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Investigating the interaction between white matter and brain state on tDCS-induced changes in brain network activity.

Danielle L Kurtin, Ines R Violante, Karl Zimmerman, Robert Leech, Adam Hampshire, Maneesh C Patel, David W Carmichael, David J Sharp, Lucia M Li,

<h4>Background</h4>Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation whose potential as a cognitive therapy is hindered by our limited understanding of how participant and experimental factors influence its effects. Using functional MRI to study brain networks, we have previously shown in healthy controls that the physiological ... Read more >>

Brain Stimul (Brain stimulation)
[2021, 14(5):1261-1270]

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A Bayesian optimization approach for rapidly mapping residual network function in stroke.

Romy Lorenz, Michelle Johal, Frederic Dick, Adam Hampshire, Robert Leech, Fatemeh Geranmayeh,

Post-stroke cognitive and linguistic impairments are debilitating conditions, with limited therapeutic options. Domain-general brain networks play an important role in stroke recovery and characterizing their residual function with functional MRI has the potential to yield biomarkers capable of guiding patient-specific rehabilitation. However, this is challenging as such detailed characterization requires ... Read more >>

Brain (Brain : a journal of neurology)
[2021, 144(7):2120-2134]

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Fine-tuning neural excitation/inhibition for tailored ketamine use in treatment-resistant depression.

Erik D Fagerholm, Robert Leech, Steven Williams, Carlos A Zarate, Rosalyn J Moran, Jessica R Gilbert,

The glutamatergic modulator ketamine has been shown to rapidly reduce depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD). Although its mechanisms of action are not fully understood, changes in cortical excitation/inhibition (E/I) following ketamine administration are well documented in animal models and could represent a potential biomarker of ... Read more >>

Transl Psychiatry (Translational psychiatry)
[2021, 11(1):335]

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The default mode network in cognition: a topographical perspective.

Jonathan Smallwood, Boris C Bernhardt, Robert Leech, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Daniel S Margulies,

The default mode network (DMN) is a set of widely distributed brain regions in the parietal, temporal and frontal cortex. These regions often show reductions in activity during attention-demanding tasks but increase their activity across multiple forms of complex cognition, many of which are linked to memory or abstract thought. ... Read more >>

Nat Rev Neurosci (Nature reviews. Neuroscience)
[2021, 22(8):503-513]

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Estimating anisotropy directly via neural timeseries

Erik Fagerholm, W.M.C. Foulkes, Yasir Gallero-Salas, Fritjof Helmchen, Rosalyn Moran, Karl Friston, Robert Leech,

An isotropic dynamical system is one that looks the same in every direction, i.e., if we imagine - standing somewhere within an isotropic system, we would not be able to differentiate between different lines of sight. Conversely, anisotropy is a measure of the extent to which a system deviates from ... Read more >>

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Neural Systems Under Change of Scale.

Erik D Fagerholm, W M C Foulkes, Yasir Gallero-Salas, Fritjof Helmchen, Karl J Friston, Robert Leech, Rosalyn J Moran,

We derive a theoretical construct that allows for the characterisation of both scalable and scale free systems within the dynamic causal modelling (DCM) framework. We define a dynamical system to be "scalable" if the same equation of motion continues to apply as the system changes in size. As an example ... Read more >>

Front Comput Neurosci (Frontiers in computational neuroscience)
[2021, 15:643148]

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Cognitive control network connectivity differentially disrupted in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

Charlotte M Horne, Lucy D Vanes, Tess Verneuil, Elias Mouchlianitis, Timea Szentgyorgyi, Bruno Averbeck, Robert Leech, Rosalyn J Moran, Sukhwinder S Shergill,

Antipsychotic treatment resistance affects a third of people with schizophrenia and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We used an fMRI emotion-yoked reward learning task, allied to prefrontal cortical glutamate levels, to explain the role of cognitive control in differentiating treatment-resistant from responsive patients. We investigated how reward learning is disrupted ... Read more >>

Neuroimage Clin (NeuroImage. Clinical)
[2021, 30:102631]

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A Complex Systems Perspective on Neuroimaging Studies of Behavior and Its Disorders.

Federico E Turkheimer, Fernando E Rosas, Ottavia Dipasquale, Daniel Martins, Erik D Fagerholm, Paul Expert, František Váša, Louis-David Lord, Robert Leech,

The study of complex systems deals with emergent behavior that arises as a result of nonlinear spatiotemporal interactions between a large number of components both within the system, as well as between the system and its environment. There is a strong case to be made that neural systems as well ... Read more >>

Neuroscientist (The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry)
[2021, :1073858421994784]

Cited: 1 time

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Rapid processing and quantitative evaluation of multicontrast EPImix scans for adaptive multimodal imaging

František Váša, Harriet Hobday, Ryan Stanyard, Richard Daws, Vincent Giampietro, Owen O’Daly, David Lythgoe, Jakob Seidlitz, Stefan Skare, Steven Williams, Andre Marquand, Robert Leech, James Cole,

Current neuroimaging acquisition and processing approaches tend to be optimised for quality rather than speed. However, rapid acquisition and processing of neuroimaging data can lead to novel neuroimaging paradigms, such as adaptive acquisition, where rapidly processed data is used to inform subsequent image acquisition steps. Here we first evaluate the ... Read more >>

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The neural correlates of ongoing conscious thought.

Jonathan Smallwood, Adam Turnbull, Hao-Ting Wang, Nerissa S P Ho, Giulia L Poerio, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Delali Konu, Brontë Mckeown, Meichao Zhang, Charlotte Murphy, Deniz Vatansever, Danilo Bzdok, Mahiko Konishi, Robert Leech, Paul Seli, Jonathan W Schooler, Boris Bernhardt, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies,

A core goal in cognitive neuroscience is identifying the physical substrates of the patterns of thought that occupy our daily lives. Contemporary views suggest that the landscape of ongoing experience is heterogeneous and can be influenced by features of both the person and the context. This perspective piece considers recent ... Read more >>

iScience (iScience)
[2021, 24(3):102132]

Cited: 2 times

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Neural diffusivity and pre-emptive epileptic seizure intervention.

Erik D Fagerholm, Chayanin Tangwiriyasakul, Karl J Friston, Inês R Violante, Steven Williams, David W Carmichael, Suejen Perani, Federico E Turkheimer, Rosalyn J Moran, Robert Leech, Mark P Richardson,

The propagation of epileptic seizure activity in the brain is a widespread pathophysiology that, in principle, should yield to intervention techniques guided by mathematical models of neuronal ensemble dynamics. During a seizure, neural activity will deviate from its current dynamical regime to one in which there are significant signal fluctuations. ... Read more >>

PLoS Comput Biol (PLoS computational biology)
[2020, 16(12):e1008448]

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Neuroimaging: into the Multiverse

Jessica Dafflon, Pedro Da Costa, František Váša, Ricardo Pio Monti, Danilo Bzdok, Peter Hellyer, Federico Turkheimer, Jonathan Smallwood, Emily Jones, Robert Leech,

<h4>A bstract </h4> For most neuroimaging questions the huge range of possible analytic choices leads to the possibility that conclusions from any single analytic approach may be misleading. Examples of possible choices include the motion regression approach used and smoothing and threshold factors applied during the processing pipeline. Although it ... Read more >>

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The psychological correlates of distinct neural states occurring during wakeful rest.

Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Diego Vidaurre, Andrew J Quinn, Deniz Vatansever, Giulia L Poerio, Adam Turnbull, Nerissa Siu Ping Ho, Robert Leech, Boris C Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Daniel S Margulies, Thomas E Nichols, Mark W Woolrich, Jonathan Smallwood,

When unoccupied by an explicit external task, humans engage in a wide range of different types of self-generated thinking. These are often unrelated to the immediate environment and have unique psychological features. Although contemporary perspectives on ongoing thought recognise the heterogeneity of these self-generated states, we lack both a clear ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):21121]

Cited: 2 times

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Missing the forest because of the trees: slower alternations during binocular rivalry are associated with lower levels of visual detail during ongoing thought.

Nerissa Siu Ping Ho, Daniel Baker, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Paul Seli, Hao Ting Wang, Robert Leech, Boris Bernhardt, Daniel Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood,

Conscious awareness of the world fluctuates, either through variation in how vividly we perceive the environment, or when our attentional focus shifts away from information in the external environment towards information that we generate via imagination. Our study combined individual differences in experience sampling, psychophysical reports of perception and neuroimaging ... Read more >>

Neurosci Conscious (Neuroscience of consciousness)
[2020, 2020(1):niaa020]

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Investigating the interaction between white matter and brain state on tDCS-induced changes in brain network activity

Danielle Kurtin, Ines Violante, Karl Zimmerman, Robert Leech, Adam Hampshire, Maneesh Patel, David Carmichael, David Sharp, Lucia Li,

<h4>Background</h4> Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation whose potential as a cognitive therapy is hindered by our limited understanding of how participant and experimental factors influence its effects. Using functional MRI to study brain networks, we have previously shown in healthy controls that the ... Read more >>

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Author Correction: Reductions in task positive neural systems occur with the passage of time and are associated with changes in ongoing thought.

Adam Turnbull, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Hao-Ting Wang, Boris C Bernhardt, Robert Leech, Daniel Margulies, Jonathan Schooler, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood,

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):12941]

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A Bayesian optimisation approach for rapidly mapping residual network function in stroke

Romy Lorenz, Michelle Johal, Frederic Dick, Adam Hampshire, Robert Leech, Fatemeh Geranmayeh,

Post-stroke cognitive and linguistic impairments are debilitating conditions, with current therapies only showing small improvements. Domain-general brain networks seem to play a critical role in stroke recovery and characterising their residual function with functional neuroimaging (fMRI) has the potential to yield biomarkers capable of guiding patient-specific rehabilitation. However, this is ... Read more >>

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Reductions in task positive neural systems occur with the passage of time and are associated with changes in ongoing thought.

Adam Turnbull, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Hao-Ting Wang, Boris C Bernhardt, Robert Leech, Daniel Margulies, Jonathan Schooler, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood,

Cognition is dynamic and involves both the maintenance of and transitions between neurocognitive states. While recent research has identified some of the neural systems involved in sustaining task states, it is less well understood how intrinsic influences on cognition emerge over time. The current study uses fMRI and Multi-Dimensional Experience ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):9912]

Cited: 4 times

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Optimisation of functional network resources when learning behavioural strategies for performing complex tasks

Richard Daws, Gregory Scott, Eyal Soreq, Robert Leech, Peter Hellyer, Adam Hampshire,

We developed two novel self-ordered switching (SOS) fMRI paradigms to investigate how human behaviour and underlying network resources are optimised when learning to perform complex tasks with multiple goals. SOS was performed with detailed feedback and minimal pretraining (study 1) or with minimal feedback and substantial pretraining (study 2). In ... Read more >>

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Interpretable brain age prediction using linear latent variable models of functional connectivity.

Ricardo Pio Monti, Alex Gibberd, Sandipan Roy, Matthew Nunes, Romy Lorenz, Robert Leech, Takeshi Ogawa, Motoaki Kawanabe, Aapo Hyvärinen,

Neuroimaging-driven prediction of brain age, defined as the predicted biological age of a subject using only brain imaging data, is an exciting avenue of research. In this work we seek to build models of brain age based on functional connectivity while prioritizing model interpretability and understanding. This way, the models ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2020, 15(6):e0232296]

Cited: 1 time

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A GABA Interneuron Deficit Model of the Art of Vincent van Gogh.

Federico E Turkheimer, Erik D Fagerholm, Miriam Vignando, Jessica Dafflon, Pedro F Da Costa, Paola Dazzan, Robert Leech,

Vincent van Gogh was one of the most influential artists of the Western world, having shaped the post-impressionist art movement by shifting its boundaries forward into abstract expressionism. His distinctive style, which was not valued by the art-buying public during his lifetime, is nowadays one of the most sought after. ... Read more >>

Front Psychiatry (Frontiers in psychiatry)
[2020, 11:685]

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An automated machine learning approach to predict brain age from cortical anatomical measures.

Jessica Dafflon, Walter H L Pinaya, Federico Turkheimer, James H Cole, Robert Leech, Mathew A Harris, Simon R Cox, Heather C Whalley, Andrew M McIntosh, Peter J Hellyer,

The use of machine learning (ML) algorithms has significantly increased in neuroscience. However, from the vast extent of possible ML algorithms, which one is the optimal model to predict the target variable? What are the hyperparameters for such a model? Given the plethora of possible answers to these questions, in ... Read more >>

Hum Brain Mapp (Human brain mapping)
[2020, 41(13):3555-3566]

Cited: 3 times

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T164. NETWORK CONNECTIVITY SUPPORTING REWARD LEARNING DIFFERENTIALLY DISRUPTED IN TREATMENT RESISTANT SCHIZOPHRENIA

Charlotte Horne, Lucy Vanes, Timea Szentgyorgyi, Tess Verneuil, Elias Mouchlianitis, Robert Leech, Rosalyn Moran, Sukhi Shergill,

Abstract <h4>Background</h4> It is estimated that one third of patients with schizophrenia fail to adequately respond to antipsychotic medication, termed ‘treatment-resistance’. This occurs despite adequate blockade of D2 receptors in the brain. The parsimonious options are that treatment resistance could arise through a failure of cognitive control over the dopaminergic ... Read more >>

Schizophr Bull (Schizophrenia bulletin)
[2020, 46(Suppl 1):S293-S294]

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Facing up to the wandering mind: Patterns of off-task laboratory thought are associated with stronger neural recruitment of right fusiform cortex while processing facial stimuli.

Nerissa Siu Ping Ho, Giulia Poerio, Delali Konu, Adam Turnbull, Mladen Sormaz, Robert Leech, Boris Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood,

Human cognition is not always tethered to events in the external world. Laboratory and real world experience sampling studies reveal that attention is often devoted to self-generated mental content rather than to events taking place in the immediate environment. Recent studies have begun to explicitly examine the consistency between states ... Read more >>

Neuroimage (NeuroImage)
[2020, 214:116765]

Cited: 6 times

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Accelerating the Evolution of Nonhuman Primate Neuroimaging.

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Nonhuman primate neuroimaging is on the cusp of a transformation, much in the same way its human counterpart was in 2010, when the Human Connectome Project was launched to accelerate progress. Inspired by an open data-sharing initiative, the global community recently met and, in this article, breaks through obstacles to ... Read more >>

Neuron (Neuron)
[2020, 105(4):600-603]

Cited: 11 times

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