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Effect of Azaperone on Induction Times in Etorphine-Immobilized White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Emily Thulson, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer,

We describe induction time in six white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) when they received etorphine intramuscularly (IM) or etorphine plus azaperone IM. The median induction time was reduced from 8.9 min for etorphine alone to 6.25 min with azaperone; however, there was no difference in immobilization quality between treatments. ... Read more >>

J Wildl Dis (Journal of wildlife diseases)
[2022, 58(1):245-247]

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Extension of Sylvatic Circulation of African Swine Fever Virus in Extralimital Warthogs in South Africa.

Anthony F Craig, Mathilde L Schade-Weskott, Henry J Harris, Livio Heath, Gideon J P Kriel, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Louis van Schalkwyk, Peter Buss, Jessie D Trujillo, Jan E Crafford, Juergen A Richt, Robert Swanepoel,

Sylvatic circulation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks that live in warthog burrows historically occurred in northern South Africa. Outbreaks of the disease in domestic pigs originated in this region. A controlled area was declared in the north in 1935 and regulations were implemented to ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2021, 8:746129]

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Endemic persistence of a highly contagious pathogen: Foot-and-mouth disease in its wildlife host.

Anna Jolles, Erin Gorsich, Simon Gubbins, Brianna Beechler, Peter Buss, Nick Juleff, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Francois Maree, Eva Perez-Martin, O L van Schalkwyk, Katherine Scott, Fuquan Zhang, Jan Medlock, Bryan Charleston,

[Figure: see text]. ... Read more >>

Science (Science (New York, N.Y.))
[2021, 374(6563):104-109]

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Improved detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis in African wildlife samples using cationic peptide decontamination and mycobacterial culture supplementation.

Wynand J Goosen, Léanie Kleynhans, Tanya J Kerr, Paul D van Helden, Peter Buss, Robin M Warren, Michele A Miller,

In South Africa, mycobacterial culture is regarded as the gold standard for the detection of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex (MTBC) infection in wildlife even though it is regarded as "imperfect." We compared a novel decontamination and mycobacterial culture technique (TiKa) to the conventional mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) system using known ... Read more >>

J Vet Diagn Invest (Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc)
[2022, 34(1):61-67]

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Muscle tremors observed in white rhinoceroses immobilised with either etorphine-azaperone or etorphine-midazolam: An initial study.

Mary Nasr, Leith C R Meyer, Peter Buss, María C Fàbregas, Robin D Gleed, Jordyn M Boesch, Friederike Pohlin,

Etorphine-azaperone is the most commonly used drug combination for chemical immobilisation of free-ranging white rhinoceroses, but causes several profound physiological disturbances, including muscle tremors. The addition of benzodiazepine sedatives, such as midazolam, has been proposed to reduce the muscular rigidity and tremors in immobilised rhinoceroses. Twenty-three free-ranging, sub-adult white rhinoceros ... Read more >>

J S Afr Vet Assoc (Journal of the South African Veterinary Association)
[2021, 92(0):e1-e3]

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Immobilization of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) using etorphine-midazolam compared with etorphine-azaperone.

Justin F Grace, Michele A Miller, Jacobus P Raath, Liesel L Laubscher, Peter E Buss, Gareth E Zeiler,

<h4>Objective</h4>To compare induction times and physiological effects of etorphine-azaperone with etorphine-midazolam immobilization in African buffaloes.<h4>Study design</h4>Randomized crossover study.<h4>Animals</h4>A group of 10 adult buffalo bulls (mean body weight 353 kg).<h4>Methods</h4>Etorphine-azaperone (treatment EA; 0.015 and 0.15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) and etorphine-midazolam (treatment EM; 0.015 and 0.15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) were administered once ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2021, 48(5):734-744]

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Shedding of Mycobacterium bovis in respiratory secretions of free-ranging wild dogs (Lycaon pictus): Implications for intraspecies transmission.

Christina Meiring, Roxanne Higgitt, Wynand J Goosen, Louis van Schalkwyk, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Peter Buss, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Marlo Möller, Michele Miller,

It has recently been discovered that Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes disease in the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in areas endemic for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), including the Kruger National Park (KNP). However, information on M. bovis infection dynamics within this species is limited and requires investigation as M. bovis can cause ... Read more >>

Transbound Emerg Dis (Transboundary and emerging diseases)
[2021, 68(4):2581-2588]

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SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII INFECTION IN THE WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) IN SOUTH AFRICA.

Kyle A Donnelly, Michele A Miller, Douw Grobler, Peter Buss, Charles Van Niekerk, Léanie Kleynhans, Tanya J Kerr, Scott B Citino,

Coxiellosis, or Query (Q) fever, a disease caused by the intracellular bacteria <i>Coxiella burnetii</i>, was recently described in a managed breeding herd of white rhinoceros (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) in the southeastern United States. Clinical disease often results in abortion and could represent a conservation challenge for this species. In addition to ... Read more >>

J Zoo Wildl Med (Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians)
[2021, 52(2):573-579]

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Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Free-Ranging African Elephants.

Michele A Miller, Tanya J Kerr, Candice R de Waal, Wynand J Goosen, Elizabeth M Streicher, Guy Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Tebogo Manamela, Louis van Schalkwyk, Léanie Kleynhans, Robin Warren, Paul van Helden, Peter E Buss,

Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife species occurs worldwide. However, few cases of M. bovis infection in captive elephants have been reported. We describe 2 incidental cases of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from a tuberculosis-endemic national park in South Africa and the epidemiologic implications of these infections. ... Read more >>

Emerg Infect Dis (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2021, 27(3):990-992]

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Development of a cytokine gene expression assay for the relative quantification of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cell-mediated immune responses.

Candice R de Waal, Léanie Kleynhans, Sven D C Parsons, Wynand J Goosen, Guy Hausler, Peter E Buss, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Jennifer A Landolfi, Michele A Miller, Tanya J Kerr,

Immunological assays are the basis for many diagnostic tests for infectious diseases in animals and humans. Application in wildlife species, including the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), is limited however due to lack of information on immune responses. Since many immunoassays require both identified biomarkers of immune activation as well as ... Read more >>

Cytokine (Cytokine)
[2021, 141:155453]

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Review of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in South African Wildlife.

Netanya Bernitz, Tanya J Kerr, Wynand J Goosen, Josephine Chileshe, Roxanne L Higgitt, Eduard O Roos, Christina Meiring, Rachiel Gumbo, Candice de Waal, Charlene Clarke, Katrin Smith, Samantha Goldswain, Taschnica T Sylvester, Léanie Kleynhans, Anzaan Dippenaar, Peter E Buss, David V Cooper, Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller,

Wildlife tuberculosis is a major economic and conservation concern globally. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by <i>Mycobacterium bovis</i> (<i>M. bovis</i>), is the most common form of wildlife tuberculosis. In South Africa, to date, <i>M. bovis</i> infection has been detected in 24 mammalian wildlife species. The identification of <i>M. bovis</i> infection in ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2021, 8:588697]

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Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

Tanya J Kerr, Wynand J Goosen, Rachiel Gumbo, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Oonagh Pretorius, Peter E Buss, Léanie Kleynhans, Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Michele A Miller,

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, is a multi-host disease which negatively affects the wildlife industry, with adverse consequences for conservation, ecotourism, and game/wildlife sales. Although interspecies transmission has been reported between some wildlife hosts, the risk of spread in complex ecosystems is largely unknown. As ... Read more >>

Transbound Emerg Dis (Transboundary and emerging diseases)
[2021, :]

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Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection.

Vanessa O Ezenwa, Sarah A Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna E Jolles, Kaori Sakamoto,

Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ... Read more >>

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2021, 118(3):]

Cited: 3 times

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ANTIBODY PREVALENCE TO AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS, MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS, RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, INFLUENZA A VIRUS, AND BRUCELLA AND LEPTOSPIRA SPP. IN FREE-RANGING WARTHOG (PHACOCHOERUS AFRICANUS) POPULATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA.

Donald Neiffer, Jennie Hewlett, Peter Buss, Leana Rossouw, Guy Hausler, Lin-Mari deKlerk-Lorist, Eduard Roos, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Baratang Lubisi, Livio Heath, Michele Miller,

The warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) can be used as a model for investigating disease transmission at the human, wildlife, and livestock interface. An omnivore and scavenger, a warthog moves freely between natural ecotypes, farmland, and human communities and is susceptible to diseases of zoonotic, agricultural, and conservation concern. A retrospective study ... Read more >>

J Wildl Dis (Journal of wildlife diseases)
[2021, 57(1):60-70]

Cited: 1 time

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Cytokine biomarker discovery in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

Josephine Chileshe, Tanya J Kerr, Craig Kinnear, Peter E Buss, Paul D van Helden, Robin M Warren, Michele A Miller, Sven D C Parsons,

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, disrupts conservation programs of threatened species such as the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Interferon gamma release assays have been developed for the diagnosis of M. bovis infection in rhinoceros, however, the discovery of additional diagnostic biomarkers might improve the accuracy ... Read more >>

Vet Immunol Immunopathol (Veterinary immunology and immunopathology)
[2021, 232:110168]

Cited: 1 time

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What hinders pulmonary gas exchange and changes distribution of ventilation in immobilized white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) in lateral recumbency?

Martina Mosing, Andreas D Waldmann, Muriel Sacks, Peter Buss, Jordyn M Boesch, Gareth E Zeiler, Giselle Hosgood, Robin D Gleed, Michele Miller, Leith C R Meyer, Stephan H Böhm,

This study used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements of regional ventilation and perfusion to elucidate the reasons for severe gas exchange impairment reported in rhinoceroses during opioid-induced immobilization. EIT values were compared with standard monitoring parameters to establish a new monitoring tool for conservational immobilization and future treatment options. Six ... Read more >>

J Appl Physiol (1985) (Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985))
[2020, 129(5):1140-1149]

Cited: 2 times

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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Multi-Host Wildlife Systems: Implications for Black (Diceros bicornis) and White (Ceratotherium simum) Rhinoceros.

Rebecca A Dwyer, Carmel Witte, Peter Buss, Wynand J Goosen, Michele Miller,

Cases of tuberculosis (TB) resulting from infection with <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex (MTBC) have been recorded in captive white (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) and black (<i>Diceros bicornis</i>) rhinoceros. More recently, cases have been documented in free-ranging populations of both species in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) endemic areas of South Africa. There is limited information ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:580476]

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A Comparison of Hematological, Immunological, and Stress Responses to Capture and Transport in Wild White Rhinoceros Bulls (Ceratotherium simum simum) Supplemented With Azaperone or Midazolam.

Friederike Pohlin, Emma H Hooijberg, Peter Buss, Nikolaus Huber, Francois P Viljoen, Dee Blackhurst, Leith C R Meyer,

Capture and transport are essential procedures for the management and conservation of southern white rhinoceroses (<i>Ceratotherium simum simum</i>), but are associated with stress-induced morbidity and mortality. To improve conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of rhinoceros stress responses and investigate drug combinations that could reduce these responses. ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:569576]

Cited: 2 times

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Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles, Kaori Sakamoto,

Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ... Read more >>

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The Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

Wynand J Goosen, Tanya J Kerr, Léanie Kleynhans, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, David H Persing, Sven D C Parsons, Peter Buss, Michele A Miller,

The study describes the novel use of the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA in samples from white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Culture negative respiratory sample matrices were spiked to determine if the Ultra could detect MTBC DNA in rhinoceros ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):14482]

Cited: 3 times

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Midazolam Alters Acid-Base Status Less than Azaperone during the Capture and Transport of Southern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum).

Friederike Pohlin, Peter Buss, Emma H Hooijberg, Leith C R Meyer,

Acidemia represents a major life-threatening factor during rhinoceros capture. The acid-base status during rhinoceros transport is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in acid-base status during rhinoceros capture and transport and compare these changes between rhinoceroses sedated with azaperone or midazolam. Twenty-three wild white rhinoceros bulls ... Read more >>

Animals (Basel) (Animals : an open access journal from MDPI)
[2020, 10(8):]

Cited: 1 time

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Shuni Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa.

Jumari Steyn, Pebetsi Motlou, Charmaine van Eeden, Marthi Pretorius, Voula I Stivaktas, June Williams, Louwtjie P Snyman, Peter E Buss, Brianna Beechler, Anna Jolles, Eva Perez-Martin, Jan G Myburgh, Johan Steyl, Marietjie Venter,

We screened nonequine animals with unexplained neurologic signs or death in South Africa during 2010-2018 for Shuni virus (SHUV). SHUV was detected in 3.3% of wildlife, 1.1% of domestic, and 2.0% of avian species. Seropositivity was also demonstrated in wildlife. These results suggest a range of possible SHUV hosts in ... Read more >>

Emerg Infect Dis (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2020, 26(7):1521-1525]

Cited: 5 times

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The VetMAX™ M. tuberculosis complex PCR kit detects MTBC DNA in antemortem and postmortem samples from white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

Wynand J Goosen, Tanya J Kerr, Léanie Kleynhans, Peter Buss, David Cooper, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Björn Schröder, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller,

<h4>Background</h4>Bovine tuberculosis and tuberculosis are chronic infectious diseases caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Infection with M. bovis and M. tuberculosis have significant implications for wildlife species management, public health, veterinary disease control, and conservation endeavours.<h4>Results</h4>Here we describe the first use of the ... Read more >>

BMC Vet Res (BMC veterinary research)
[2020, 16(1):220]

Cited: 2 times

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The VetMAXTM M. tuberculosis Complex PCR Kit detects MTBC DNA in antemortem and postmortem samples from White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

Wynand Johan Goosen, Tanya Jane Kerr, Léanie Kleynhans, Peter Buss, David Cooper, Robin Mark Warren, Paul van Helden, Björn Schröder, Sven David Charles Parsons, Michele Ann Miller,

<h4>Background: </h4> Bovine tuberculosis and tuberculosis are chronic infectious diseases caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis , respectively. Infection with M. bovis and M. tuberculosis have significant implications for wildlife species management, public health, veterinary disease control, and conservation endeavours. Results : Here we ... Read more >>

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Spatial geochemistry influences the home range of elephants.

Fiona Sach, Lisa Yon, Michelle D Henley, Anka Bedetti, Peter Buss, Willem Frederik de Boer, Ellen S Dierenfeld, Amanda Gardner, Simon C Langley-Evans, Elliott Hamilton, R Murray Lark, Herbert H T Prins, Anthony M Swemmer, Michael J Watts,

The unique geochemistry surrounding the Palabora Mining Company (PMC) land may act as a micronutrient hotspot, attracting elephants to the area. The PMC produces refined copper and extracts phosphates and other minerals. Understanding the spatial influence of geochemistry on the home range size of African elephants is important for elephant ... Read more >>

Sci Total Environ (The Science of the total environment)
[2020, 729:139066]

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