Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Robert J Spencer

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Developing learning slope scores for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status.

Robert J Spencer, Brian D Gradwohl, Trevor F Williams, Victoria M Kordovski, Dustin B Hammers,

Initial learning and learning slope are often acknowledged as important qualitative aspects of learning, but the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) contains discrete indices for neither. The traditional method of calculating learning slope involves a difference score between the last trial and first trial, which is ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2020, :1-7]

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Validation and extension of personality disorder spectra scales from MMPI-2-RF items.

Andrew C Hale, Sharon M Nelson, Jaclyn Reckow, Robert J Spencer,

OBJECTIVES:Recent efforts have been made to develop 10 personality disorder spectra scales using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). These scales, developed by Sellbom et al. (2018, J. Pers. Assess., 1-15), demonstrated good validity and warranted cross-validation. METHOD:In all, 97 veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation in a ... Read more >>

J Clin Psychol (Journal of clinical psychology)
[2020, 76(9):1754-1774]

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Examining the Relationship between a Verbal Incidental Learning Measure from the WAIS-IV and Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Pathology.

Dustin B Hammers, Amanda Kucera, Robert J Spencer, Tracy J Abildskov, Zane G Archibald, John M Hoffman, Elizabeth A Wilde,

Convergent validation of a verbal incidental learning (IL) task from the WAIS-IV using neuroimaging biomarkers is warranted to understand its sensitivity to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Fifty-five memory clinic patients aged 59 to 87 years received neuropsychological assessment, and measures of IL and quantitative brain imaging. Worse IL-Total Score and IL-Similarities ... Read more >>

Dev Neuropsychol (Developmental neuropsychology)
[2020, 45(3):95-109]

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The Prevalence and Incidence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Veterans Health Administration From 2009 to 2016.

Andrew C Hale, Kipling M Bohnert, Robert J Spencer, Dara Ganoczy, Paul N Pfeiffer,

BACKGROUND:The prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased substantially among children and adolescents over the past decade; however, little is known regarding trends in adult populations. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to explore trends in the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of adult ADHD in a national sample ... Read more >>

Med Care (Medical care)
[2020, 58(3):273-279]

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Validating the usefulness of the NSI validity-10 with the MMPI-2-RF.

Brian D Gradwohl, Ryan W Mangum, Kathryn A Tolle, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas, Robert J Spencer,

Purpose/Aim of the Study: The Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) is a 22-item self-report measure created to quantify the somatosensory, cognitive, and affective symptoms of Post-concussive Syndrome. Developers of the NSI used a subset of 10 items, the Validty-10, to measure symptom overreporting. We compared the Validity-10 versus the remaining NSI ... Read more >>

Int. J. Neurosci. (The International journal of neuroscience)
[2020, 130(9):926-932]

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Minimal benefit to extending the stroop Interference Task among individuals undergoing outpatient assessment.

Brian D Gradwohl, Robert J Spencer,

The third trial of Golden's Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), which involves identifying the color of words printed in a color that contrasts with its spelling, is usually limited to 45 seconds. Some authors have opined on the benefits of extending this portion of the test beyond 45 seconds to increase ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2019, :1-4]

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Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a screening tool: Influence of performance and symptom validity.

Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Nicolette M Gabel, Katharine Seagly, A Zarina Kraal, Percival Pangilinan, Robert J Spencer, Linas Bieliauskas,

Background:We evaluated Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance in a veteran traumatic brain injury (TBI) population, considering performance validity test (PVT) and symptom validity test (SVT) data, and explored associations of MoCA performance with neuropsychological test performance and self-reported distress. Methods:Of 198 consecutively referred veterans to a Veterans Administration TBI/Polytrauma Clinic, ... Read more >>

Neurol Clin Pract (Neurology. Clinical practice)
[2019, 9(2):101-108]

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Grooved Pegboard Test as a measure of executive functioning.

Kathryn Ann Tolle, Annalise M Rahman-Filipiak, Andrew C Hale, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Robert J Spencer,

The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is used primarily as a measure of motor functioning, but some research indicates that performance on this test my also reflect cognitive factors, particularly attention and executive functioning. The aim of this study was to examine rule violations as a possible quantifiable measure of executive ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2020, 27(5):414-420]

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Reliability and validity of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test.

Danielle Shaked, Lauren M D Faulkner, Kathryn Tolle, Carrington R Wendell, Shari R Waldstein, Robert J Spencer,

The Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CCPT-2) is a widely used measure of attention and impulsivity, however, only a minimal amount is known about its reliability. To clarify the psychometric properties of the CCPT-2, we assessed its performance stability and related it to criterion measures. A total of 91 undergraduate ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2020, 27(5):478-487]

Cited: 1 time

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Cross-validation of incidental learning tasks from the WAIS-IV as a measure of memory.

Andrew C Hale, Kathryn A Tolle, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Robert J Spencer,

Although incidental learning (IL) routinely occurs in everyday life, it is infrequently assessed during neuropsychological evaluations. This study aimed to further examine the concurrent validity of IL measures based on the Vocabulary and Similarities subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). Participants included 43 Veterans referred for outpatient ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2020, 27(6):517-524]

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Incremental utility of an extended stroop task for identifying subtle differences in cognitive performance among healthy older adults.

Lauren M D Faulkner, Kathryn A Tolle, Carrington R Wendell, Shari R Waldstein, Leslie I Katzel, Robert J Spencer,

The Stroop Color and Word Test is a test of processing speed, response inhibition, and executive functioning (EF). This project examined whether extending the Stroop Color-Word trial beyond the standard time limit could more accurately assess performance on EF measures. Cognitively healthy older individuals (n = 198) enrolled in a study of ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2020, 27(5):440-449]

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Suspiciously slow: timed digit span as an embedded performance validity measure in a sample of veterans with mTBI.

Nicolette M Gabel, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Robert J Spencer, Percival H Pangilinan, Andrew C Hale, Linas A Bieliauskas,

OBJECTIVE:To explore the utility of Timed Digit Span (TDS) as an embedded performance validity test (PVT) in a sample of veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesize that TDS will predict PVT failure on an established stand-alone measure (Trial 1 of the Test of Memory Malingering; TOMM). METHODS:TDS ... Read more >>

Brain Inj (Brain injury)
[2019, 33(3):377-382]

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Emerging evidence for speeded alphabet printing as a measure of processing speed and working memory.

Kathryn Tolle, Robert J Spencer, Valencia Montgomery, Linas A Bieliauskas,

Alphabet Printing (in the forward and backward order) is a brief and highly portable test with promise as a screening measure of processing speed and simple working memory, constructs which are only minimally assessed in many of the most commonly-used cognitive screening instruments. The aim of this project was to ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2019, 26(6):573-580]

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Streamlining screening of emotional function in Veterans with traumatic brain injury.

Jennifer M Flaherty, Robert J Spencer, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

OBJECTIVES:This study examined how depression, anxiety, and sleep items from the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) predict results from longer inventories. METHOD:This was a retrospective review from 484, predominantly male (96.1%) Veterans, mean age 29.7 years, who underwent brief neuropsychological screening during a comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury ... Read more >>

J Clin Psychol (Journal of clinical psychology)
[2018, 74(7):1281-1292]

Cited: 0 times

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Validity of a verbal incidental learning measure from the WAIS-IV in older adults.

Dustin B Hammers, Amanda M Kucera, Stephanie J Card, Kathryn A Tolle, Taylor J Atkinson, Kevin Duff, Robert J Spencer,

Incidental memory may reflect a form of learning in everyday life, although it is not consistently evaluated during standard neuropsychological evaluations. Further validation of a recently created measure of verbal Incidental Learning (IL) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV is necessary to understand the utility of such a measure in ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2018, 25(3):266-273]

Cited: 1 time

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Development of a scale of executive functioning for the RBANS.

Robert J Spencer, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Kathryn A Tolle,

The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2018, 25(3):231-236]

Cited: 1 time

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Incidental Learning: A Brief, Valid Measure of Memory Based on the WAIS-IV Vocabulary and Similarities Subtests.

Robert J Spencer, Jaclyn Reckow, Lauren L Drag, Linas A Bieliauskas,

We assessed the validity of a brief incidental learning measure based on the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV).Most neuropsychological assessments for memory require intentional learning, but incidental learning occurs without explicit instruction. Incidental memory tests such as the WAIS-III Symbol Digit Coding subtest ... Read more >>

Cogn Behav Neurol (Cognitive and behavioral neurology : official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology)
[2016, 29(4):206-211]

Cited: 2 times

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Neuropsychological test validity in Veterans presenting with subjective complaints of 'very severe' cognitive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury.

Robert J Spencer, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Bradley N Axelrod, Linas A Bieliauskas,

This study explored the utility of combining data from measures of performance validity and symptom validity among Veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).Persistent cognitive impairments following mTBI are often reported by returning combat veterans. However, objectively-measured cognitive deficits are not common among individuals with mTBI, raising ... Read more >>

Brain Inj (Brain injury)
[2017, 31(1):32-38]

Cited: 3 times

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Incidental learning from the coding subtest of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

Robert J Spencer, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Annalise Rahman-Filipiak,

Incidental learning (IL) measures provide complementary assessment data reflecting subconscious encoding of information using methods that differ from the procedures of many traditional memory tests. We examined the concurrent validity of an IL measure based on the coding subtest of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2018, 25(1):5-10]

Cited: 1 time

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PPVT-I administration rules significantly shorten PPVT-III/IV administration.

Xi Sheng Besha, Robert J Spencer, Linas A Bieliauskas,

This study evaluated whether using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-First Edition (PPVT-I) basal and ceiling criteria would result in similar estimates of receptive vocabulary while permitting administration of fewer test items when using the third and fourth editions of the PPVT. Data were retrospectively collected from 119 adult inpatients who ... Read more >>

Int. J. Neurosci. (The International journal of neuroscience)
[2017, 127(5):412-416]

Cited: 0 times

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Reliability and factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a polytrauma clinic.

Laura Boxley, Jennifer M Flaherty, Robert J Spencer, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a brief self-report measure of anxiety and depression symptoms. This study examined the internal consistency and factor structure of the HADS among Veterans in a polytrauma/traumatic brain injury clinic. The sample consisted of 312 Veterans. A confirmatory factor analysis of the depression ... Read more >>

J Rehabil Res Dev (Journal of rehabilitation research and development)
[2016, 53(6):873-880]

Cited: 5 times

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Limited usefulness of the Rey Fifteen-Item Test in detection of invalid performance in veterans suspected of mild traumatic brain injury.

Jennifer M Flaherty, Robert J Spencer, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

This study explored using the FIT as a measure of performance validity among veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).The Rey Fifteen-Item Memory Test (FIT) is a performance validity measure criticized for poor sensitivity.Two hundred and fifty-seven veterans completed the FIT and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth ... Read more >>

Brain Inj (Brain injury)
[2015, 29(13-14):1630-1634]

Cited: 3 times

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Informational literature influences symptom expression following mild head injury: An analog study.

Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Heather A Tree, Robert J Spencer, Julie Suhr, Linas Bieliauskas,

Many Veterans involved in recent OEF/OIF conflicts return with reports of having experienced an mTBI. The Veteran's Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) have gone to great lengths to provide information to Veterans regarding possible effects of TBI. Although well intended, this information may possibly have an iatrogenic effect. ... Read more >>

Brain Inj (Brain injury)
[2015, 29(9):1051-1055]

Cited: 2 times

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Postconcussive symptom report in polytrauma: influence of mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric distress.

Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Heather Hennrick, Robert J Spencer, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

Many studies have evaluated the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on neuropsychological test performance and on report of postconcussive symptoms. However, most studies that examine postconcussion syndrome (PCS) do not address the issue of "polytrauma," which is common in military mTBI. This study investigated simultaneously demographic, injury-related, and ... Read more >>

Mil Med (Military medicine)
[2014, 179(8):856-864]

Cited: 15 times

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WAIS-IV reliable digit span is no more accurate than age corrected scaled score as an indicator of invalid performance in a veteran sample undergoing evaluation for mTBI.

Robert J Spencer, Bradley N Axelrod, Lauren L Drag, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a measure of effort derived from the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler intelligence scales. Some authors have suggested that the age-corrected scaled score provides a more accurate measure of effort than RDS. This study examined the relative diagnostic accuracy of the traditional RDS, an ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2013, 27(8):1362-1372]

Cited: 26 times

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