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Addiction-related neuroadaptations following chronic nicotine exposure.

Lauren Wills, Paul J Kenny,

The addiction-relevant molecular, cellular, and behavioral actions of nicotine are derived from its stimulatory effects on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system. nAChRs expressed by dopamine-containing neurons in the ventral midbrain, most notably in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), contribute to the reward-enhancing properties of nicotine ... Read more >>

J Neurochem (Journal of neurochemistry)
[2021, 157(5):1652-1673]

Cited: 1 time

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Extended detail contrasts for TO.10 use on flat panel detector fluoroscopy systems.

Dean McCarthy, Patrick Kenny,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Leeds Test Object Ten (TO.10) is routinely used to subjectively estimate Threshold Contrast Detail Detectability (TCDD) as a measure of image quality in fluoroscopy. However, manufacturer guidance provides calibrated contrasts for only limited peak voltage and copper filtration thickness combinations. Prescribed testing conditions are often difficult to attain as modern ... Read more >>

Br J Radiol (The British journal of radiology)
[2021, 94(1122):20201422]

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Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction.

Marina R Picciotto, Paul J Kenny,

Tobacco smoking results in more than five million deaths each year and accounts for ∼90% of all deaths from lung cancer.<sup>3</sup> Nicotine, the major reinforcing component of tobacco smoke, acts in the brain through the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChRs are allosterically regulated, ligand-gated ion channels consisting of ... Read more >>

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med (Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine)
[2021, 11(5):]

Cited: 2 times

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Valuing End-of-Life Care for Older People with Advanced Cancer: Is Dying at Home Important?

Patricia Kenny, Deborah J Street, Jane Hall, Meera Agar, Jane Phillips,

<h4>Background</h4>Most health care systems are facing the challenge of providing health services to support the increasing numbers of older people with chronic life-limiting conditions at the end of life. Many policies focus primarily on increasing the proportion of deaths at home.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aims to investigate preferences for care throughout the ... Read more >>

Patient (The patient)
[2021, :]

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A multi-site review of second hip fractures across 6 Dublin teaching hospitals.

Colum Downey, Stephen Flannery, Ben Murphy, Tiarnan Daly, Sarah Conway, Mohammed Gaffar, Peter Dawson, Patrick O'Kelly, Denis Collins, Paddy Kenny, Tom McCarthy, James Cashman, Conor Shortt, Brendan O'Daly, Conor Hurson, John Quinlan,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Fragility hip fractures are common and costly. Secondary fracture prevention is a treatment goal following hip fracture; however, the number of those that proceed to fracture their contralateral hip in Ireland is unknown. There are plans to introduce a Fracture Liaison Service Database in Ireland which will aim to prevent ... Read more >>

Ir J Med Sci (Irish journal of medical science)
[2021, :]

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Assessment of previous fracture and anti-osteoporotic medication prescription in hip fracture patients.

Cathal J McCarthy, Michael A Kelly, Paddy J Kenny,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Hip fracture prevention is an essential component in elderly patient care. History of prior fracture is a significant risk factor for subsequent hip fracture. There are variable rates of treatment for these groups of patients. The aims of this study were to make an assessment of how many hip fracture ... Read more >>

Ir J Med Sci (Irish journal of medical science)
[2021, :]

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Natriuretic Peptide Expression and Function in GH3 Somatolactotropes and Feline Somatotrope Pituitary Tumours.

Samantha M Mirczuk, Christopher J Scudder, Jordan E Read, Victoria J Crossley, Jacob T Regan, Karen M Richardson, Bigboy Simbi, Craig A McArdle, David B Church, Joseph Fenn, Patrick J Kenny, Holger A Volk, Caroline P Wheeler-Jones, Márta Korbonits, Stijn J Niessen, Imelda M McGonnell, Robert C Fowkes,

Patients harbouring mutations in genes encoding C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP; <i>NPPC</i>) or its receptor guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B, <i>NPR2</i>) suffer from severe growth phenotypes; loss-of-function mutations cause achondroplasia, whereas gain-of-function mutations cause skeletal overgrowth. Although most of the effects of CNP/GC-B on growth are mediated directly on bone, evidence suggests ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2021, 22(3):]

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Outbreak or pseudo-outbreak? Integrating SARS-CoV-2 sequencing to validate infection control practices in an end stage renal disease facility

Bridget Pfaff, Craig Richmond, Arick Sabin, Deena Athas, Jessica Adams, Megan Meller, Kumari Usha, Sarah Schmitz, Brian Simmons, Andrew Borgert, Paraic Kenny,

<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> <h4>Background</h4> The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 poses a particularly high risk for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients and led to a need for facility-wide control plans to prevent introduction and spread of infection within ESRD facilities. Rapid identification of clusters of contemporaneous cases is essential, as these may ... Read more >>

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Diseases, Disorders, and Comorbidities of Interoception.

Bruno Bonaz, Richard D Lane, Michael L Oshinsky, Paul J Kenny, Rajita Sinha, Emeran A Mayer, Hugo D Critchley,

Interoception, the sense of the body's internal physiological state, underpins homeostatic reflexes, motivational states, and sensations contributing to emotional experiences. The continuous nature of interoceptive processing, coupled to behavior, is implicated in the neurobiological construction of the sense of self. Aberrant integration and control of interoceptive signals, originating in the ... Read more >>

Trends Neurosci (Trends in neurosciences)
[2021, 44(1):39-51]

Cited: 5 times

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Habenular TCF7L2 links nicotine addiction to diabetes: the broad significance.

Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny,

Neuropsychopharmacology (Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology)
[2021, 46(1):267-268]

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α3* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Habenula-Interpeduncular Nucleus Circuit Regulate Nicotine Intake.

Karim S Elayouby, Masago Ishikawa, Angeline J Dukes, Alexander C W Smith, Qun Lu, Christie D Fowler, Paul J Kenny,

Allelic variation in <i>CHRNA3</i>, the gene encoding the α3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit, increases vulnerability to tobacco dependence and smoking-related diseases, but little is known about the role for α3-containing (α3*) nAChRs in regulating the addiction-related behavioral or physiological actions of nicotine. α3* nAChRs are densely expressed by medial ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, 41(8):1779-1787]

Cited: 1 time

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The varus cemented femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty: Predictors, implications and The Femoral Access Ratio.

G Sheridan, H Hughes, A Welch-Phillips, P Kenny, G O'Toole, J O'Byrne,

<h4>Introduction</h4>We describe a novel morphological ratio, the Femoral Access Ratio, in the preoperative femur to investigate the predictors of femoral stem malalignment.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed 70 cemented femoral stems. Preoperative 'FAR' score was measured. Postoperative coronal stem alignment was measured and ten year survivorship and functional outcomes investigated.<h4>Results</h4>There were three predictors of ... Read more >>

J Orthop (Journal of orthopaedics)
[2021, 23:8-12]

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Outcomes of the Exeter V40 cemented femoral stem at a minimum of ten years in a non-designer centre.

John Mahon, Cathal Jack McCarthy, Gerard A Sheridan, James P Cashman, John M O'Byrne, Paddy Kenny,

<h4>Aims</h4>The Exeter V40 cemented femoral stem was first introduced in 2000. The largest single-centre analysis of this implant to date was published in 2018 by Westerman et al. Excellent results were reported at a minimum of ten years for the first 540 cases performed at the designer centre in the ... Read more >>

Bone Jt Open (Bone & joint open)
[2020, 1(12):743-748]

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COVID Moonshot: Open Science Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors by Combining Crowdsourcing, High-Throughput Experiments, Computational Simulations, and Machine Learning

, Hagit Achdout, Anthony Aimon, Elad Bar-David, Haim Barr, Amir Ben-Shmuel, James Bennett, Melissa Bobby, Juliane Brun, BVNBS Sarma, Mark Calmiano, Anna Carbery, Emma Cattermole, John Chodera, Austin Clyde, Joseph Coffland, Galit Cohen, Jason Cole, Alessandro Contini, Lisa Cox, Milan Cvitkovic, Alex Dias, Alice Douangamath, Shirly Duberstein, Tim Dudgeon, Louise Dunnett, Peter Eastman, Noam Erez, Michael Fairhead, Daren Fearon, Oleg Fedorov, Matteo Ferla, Holly Foster, Richard Foster, Ronen Gabizon, Paul Gehrtz, Carina Gileadi, Charline Giroud, William Glass, Robert Glen, Itai Glinert, Marian Gorichko, Tyler Gorrie-Stone, Edward Griffen, Jag Heer, Michelle Hill, Sam Horrell, Matthew F.D. Hurley, Tomer Israely, Andrew Jajack, Eric Jnoff, Tobias John, Anastassia Kantsadi, Peter Kenny, John Kiappes, Lizbe Koekemoer, Boris Kovar, Tobias Krojer, Alpha Albert Lee, Bruce Lefker, Haim Levy, Nir London, Petra Lukacik, Hannah Bruce Macdonald, Beth MacLean, Tika Malla, Tatiana Matviiuk, Willam McCorkindale, Sharon Melamed, Oleg Michurin, Halina Mikolajek, Aaron Morris, Garrett Morris, Melody Jane Morwitzer, Demetri Moustakas, Jose Brandao Neto, Vladas Oleinikovas, Gijs Overheul, David Owen, Ruby Pai, Jin Pan, Nir Paran, Benjamin Perry, Maneesh Pingle, Jakir Pinjari, Boaz Politi, Ailsa Powell, Vladimir Psenak, Reut Puni, Victor Rangel, Rambabu Reddi, St Patrick Reid, Efrat Resnick, Matthew Robinson, Ralph Robinson, Dominic Rufa, Christopher Schofield, Aarif Shaikh, Jiye Shi, Khriesto Shurrush, Assa Sittner, Rachael Skyner, Adam Smalley, Mihaela Smilova, John Spencer, Claire Strain-Damerell, Vishwanath Swamy, Hadas Tamir, Rachael Tennant, Andrew Thompson, Warren Thompson, Susana Tomasio, Anthony Tumber, Ioannis Vakonakis, Ronald van Rij, Finny Varghese, Mariana Vaschetto, Einat Vitner, Vincent Voelz, Annette von Delft, Frank von Delft, Martin Walsh, Walter Ward, Charlie Weatherall, Shay Weiss, Conor Francis Wild, Matthew Wittmann, Nathan Wright, Yfat Yahalom-Ronen, Daniel Zaidmann, Hadeer Zidane, Nicole Zitzmann,

Herein we provide a living summary of the data generated during the COVID Moonshot project focused on the development of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. Our approach uniquely combines crowdsourced medicinal chemistry insights with high throughput crystallography, exascale computational chemistry infrastructure for simulations, and machine learning in triaging designs and ... Read more >>

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Hippocampal plasticity may drive cocaine relapse.

Vanessa E Lehmann, Paul J Kenny,

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2020, 117(48):30003-30005]

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SARS-CoV-2 sequencing reveals rapid transmission from college student clusters resulting in morbidity and deaths in vulnerable populations

Craig Richmond, Arick Sabin, Dean Jobe, Steven Lovrich, Paraic Kenny,

<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> College reopening decisions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic represent a trade-off between competing risks to students, faculty and staff, and college finances. Additionally, risks taken in reopening colleges can impose significant burdens on individuals living in surrounding communities. Many colleges that reopened for in-person instruction have reported frequent SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. ... Read more >>

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Evaluation of optimised 3D turbo spin echo and gradient echo MR pulse sequences of the knee at 3T and 1.5T.

O M Abdulaal, L Rainford, P J MacMahon, P Kenny, F Carty, M Galligan, A Cradock, F H Alhazmi, A McGee,

<h4>Introduction</h4>To investigate the impact of parameter optimisation for novel three-dimensional 3D sequences at 1.5T and 3T on resultant image quality.<h4>Methods</h4>Following institutional review board approval and acquisition of informed consent, MR phantom and knee joint imaging on healthy volunteers (n = 16) was performed with 1.5 and 3T MRI scanners, respectively incorporating 8- ... Read more >>

Radiography (Lond) (Radiography (London, England : 1995))
[2021, 27(2):389-397]

Cited: 1 time

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Assessing the Attitudes, Awareness, and Behavioral Alterations of Patients Awaiting Total Hip Arthroplasty During the COVID-19 Crisis.

Stephen Fahy, Joss Moore, Michael Kelly, Shane Irwin, Paddy Kenny,

<h4>Background</h4>COVID-19 has placed a huge burden on healthcare systems which has led to widespread cancellation elective surgical care. Ireland is recovering from the first wave of COVID-19 and as such the expeditious return of elective surgical care is important. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of patients ... Read more >>

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil (Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation)
[2020, 11:2151459320969377]

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Crystal structure of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease B in complex with a high-affinity azadipeptide nitrile inhibitor.

Jean F R Ribeiro, Lorenzo Cianni, Chan Li, Thomas G Warwick, Daniela de Vita, Fabiana Rosini, Fernanda Dos Reis Rocho, Felipe C P Martins, Peter W Kenny, Jeronimo Lameira, Andrei Leitão, Jonas Emsley, Carlos A Montanari,

Leishmania mexicana is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis affecting South America and Mexico. The cysteine protease LmCPB is essential for the virulence of the parasite and therefore, it is an appealing target for antiparasitic therapy. A library of nitrile-based cysteine protease inhibitors was ... Read more >>

Bioorg Med Chem (Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 28(22):115743]

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The Persistent Challenge of Developing Addiction Pharmacotherapies.

Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Charles P O'Brien, Paul J Kenny, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Ellen M Unterwald, R Christopher Pierce,

There are currently effective Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid use disorders. This article will review the development of eight compounds used in the treatment of drug addiction with an emphasis on pharmacological mechanisms and the utility of preclinical animal models of addiction in therapeutic ... Read more >>

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med (Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine)
[2020, :]

Cited: 0 times

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Air Quality and Its Association with Cardiovascular and Respiratory Hospital Admissions in Ireland.

K I Quintyne, A Sheridan, P Kenny, M O'Dwyer,

Aim Cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory (RSD) diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Ireland. Clear links have been demonstrated in the literature between poor air quality and these diseases. This study aimed to use routinely available data to examine the relationship between air quality index for health (AQIH) ... Read more >>

Ir Med J (Irish medical journal)
[2020, 113(6):92]

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Interregional SARS-CoV-2 spread from a single introduction outbreak in a meat-packing plant in northeast Iowa

Craig Richmond, Arick Sabin, Dean Jobe, Steven Lovrich, Paraic Kenny,

<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> SARS-CoV-2 spread has proven to be especially difficult to mitigate in high risk settings, including nursing homes, cruises, prisons and various industrial settings. Among industrial settings, meat processing facilities in the United States have experienced particularly challenging outbreaks. We have sequenced SARS-CoV-2 whole viral genomes from individuals testing positive ... Read more >>

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Prelimbic-amygdala overexcitability mediates trait vulnerability in a novel mouse model of acute social defeat stress

Yael Grossman, Clementine Fillinger, Alessia Manganaro, George Voren, Rachel Waldman, Tiffany Zou, William Janssen, Paul Kenny, Dani Dumitriu,

<h4>BACKGROUND</h4> Depression is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with 20% lifetime prevalence in the developed world but only approximately half of afflicted individuals respond to currently available therapies. While there is growing understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of the depressed brain, much less is known about the preexisting circuitry leading to ... Read more >>

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Musculoskeletal Infection in Orthopaedic Trauma: Assessment of the 2018 International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection.

William T Obremskey, Willem-Jan Metsemakers, Daniel R Schlatterer, Kevin Tetsworth, Kenneth Egol, Stephen Kates, Martin McNally, ,

Fracture-related infections (FRIs) are among the most common complications following fracture fixation, and they have a huge economic and functional impact on patients. Because consensus guidelines with respect to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this major complication are scarce, delegates from different countries gathered in Philadelphia in July 2018 as ... Read more >>

J Bone Joint Surg Am (The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume)
[2020, 102(10):e44]

Cited: 1 time

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Current concepts and outcomes in cemented femoral stem design and cementation techniques: the argument for a new classification system.

Adrian J Cassar-Gheiti, Rosie McColgan, Martin Kelly, Theresa M Cassar-Gheiti, Paddy Kenny, Colin G Murphy,

Cemented implant fixation design principles have evolved since the 1950s, and various femoral stem designs are currently in use to provide a stable construct between the implant-cement and cement-bone interfaces.Cemented stems have classically been classified into two broad categories: taper slip or force closed, and composite beams or shaped closed ... Read more >>

EFORT Open Rev (EFORT open reviews)
[2020, 5(4):241-252]

Cited: 2 times

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