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Author S Knowles

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Prevalence and Impact of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Systematic Review.

Heidi Glynn, Stephan P Möller, Helen Wilding, Pragalathan Apputhurai, Gregory Moore, Simon R Knowles,

Psychological distress is often observed in patients with gastrointestinal illness. To date, there has been limited research conducted to assess the prevalence and impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in gastrointestinal cohorts. The aim of this systematic review is to review the evidence for the prevalence of PTSD in gastrointestinal cohorts ... Read more >>

Dig Dis Sci (Digestive diseases and sciences)
[2021, :]

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Challenges implementing a carer support intervention within a national stroke organisation: findings from the process evaluation of the OSCARSS trial.

Sarah Darley, Sarah Knowles, Kate Woodward-Nutt, Claire Mitchell, Gunn Grande, Gail Ewing, Sarah Rhodes, Audrey Bowen, Emma Patchwood,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine the implementation of an intervention to support informal caregivers and to help understand findings from the Organising Support for Carers of Stroke Survivors (OSCARSS) cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT).<h4>Design</h4>Longitudinal process evaluation using mixed methods. Normalisation process theory informed data collection and provided a sensitising framework for analysis.<h4>Setting</h4>Specialist stroke ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(1):e038129]

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Organising Support for Carers of Stroke Survivors (OSCARSS): a cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

Emma Patchwood, Kate Woodward-Nutt, Sarah A Rhodes, Evridiki Batistatou, Elizabeth Camacho, Sarah Knowles, Sarah Darley, Gunn Grande, Gail Ewing, Audrey Bowen,

<h4>Objective</h4>Investigated clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a person-centred intervention for informal carers/caregivers of stroke survivors.<h4>Design</h4>Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) with economic and process evaluation.<h4>Setting</h4>Clusters were services, from a UK voluntary sector specialist provider, delivering support primarily in the homes of stroke survivors and informal carers.<h4>Participants</h4>Adult carers in participating clusters ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2021, 11(1):e038777]

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The quest for genuine care: A qualitative study of the experiences of young people who self-harm in residential care.

Charlene Rouski, Susan Frances Knowles, William Sellwood, Suzanne Hodge,

Levels of self-harm for young people in care are high, and even higher for those in residential care. Recent research highlights the importance of understanding self-harm relationally. Such an approach may be of particular value for understanding the self-harm of young people in care. The aim of this research was ... Read more >>

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry (Clinical child psychology and psychiatry)
[2020, :1359104520980037]

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The effects of blanching on composition and modification of proteins in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

Santanu Deb-Choudhury, Janine Cooney, Diane Brewster, Stefan Clerens, Scott O Knowles, Mustafa M Farouk, Anita Grosvenor, Jolon M Dyer,

Blanching is an important process in the preparation of navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for canning. We here explore the effect of blanching which can profoundly affect protein composition and introduce protein-primary-level modifications. Amino acid analysis showed significantly decreased protein abundance (58.5%) in blanched beans compared to raw beans. Proteomic ... Read more >>

Food Chem (Food chemistry)
[2020, 346:128950]

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COVID-Well: Evaluation of the Implementation of Supported Wellbeing Centres for Hospital Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Holly Blake, Mehmet Yildirim, Ben Wood, Steph Knowles, Helen Mancini, Emma Coyne, Joanne Cooper,

Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in an effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The aim of the study was to determine ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(24):]

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Experimental challenge of a North American bat species, big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), with SARS-CoV-2.

Jeffrey S Hall, Susan Knowles, Sean W Nashold, Hon S Ip, Ariel E Leon, Tonie Rocke, Saskia Keller, Mariano Carossino, Udeni Balasuriya, Erik Hofmeister,

The recently emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is phylogenetically related to bat coronaviruses (CoVs), specifically SARS-related CoVs from the Eurasian bat family Rhinolophidae. As this human pandemic virus has spread across the world, the potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on native North American bat populations are unknown, as is the ability of ... Read more >>

Transbound Emerg Dis (Transboundary and emerging diseases)
[2020, :]

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COVID-Well: Evaluation of the Implementation of Supported Wellbeing Centres for Hospital Employees During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Holly Blake, Mehmet Yildirim, Ben Wood, Steph Knowles, Helen Mancini, Emma Coyne, Joanne Cooper,

Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The aim of the study was to determine facility ... Read more >>

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Immunological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy From Diagnosis to Delivery: A multicentre prospective observational study

Kate Glennon, Jennifer Donnelly, Susan Knowles, Fionnuala McAuliffe, Alma Reilly, Siobhan Corcoran, Jennifer Walsh, Roger McMorrow, Tess Higgins, Lucy Bolger, Susan Clinton, Sarah Riordan, Alex Start, Doireann Roche, Helena Bartels, Ciara Malone, Karl McAuley, Anthony Mc Dermott, Rosanna Inzitari, Colm P.F. Donnell, Fergal Malone, Shane Higgins, Cillian De Gascun, Peter Doran, Donal Brennan,

<h4>Objective: </h4> We profile the maternal and fetal response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women and make an assessment of passive immunity to the neonate, Design Multicentre prospective study. Setting Dublin, Ireland Methods RT-PCR for viral RNA via a nasopharyngeal swab was performed using the Cobas SARS-CoV-2 ... Read more >>

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Physical restraint of patients in Australia and New Zealand intensive care units.

Matthew J Maiden, Allison Bone, Megan Fitzpatrick, ,

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, :]

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Genomic and phenotypic analysis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus

Jacob Steenwyk, Matthew Mead, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Clara Valero, André Damasio, Renato dos Santos, Abigail Labella, Yuanning Li, Sonja Knowles, Huzefa Raja, Nicholas Oberlies, Xiaofan Zhou, Oliver Cornely, Frieder Fuchs, Philipp Koehler, Gustavo Goldman, Antonis Rokas,

The ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first described from Wuhan, China. A subset of COVID-19 patients has been reported to have acquired secondary infections by microbial pathogens, such as fungal opportunistic pathogens from the ... Read more >>

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Application of the common sense model in inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review.

Bree Hayes, Stephan Moller, Helen Wilding, Rebecca Burgell, Pragalathan Apputhurai, Simon R Knowles,

<h4>Background and aims</h4>The aim of this paper was to undertake a systematic review of the research utilizing the Common Sense Model (CSM) involving IBD cohorts to explain the psychosocial processes, including illness perceptions and coping styles, that underpin patient reported outcomes (PROs) - psychological distress (PD) and quality of life ... Read more >>

J Psychosom Res (Journal of psychosomatic research)
[2020, 139:110283]

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Bioactive diterpenoid metabolism and cytotoxic activities of genetically transformed Euphorbia lathyris roots.

Vincent A Ricigliano, Vincent P Sica, Sonja L Knowles, Nicole Diette, Dianella G Howarth, Nicholas H Oberlies,

Plants in the genus Euphorbia produce a wide variety of pharmacologically active diterpenoids with anticancer, multidrug resistance reversal, and antiviral properties. Some are the primary industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for treatment of the precancerous skin condition actinic keratosis. Similar to other high value phytochemicals, Euphorbia diterpenoids ... Read more >>

Phytochemistry (Phytochemistry)
[2020, 179:112504]

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The etiology of stillbirth over 30 years: A cross-sectional study in a tertiary referral unit.

Bobby D O'Leary, Molly Walsh, Eoghan E Mooney, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Susan J Knowles, Rhona M Mahony, Paul Downey,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Stillbirth remains an often unpredictable and devastating pregnancy outcome, and despite thorough investigation, the number of stillbirths attributable to unexplained causes remains high. Placental examination has become increasingly important where access to perinatal autopsy is limited. We aimed to examine the causes of stillbirth in normally formed infants over 30 years ... Read more >>

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand (Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica)
[2021, 100(2):314-321]

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Quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease: actual health service experiences fall short of the standards.

Antonina Mikocka-Walus, Wayne Massuger, Simon R Knowles, Gregory T Moore, Stephanie Buckton, William Connell, Paul Pavli, Leanne Raven, Jane M Andrews,

BACKGROUND:Quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has received much attention internationally; however, the available surveys focus on health professionals rather than patients. AIMS:To assess the experiences of healthcare for people living with IBD against established Australian IBD Standards. METHODS:An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with Australians ≥16 years old ... Read more >>

Intern Med J (Internal medicine journal)
[2020, 50(10):1216-1225]

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Social networks strongly predict the gut microbiota of wild mice

Aura Raulo, Bryony Allen, Tanya Troitsky, Arild Husby, Josh Firth, Tim Coulson, Sarah CL Knowles,

The mammalian gut teems with beneficial microbes, yet how hosts acquire these symbionts remains poorly understood. Research in primates suggests that microbes can be picked up via social contact, but the role of social interactions in non-group-living species remains unexplored. Here, we use a passive tracking system to collect high ... Read more >>

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Quality, nutrient and sensory characteristics of aged meat from lambs supplemented with selenomethionine.

Scott O Knowles, Neville D Grace, John R Rounce, Carolina E Realini,

Selenium (Se) as a co-factor of antioxidant enzymes is metabolically essential for animals. Its presence in muscle can improve the oxidative stability of meat and is a desirable nutrient for consumers. A novel approach to Se supplementation for meat-producing livestock was demonstrated in a 95-day study of young lambs. DL-selenomethionine ... Read more >>

Food Res Int (Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.))
[2020, 137:109655]

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Variation Among Biosynthetic Gene Clusters, Secondary Metabolite Profiles, and Cards of Virulence Across Aspergillus Species.

Jacob L Steenwyk, Matthew E Mead, Sonja L Knowles, Huzefa A Raja, Christopher D Roberts, Oliver Bader, Jos Houbraken, Gustavo H Goldman, Nicholas H Oberlies, Antonis Rokas,

<i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i> is a major human pathogen. In contrast, <i>Aspergillus fischeri</i> and the recently described <i>Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis</i>, the two species most closely related to <i>A. fumigatus</i>, are not known to be pathogenic. Some of the genetic determinants of virulence (or "cards of virulence") that A. <i>fumigatus</i> possesses are secondary metabolites ... Read more >>

Genetics (Genetics)
[2020, 216(2):481-497]

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Identifying Microbiome-Mediated Behaviour in Wild Vertebrates.

Gabrielle L Davidson, Aura Raulo, Sarah C L Knowles,

Recent research in laboratory animals has illuminated how the vertebrate gut microbiome can have diverse and powerful effects on the brain and behaviour. However, the ecological relevance of this microbiome-gut-brain (MGB) axis outside the laboratory remains unexplored. Here we argue that understanding behavioural and cognitive effects of the gut microbiome ... Read more >>

Trends Ecol Evol (Trends in ecology & evolution)
[2020, 35(11):972-980]

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Health-related quality of life in survivors of septic shock: 6-month follow-up from the ADRENAL trial.

Naomi E Hammond, Simon R Finfer, Qiang Li, Colman Taylor, Jeremy Cohen, Yaseen Arabi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Laurent Billot, Meg Harward, Christopher Joyce, Colin McArthur, John Myburgh, Anders Perner, Dorrilyn Rajbhandari, Andrew Rhodes, Kelly Thompson, Steve Webb, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, ,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate the impact of hydrocortisone treatment and illness severity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 6 months in septic shock survivors from the ADRENAL trial.<h4>Methods</h4>Using the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) at 6 months after randomization we assessed HRQoL in patient subgroups defined by hydrocortisone or placebo treatment, gender, illness severity (APACHE II < or ≥ 25), ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(9):1696-1706]

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A period of 10 weeks of increased protein consumption does not alter faecal microbiota or volatile metabolites in healthy older men: a randomised controlled trial.

S M Mitchell, E J McKenzie, C J Mitchell, A M Milan, N Zeng, R F D'Souza, F Ramzan, P Sharma, E Rettedal, S O Knowles, N C Roy, A Sjödin, K-H Wagner, J M O'Sullivan, D Cameron-Smith,

Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was ... Read more >>

J Nutr Sci (Journal of nutritional science)
[2020, 9:e25]

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CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN THE SEA OTTER (ENHYDRA LUTRIS) POPULATION IN WASHINGTON STATE, USA.

Nancy Thomas, C LeAnn White, Jeremiah Saliki, Krysten Schuler, Deanna Lynch, Ole Nielsen, J P Dubey, Susan Knowles,

Before 2001, all serosurveys for morbilliviruses in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in California, Washington, and Alaska, USA, documented a 0% seroprevalence. The first published serologic detections of morbillivirus in sea otters occurred in 2001-02 in live-captured Washington sea otters, with a documented 80% seroprevalence. We conducted a retrospective study of ... Read more >>

J Wildl Dis (Journal of wildlife diseases)
[2020, :]

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A period of 10 weeks of increased protein consumption does not alter faecal microbiota or volatile metabolites in healthy older men: a randomised controlled trial

S. M. Mitchell, E. J. McKenzie, C. J. Mitchell, A. M. Milan, N. Zeng, R. F. D'Souza, F. Ramzan, P. Sharma, E. Rettedal, S. O. Knowles, N. C. Roy, A. Sjödin, K.-H. Wagner, J. M. O'Sullivan, D. Cameron-Smith,

Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was ... Read more >>

J Nutr Sci (Journal of nutritional science)
[2020, 9:]

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Pathogenic Allodiploid Hybrids of Aspergillus Fungi.

Jacob L Steenwyk, Abigail L Lind, Laure N A Ries, Thaila F Dos Reis, Lilian P Silva, Fausto Almeida, Rafael W Bastos, Thais Fernanda de Campos Fraga da Silva, Vania L D Bonato, André Moreira Pessoni, Fernando Rodrigues, Huzefa A Raja, Sonja L Knowles, Nicholas H Oberlies, Katrien Lagrou, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas,

Interspecific hybridization substantially alters genotypes and phenotypes and can give rise to new lineages. Hybrid isolates that differ from their parental species in infection-relevant traits have been observed in several human-pathogenic yeasts and plant-pathogenic filamentous fungi but have yet to be found in human-pathogenic filamentous fungi. We discovered 6 clinical ... Read more >>

Curr Biol (Current biology : CB)
[2020, 30(13):2495-2507.e7]

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Diagnostic Limitations in Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

M Flanagan, H Hughes, E B Forman, D O'Rourke, B Paturi, A Curley, S J Knowles, C De Gascun, D Sweetman,

This is the first documented case of an infant with congenital Zika virus infection (ZVI) born in Ireland. A term infant was delivered with an antenatal diagnosis of severe microcephaly. First trimester bloods confirmed maternal ZVI and although the infant did not have Zika virus RNA or Zika-specific IgM in ... Read more >>

Ir Med J (Irish medical journal)
[2020, 113(6):101]

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