hall, Geoffrey T Fong, Gang Meng, Lorraine V Craig, Ann McNeill, Sara C Hitchman, Esteve Fernández, Ute Mons, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Witold A Zatoński, Tibor Demjén, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Christina N Kyriakos, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:The 2016 European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) required Member States (MS) to implement new regulations for electronic cigarettes (ECs). We conducted a longitudinal study to assess changes over 2 years in smokers' support for EC policies and identify predictors of support in seven European countries after TPD implementation. METHODS:Prospective cohort ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii68-iii77]

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Awareness and correlates of noticing changes to cigarette packaging design after implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Christina N Kyriakos, Pete Driezen, Charis Girvalaki, Sara C Hitchman, Filippos T Filippidis, Shannon Gravely, James Balmford, Katerina Nikitara, Ute Mons, Esteve Fernández, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Witold Zatoński, Yannis Tountas, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:The European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), which went into effect in May 2016, regulates packaging design and labelling of cigarettes and roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. The aim of the current study was to examine whether smokers and recent quitters in six European Union (EU) countries (Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania and ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii98-iii107]

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Changes in electronic cigarette use and label awareness among smokers before and after the European Tobacco Products Directive implementation in six European countries: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Katerina Nikitara, Charis Girvalaki, Christina N Kyriakos, Pete Driezen, Filippos T Filippidis, Sarah Kahnert, Sara C Hitchman, Ute Mons, Esteve Fernández, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Tibor Demjén, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Witold Zatoński, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:Article 20 of the European Tobacco Product Directive (TPD), which went into effect in May 2016, regulates electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the European Union (EU). The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in e-cigarette use, design attributes of the products used and awareness of e-cigarette labelling and packaging ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii62-iii67]

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Transitions from and to roll-your-own tobacco, perceptions and health beliefs among smokers: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Filippos T Filippidis, Pete Driezen, Christina N Kyriakos, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Ioanna Petroulia, Charis Girvalaki, Marcela Fu, Esteve Fernández, Ute Mons, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Witold A Zatoński, Geoffrey T Fong, Yannis Tountas, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:The prevalence of roll-your-own tobacco (RYO) in Europe has been increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate transitions between factory-made (FM) cigarettes and RYO in a longitudinal sample of European smokers, and their perceptions of relative harmfulness and knowledge of health effects. METHODS:We used data collected from the ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii18-iii25]

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European adult smokers' perceptions of the harmfulness of e-cigarettes relative to combustible cigarettes: cohort findings from the 2016 and 2018 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Shannon Gravely, Pete Driezen, Christina N Kyriakos, Mary E Thompson, James Balmford, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Ute Mons, Yannis Tountas, Kinga Janik-Koncewicz, Witold Zatoński, Antigona C Trofor, Constantine I Vardavas, Geoffrey T Fong, ,

BACKGROUND:This study presents perceptions of the harmfulness of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) relative to combustible cigarettes among smokers from six European Union (EU) countries, prior to the implementation of the EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), and 2 years post-TPD. METHODS:Data were drawn from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys, a cohort study of ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii38-iii45]

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Quitting behaviours and cessation methods used in eight European Countries in 2018: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sophia Papadakis, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Christina N Kyriakos, James Balmford, Chara Tzavara, Charis Girvalaki, Pete Driezen, Filippos T Filippidis, Aleksandra Herbeć, Karin Hummel, Ann McNeill, Ute Mons, Esteve Fernández, Marcela Fu, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Witold A Zatoński, Marc Willemsen, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:We examined quit attempts, use of cessation assistance, quitting beliefs and intentions among smokers who participated in the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys in eight European Union Member States (England, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Spain). METHODS:Cross-sectional data from 11 543 smokers were collected from Wave ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii26-iii33]

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Impact of the Tobacco Products Directive on self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship in smokers-findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sarah Kahnert, Pete Driezen, James Balmford, Christina N Kyriakos, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Witold A Zatoński, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, Ute Mons, ,

BACKGROUND:Advertising, promotion and sponsorship of electronic cigarettes (ECAPS) have increased in recent years. Since May 2016, the Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU (TPD2) prohibits ECAPS in various advertising channels, including media that have cross-border effects. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in exposure to ECAPS in a cohort ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii55-iii61]

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Evaluating the impact of introducing standardized packaging with larger health-warning labels in England: findings from adult smokers within the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sarah Aleyan, Pete Driezen, Ann McNeill, Máirtín McDermott, Sarah Kahnert, Christina N Kyriakos, Ute Mons, Esteve Fernández, Antigona C Trofor, Mateusz Zatoński, Tibor Demjén, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, James Balmford, Filippos T Filippidis, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, Sara C Hitchman, ,

BACKGROUND:The European (EU) Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) was implemented in May 2016 to regulate the design and labelling of cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. At the same time, the UK introduced standardized packaging measures, whereas Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Spain did not. This study examines the impact of introducing ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii91-iii97]

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Social norms for e-cigarettes and smoking: associations with initiation of e-cigarette use, intentions to quit smoking and quit attempts: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Máirtín S McDermott, Katherine A East, Sara C Hitchman, Ann McNeill, Yannis Tountas, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Ute Mons, Antigona C Trofor, Aleksandra Herbeć, Kinga Janik-Koncewicz, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

BACKGROUND:Social norms have received little attention in relation to electronic cigarettes (EC). The current study examine social norms for EC use and smoking tobacco, and their associations with (i) initiation of EC use, (ii) intention to quit smoking and (iii) attempts to quit smoking. METHODS:Cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis from ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii46-iii54]

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Support for minimum legal sales age laws set to age 21 across Australia, Canada, England and US: Findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine Craig, Geoffrey T Fong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, David Levy, Sara C Hitchman,

BACKGROUND:Although the US has seen a rapid increase in tobacco minimum legal sales age (MLSA) laws set to age 21, there is wide variation across high-income countries and less is known about policy support outside of the US. We examined the prevalence of support for tobacco MLSA 21 laws as ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Mary E Thompson, Pete Driezen, Christian Boudreau, Nicolas Bécuwe, Thomas K Agar, Anne C K Quah, Witold Zatoński, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Ute Mons, Tibor Demjén, Yannis Tountas, Antigona Trofor, Esteve Fernández, Ann McNeill, Marc Willemsen, Constantine Vardavas, Geoffrey T Fong, ,

BACKGROUND:The EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe surveys aim to evaluate the impact of the European Union's Tobacco Products Directive (EU TPD) implementation within the context of the WHO FCTC. This article describes the methodology of the 2016 (Wave 1) and 2018 (Wave 2) International Tobacco Control 6 European (6E) Country Survey in ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Supplement_3):iii4-iii9]

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Perceived non-smoking norms and motivation to stop smoking, quit attempts, and cessation: a cross-sectional study in England.

Sarah E Jackson, Hannah Proudfoot, Jamie Brown, Katherine East, Sara C Hitchman, Lion Shahab,

This study examined the prevalence of non-smoking norms in England and their associations with motivation to stop smoking, quit attempts, and cessation. Data were from a representative cross-sectional survey of 1,521 adults (301 combustible tobacco smokers). Descriptive non-smoking norms were endorsed, with just 16% of adults (12% of smokers) believing ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):10487]

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Costs of vaping: evidence from ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Kai-Wen Cheng, Ce Shang, Hye Myung Lee, Frank J Chaloupka, Geoffrey T Fong, Ron Borland, Bryan W Heckman, Sara C Hitchman, Richard J O'Connor, David T Levy, K Michael Cummings,

STUDY OBJECTIVES:To compare the prices paid for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) and supplies among current NVP users to prices paid for cigarettes among current smokers. DATA:The 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Vaping and Smoking Survey (4CV1). Key measures included: (1) self-reported prices paid for reusable NVPs (eg, rechargeable devices ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

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Factors that influence smokers' and ex-smokers' use of IQOS: a qualitative study of IQOS users and ex-users in the UK.

Charlotte N E Tompkins, Annabel Burnley, Ann McNeill, Sara C Hitchman,

BACKGROUND:One of the most widely available heated tobacco products is IQOS by Philip Morris International. However, there is a lack of independent research exploring IQOS initiation and subsequent use among smokers and ex-smokers. AIMS:To (1) explore the reasons why smokers and ex-smokers use and continue/discontinue IQOS and (2) consider implications ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

Cited: 3 times

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Social norms towards smoking and vaping and associations with product use among youth in England, Canada, and the US.

Katherine A East, Sara C Hitchman, Ann McNeill, James F Thrasher, David Hammond,

BACKGROUND:This study assesses differences in social norms towards smoking and vaping among youth across countries (England, Canada, US) and smoking and vaping status. METHODS:Data are from the 2017 ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey, among youth age 16-19 in England (N = 3444), Canada (N = 3327), and US (N = 3509). Prevalence of friend smoking, ... Read more >>

Drug Alcohol Depend (Drug and alcohol dependence)
[2019, 205:107635]

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