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Effect of Azaperone on Induction Times in Etorphine-Immobilized White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Emily Thulson, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer,

We describe induction time in six white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) when they received etorphine intramuscularly (IM) or etorphine plus azaperone IM. The median induction time was reduced from 8.9 min for etorphine alone to 6.25 min with azaperone; however, there was no difference in immobilization quality between treatments. ... Read more >>

J Wildl Dis (Journal of wildlife diseases)
[2022, 58(1):245-247]

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Cardiovascular effects of intravenous vatinoxan in wild boars (Sus scrofa) anaesthetised with intramuscular medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam.

Joy Einwaller, Leith C R Meyer, Ulrike Auer, Marja Raekallio, Julia Nowack, Anna Haw, Sebastian Vetter, Johanna Painer, Gabrielle Stalder,

<h4>Background</h4>The potent sedative medetomidine is a commonly used adjunct for the immobilisation of non-domestic mammals. However, its use is associated with pronounced cardiovascular side effects, such as bradycardia, vasoconstriction and decreased cardiac output. We investigated the effects of the peripherally-acting alpha-2-adrenoceptor antagonist vatinoxan on cardiovascular properties in medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam anaesthetised wild ... Read more >>

Vet Rec (The Veterinary record)
[2021, :e835]

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Evaluation of two different etorphine doses combined with azaperone in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) immobilisation.

Eugenio Gaudio, Liesel L Laubscher, Leith C R Meyer, Louwrens C Hoffman, Jacobus P Raath, Silke Pfitzer,

Chemical immobilisation is essential for veterinarians to perform medical procedures in wild African ungulates. Potent opioids combined with neuroleptic drugs are most often used for this purpose. The present study aimed at comparing the quality of immobilisation and effects on physiological variables between a high (high etorphine-azaperone [HE]: 0.09 mg ... Read more >>

J S Afr Vet Assoc (Journal of the South African Veterinary Association)
[2021, 92(0):e1-e8]

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Forced running-induced rhabdomyolysis in the Sprague-Dawley rat: towards a rodent model of capture myopathy.

Crystal Lubbe, Brian H Harvey, Francois P Viljoen, Leith Meyer, De Wet Wolmarans,

Capture myopathy (CM) is a metabolic disease associated with mortality in mass boma captured (MBC) wildlife. The condition is induced by the forced pursuit, capturing, and restraint of wild animals, although its causal biology remains to be confirmed. A core feature of MBC-CM is rhabdomyolysis, which is associated with myoglobinuria and ... Read more >>

Vet Res Commun (Veterinary research communications)
[2021, 45(4):459-465]

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Use of blood colour for assessment of arterial oxygen saturation in immobilized impala (Aepyceros melampus).

Etienne P Basson, Gareth E Zeiler, Peter R Kamerman, Leith C R Meyer,

<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the relationship between arterial blood colour [as defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L∗a∗b∗ colour space] and haemoglobin oxygen saturation [functional saturation (SaO<sub>2</sub>) and fractional saturation (FO<sub>2</sub>Hb)], and if arterial blood colour can be used to predict arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation.<h4>Study design</h4>Descriptive study as an adjunct ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2021, 48(5):725-733]

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Reference Intervals for Selected Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measurands in Temminck's Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii).

Emma H Hooijberg, Karin Lourens, Leith C R Meyer,

Pangolins are the world's most trafficked non-human mammals. A significant number of Temminck's pangolins (<i>Smutsia temminckii</i>) are presented for veterinary care and rehabilitation in southern Africa. Little is known about the physiology and normal health of this species, making diagnosis and medical management difficult. This study aimed to establish reference ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2021, 8:654529]

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Muscle tremors observed in white rhinoceroses immobilised with either etorphine-azaperone or etorphine-midazolam: An initial study.

Mary Nasr, Leith C R Meyer, Peter Buss, María C Fàbregas, Robin D Gleed, Jordyn M Boesch, Friederike Pohlin,

Etorphine-azaperone is the most commonly used drug combination for chemical immobilisation of free-ranging white rhinoceroses, but causes several profound physiological disturbances, including muscle tremors. The addition of benzodiazepine sedatives, such as midazolam, has been proposed to reduce the muscular rigidity and tremors in immobilised rhinoceroses. Twenty-three free-ranging, sub-adult white rhinoceros ... Read more >>

J S Afr Vet Assoc (Journal of the South African Veterinary Association)
[2021, 92(0):e1-e3]

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CHALLENGES TO ANIMAL WELFARE DURING TRANSPORTATION OF WILD MAMMALS: A REVIEW (1990-2020).

Friederike Pohlin, Emma H Hooijberg, Leith C R Meyer,

Wild mammal transport is an important component of conservation translocation as well as the economic wildlife trade. This article reviews the physiological responses to transport that have been measured in wild mammalian species, factors associated with these responses, and interventions that have been applied to mitigate these responses. By organizing ... Read more >>

J Zoo Wildl Med (Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians)
[2021, 52(1):1-13]

Cited: 1 time

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How dryland mammals will respond to climate change: the effects of body size, heat load and a lack of food and water.

Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Robyn S Hetem, Vinicius F C Fonsêca, Leith C R Meyer, Tanja M F N van de Ven, Edward P Snelling,

Mammals in drylands are facing not only increasing heat loads but also reduced water and food availability as a result of climate change. Insufficient water results in suppression of evaporative cooling and therefore increases in body core temperature on hot days, while lack of food reduces the capacity to maintain ... Read more >>

J Exp Biol (The Journal of experimental biology)
[2021, 224(Pt Suppl 1):]

Cited: 3 times

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Investigation of cardiorespiratory effects of the selective 5-HT4 agonist BIMU-8 in etorphine-immobilised goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in a randomized, blinded and controlled trial.

Nadine Tod, Gabrielle Stalder, Hanna Rauch, Stefan Boehmdorfer, Anna Haw, Hanno Gerritsmann, Johanna Painer, Leith Meyer,

<h4>Background</h4>Opioid-induced respiratory compromise remains a significant challenge in etorphine-immobilised wildlife. Serotonergic agonists offer a potential avenue for preventing or treating opioid-induced respiratory compromise. We therefore aimed to determine whether the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4) agonist, BIMU-8, reverses opioid-induced respiratory compromise in etorphine-immobilised goats.<h4>Methods</h4>Seven healthy adult goats were immobilised with ... Read more >>

Vet Rec (The Veterinary record)
[2021, 189(1):e76]

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Hippocampal monoamine changes in the Flinders sensitive line rat: A case for the possible use of selective α2C-AR-antagonists in stress and anxiety disorders in companion animals.

Brian H Harvey, Madeleine M Uys, Francois P Viljoen, Mohammed Shahid, Quixi Sonntag, Leith C R Meyer,

Non-selective α<sub>2</sub>-adrenoreceptor (AR) stimulation delivers favourable sedative, analgesic, muscle relaxant and anxiolytic actions in companion animals, but is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory side effects. Anxiety conditions underscore monoamine disturbances amenable to α<sub>2</sub>-AR modulation. We investigated sub-chronic (14 day s.c.) treatment with the selective α<sub>2C</sub>-AR antagonist, ORM-10921 (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg/d) on hippocampal ... Read more >>

Res Vet Sci (Research in veterinary science)
[2021, 135:175-183]

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Comparison of cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine and thiafentanil administered as sole agents for immobilization of impala (Aepyceros melampus).

Silke Pfitzer, Leith Meyer, Liesel Laubscher, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins, Jacobus P Raath, Michael Laurence,

<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of the opioids etorphine and thiafentanil for immobilization of impala.<h4>Study design</h4>Two-way crossover, randomized study.<h4>Animals</h4>A group of eight adult female impala.<h4>Methods</h4>Impala were given two treatments: 0.09 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> etorphine or 0.09 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> thiafentanil via remote dart injection. Time to recumbency, quality of immobilization and recovery ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2021, 48(1):53-64]

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EVALUATION OF TWO DOSES OF BUTORPHANOL-MEDETOMIDINE-MIDAZOLAM FOR THE IMMOBILIZATION OF WILD VERSUS CAPTIVE BLACK-FOOTED CATS (FELIS NIGRIPES).

Birgit Eggers, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Nadine Lamberski, Arne Lawrenz, Alexander Sliwa, Beryl Wilson, Leith C R Meyer,

The efficacy, safety, physiologic effects, and reversibility of butorphanol-medetomidine-midazolam (BMM) immobilization were evaluated in black-footed cats (<i>Felis nigripes</i>) and compared between captive and wild animals. Nine captive and 14 wild black-footed cats were hand injected into an accessible hind limb muscle group with the BMM combination. The captive cats (captive ... Read more >>

J Zoo Wildl Med (Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians)
[2020, 51(3):497-506]

Cited: 1 time

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A Comparison of Hematological, Immunological, and Stress Responses to Capture and Transport in Wild White Rhinoceros Bulls (Ceratotherium simum simum) Supplemented With Azaperone or Midazolam.

Friederike Pohlin, Emma H Hooijberg, Peter Buss, Nikolaus Huber, Francois P Viljoen, Dee Blackhurst, Leith C R Meyer,

Capture and transport are essential procedures for the management and conservation of southern white rhinoceroses (<i>Ceratotherium simum simum</i>), but are associated with stress-induced morbidity and mortality. To improve conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of rhinoceros stress responses and investigate drug combinations that could reduce these responses. ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:569576]

Cited: 2 times

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Comparison of some cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine and thiafentanil during the chemical immobilization of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi).

Silke Pfitzer, Leith Meyer, Liesel Laubscher, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins, Jacobus P Raath, Michael Laurence,

<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine and thiafentanil for immobilization of blesbok.<h4>Study design</h4>Blinded, randomized, two-way crossover study.<h4>Animals</h4>A group of eight adult female blesbok.<h4>Methods</h4>Animals were immobilized twice, once with etorphine (0.09 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and once with thiafentanil (0.09 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) administered intramuscularly by dart. Immobilization quality was assessed and analysed ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2021, 48(1):42-52]

Cited: 1 time

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What hinders pulmonary gas exchange and changes distribution of ventilation in immobilized white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) in lateral recumbency?

Martina Mosing, Andreas D Waldmann, Muriel Sacks, Peter Buss, Jordyn M Boesch, Gareth E Zeiler, Giselle Hosgood, Robin D Gleed, Michele Miller, Leith C R Meyer, Stephan H Böhm,

This study used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements of regional ventilation and perfusion to elucidate the reasons for severe gas exchange impairment reported in rhinoceroses during opioid-induced immobilization. EIT values were compared with standard monitoring parameters to establish a new monitoring tool for conservational immobilization and future treatment options. Six ... Read more >>

J Appl Physiol (1985) (Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985))
[2020, 129(5):1140-1149]

Cited: 2 times

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Do potent immobilising-opioids induce different physiological effects in impala and blesbok?

Silke Pfitzer, Michael Laurence, Liesel Laubscher, Jacobus P Raath, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins, Leith R C Meyer,

Potent opioids are known to cause negative alterations to the physiology of immobilised antelope. How these effects differ between species has not been studied. This study aimed to compare time to recumbence and effects of opioid-based immobilisation on the physiology of impala (Aepyceros melampus) and blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi). Eight ... Read more >>

J S Afr Vet Assoc (Journal of the South African Veterinary Association)
[2020, 91(0):e1-e8]

Cited: 1 time

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Increased Diurnal Activity Is Indicative of Energy Deficit in a Nocturnal Mammal, the Aardvark.

Nora Marie Weyer, Andrea Fuller, Anna Jean Haw, Leith Carl Rodney Meyer, Duncan Mitchell, Mike Picker, Benjamin Rey, Robyn Sheila Hetem,

Shifting activity to cooler times of day buffers animals from increased heat and aridity under climate change. Conversely, when resources are limited, some nocturnal species become more diurnal, reducing energetic costs of keeping warm at night. Aardvarks (<i>Orycteropus afer</i>) are nocturnal, obligate ant- and termite-eating mammals which may be threatened ... Read more >>

Front Physiol (Frontiers in physiology)
[2020, 11:637]

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Midazolam Alters Acid-Base Status Less than Azaperone during the Capture and Transport of Southern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum).

Friederike Pohlin, Peter Buss, Emma H Hooijberg, Leith C R Meyer,

Acidemia represents a major life-threatening factor during rhinoceros capture. The acid-base status during rhinoceros transport is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in acid-base status during rhinoceros capture and transport and compare these changes between rhinoceroses sedated with azaperone or midazolam. Twenty-three wild white rhinoceros bulls ... Read more >>

Animals (Basel) (Animals : an open access journal from MDPI)
[2020, 10(8):]

Cited: 1 time

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Evaluation of the reliability of pulse oximetry, at different attachment sites, to detect hypoxaemia in immobilized impala (Aepyceros melampus).

Thembeka K Mtetwa, Gareth E Zeiler, Liesel Laubscher, Silke Pfitzer, Leith C R Meyer,

<h4>Objective</h4>Evaluation of the reliability of pulse oximetry at four different attachment sites compared to haemoglobin oxygen saturation measured by a co-oximeter and calculated by a blood gas analyser in immobilized impala.<h4>Study design</h4>Randomized crossover study.<h4>Animals</h4>A total of 16 female impala.<h4>Methods</h4>Impala were immobilized with etorphine or thiafentanil alone, or etorphine in combination ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2020, 47(3):323-333]

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Ultradian oscillations in brain temperature in sheep: implications for thermoregulatory control?

Andrea Fuller, Robyn S Hetem, Leith C R Meyer, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney,

We compared body temperature patterns and selective brain cooling (SBC) in eight adult female sheep in an indoor (22-25 °C) and outdoor (mean ~ 21 °C) environment, by measuring brain, carotid arterial, and jugular venous blood temperatures at 5-min intervals using implanted data loggers. To investigate whether ultradian oscillations in brain temperature had thermoregulatory ... Read more >>

J Comp Physiol B (Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology)
[2020, 190(1):125-138]

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Conserving wildlife in a changing world: Understanding capture myopathy-a malignant outcome of stress during capture and translocation.

Dorothy Breed, Leith C R Meyer, Johan C A Steyl, Amelia Goddard, Richard Burroughs, Tertius A Kohn,

The number of species that merit conservation interventions is increasing daily with ongoing habitat destruction, increased fragmentation and loss of population connectivity. Desertification and climate change reduce suitable conservation areas. Physiological stress is an inevitable part of the capture and translocation process of wild animals. Globally, capture myopathy-a malignant outcome ... Read more >>

Conserv Physiol (Conservation physiology)
[2019, 7(1):coz027]

Cited: 9 times

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CHALLENGES TO ANIMAL WELFARE ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE AND LONG ROAD TRANSPORT IN BOMA-ADAPTED BLACK (DICEROS BICORNIS) AND SEMI-CAPTIVE WHITE (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) RHINOCEROSES.

Friederike Pohlin, Markus Hofmeyr, Emma H Hooijberg, Dee Blackhurst, Mmadi Reuben, Dave Cooper, Leith C R Meyer,

Capture and transport are part of translocation and expose animals to a variety of stressors that can lead to morbidity and mortality. We aimed to establish a better understanding of the physiologic responses to capture and transport in black (<i>Diceros bicornis</i>) and white (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) rhinoceroses in Southern Africa. Fourteen ... Read more >>

J Wildl Dis (Journal of wildlife diseases)
[2020, 56(2):294-305]

Cited: 0 times

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Dose-effect study of the serotonin agonist R-8-OH-DPAT on opioid-induced respiratory depression in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus philipsi) and impala (Aepyceros melampus).

Silke Pfitzer, Liesel Laubscher, Leith Meyer, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins, Jacobus P Raath, Michael Laurence,

<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether the R-enantiomer of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (R-8-OH-DPAT) alleviates respiratory depression in antelope species immobilized with etorphine. The experiment also aimed to establish the most clinically effective dose of this serotonin 5- HT<sub>1A</sub> receptor agonist.<h4>Animals</h4>A group of six female blesbok and six female impala.<h4>Study design</h4>Each animal was subjected to ... Read more >>

Vet Anaesth Analg (Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia)
[2019, 46(6):796-806]

Cited: 1 time

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Body temperature, activity patterns and hunting in free-living cheetah: biologging reveals new insights.

Robyn S Hetem, Duncan Mitchell, Brenda A DE Witt, Linda G Fick, Shane K Maloney, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller,

As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity have never ... Read more >>

Integr Zool (Integrative zoology)
[2019, 14(1):30-47]

Cited: 6 times

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