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Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study

Jordi Merino, Amit Joshi, Long Nguyen, Emily Leeming, Mohsen Mazidi, David Drew, Rachel Gibson, Mark Graham, Chun-Han Lo, Joan Capdevila, Benjamin Murray, Christina Hu, Somesh Selvachandran, Sohee Kwon, Wenjie Ma, Cristina Menni, Alexander Hammers, Shilpa Bhupathiraju, Shreela Sharma, Carole Sudre, Christina Astley, Walter Willet, Jorge Chavarro, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire Steves, Jonathan Wolf, Paul Franks, Tim Spector, Sarah Berry, Andrew Chan,

<h4>Objective</h4> Poor metabolic health and certain lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its intersection with socioeconomic deprivation. <h4>Design</h4> We used ... Read more >>

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Host and gut microbial tryptophan metabolism and type 2 diabetes: an integrative analysis of host genetics, diet, gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in cohort studies.

Qibin Qi, Jun Li, Bing Yu, Jee-Young Moon, Jin C Chai, Jordi Merino, Jie Hu, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Casey Rebholz, Zheng Wang, Mykhaylo Usyk, Guo-Chong Chen, Bianca C Porneala, Wenshuang Wang, Ngoc Quynh Nguyen, Elena V Feofanova, Megan L Grove, Thomas J Wang, Robert E Gerszten, Josée Dupuis, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Wei Bao, David L Perkins, Martha L Daviglus, Bharat Thyagarajan, Jianwen Cai, Tao Wang, JoAnn E Manson, Miguel A Martínez-González, Elizabeth Selvin, Kathryn M Rexrode, Clary B Clish, Frank B Hu, James B Meigs, Rob Knight, Robert D Burk, Eric Boerwinkle, Robert C Kaplan,

<h4>Objective</h4>Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota.<h4>Method</h4>We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in ... Read more >>

Gut (Gut)
[2021, :]

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Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption May Modify Associations between Genetic Variants in the CHREBP Locus and HDL-C and TG Concentrations.

Danielle E Haslam, Gina M Peloso, Melanie Guirette, Fumiaki Imamura, Traci M Bartz, Achilleas N Pitsillides, Carol A Wang, Ruifang Li-Gao, Jason M Westra, Niina Pitkänen, Kristin L Young, Mariaelisa Graff, Alexis C Wood, Kim V E Braun, Jian'an Luan, Mika Kähönen, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Mohsen Ghanbari, Nathan Tintle, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Kari North, Mika Helminen, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Linda Snetselaar, Lisa W Martin, Jorma S Viikari, Wendy H Oddy, Craig E Pennell, Frits R Rosendaal, M Arfan Ikram, André G Uitterlinden, Bruce M Psaty, Dariush Mozaffarian, Jerome I Rotter, Kent D Taylor, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Kara A Livingston, Trudy Voortman, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham, Renée de Mutsert, Stephen S Rich, JoAnn E Manson, Samia Mora, Paul M Ridker, Jordi Merino, James B Meigs, Hassan S Dashti, Daniel I Chasman, Alice H Lichtenstein, Caren E Smith, Josée Dupuis, Mark A Herman, Nicola M McKeown,

<b>Background</b> - Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the <i>CHREBP</i> locus have separately been linked to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. We hypothesized SSB consumption would modify the association between ... Read more >>

Circ Genom Precis Med (Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine)
[2021, :]

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Association of social distancing and face mask use with risk of COVID-19.

Sohee Kwon, Amit D Joshi, Chun-Han Lo, David A Drew, Long H Nguyen, Chuan-Guo Guo, Wenjie Ma, Raaj S Mehta, Fatma Mohamed Shebl, Erica T Warner, Christina M Astley, Jordi Merino, Benjamin Murray, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire J Steves, Tim D Spector, Jaime E Hart, Mingyang Song, Trang VoPham, Andrew T Chan,

Given the continued burden of COVID-19 worldwide, there is a high unmet need for data on the effect of social distancing and face mask use to mitigate the risk of COVID-19. We examined the association of community-level social distancing measures and individual face mask use with risk of predicted COVID-19 ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2021, 12(1):3737]

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Identification of Gene-Diet Interactions Impacting Glycemic Biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic TOPMed Cohorts

Kenneth Westerman, Maura Walker, Jordi Merino, Alisa Manning,

Abstract <h4>Objectives</h4> Identification of robust gene-diet interactions impacting cardiometabolic traits has been limited due to low statistical power and poor replication across populations. Emerging statistical methods increase power by simultaneously testing genetic interactions with multiple exposures, an especially appealing strategy for complex and highly-correlated dietary traits. Furthermore, meta-analysis across ancestrally ... Read more >>

Curr Dev Nutr (Current developments in nutrition)
[2021, 5(Suppl 2):952-952]

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Adherence to Healthy Diet and Risk and Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Community Survey Study Within the COVID Symptom Study Application

Jordi Merino, Amit Joshi, Long Nguyen, Mohsen Mazidi, Mark Graham, Benjamin Murray, Emily Leeming, Shilpa Bhupathiraju, Jorge Chavarro, Jonathan Wolf, Tim Spector, Sarah Berry, Andrew Chan,

Abstract <h4>Objectives</h4> To examine the association of adherence to a healthy diet with risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. <h4>Methods</h4> We included participants from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application enrolled in March 2020 from the UK and the US who provided information about their sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for ... Read more >>

Curr Dev Nutr (Current developments in nutrition)
[2021, 5(Suppl 2):237-237]

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Precision Nutrition and Reliability of Continuous Glucose Monitors: Insights From the PREDICT Study

Jordi Merino, Sarah Berry, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Joan Capdevila, David Drew, Elco Bakker, Jonathan Wolf, Paul Franks, Andrew Chan, Tim Spector, Jose Ordovas, Ana Valdes,

Abstract <h4>Objectives</h4> The use of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) provides a more in-depth characterization of glycemic variation in response to environmental stimuli, but concerns about CGM reliability for categorizing glycemic responses to foods and meals exist. We sought to evaluate the concordance and reliability of two simultaneously worn CGM devices ... Read more >>

Curr Dev Nutr (Current developments in nutrition)
[2021, 5(Suppl 2):513-513]

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Post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection: risk factors and illness profile in a prospective, observational community-based case-control study

Michela Antonelli, Rose Penfold, Jordi Merino, Carole Sudre, Erika Molteni, Sarah Berry, Liane Canas, Mark Graham, Kerstin Klaser, Marc Modat, Benjamin Murray, Eric Kerfoot, Liyuan Chen, Jie Deng, Marc Österdahl, Nathan Cheetham, David Drew, Long Nguyen, Joan Capdevila Pujol, Christina Hu, Somesh Selvachandran, Lorenzo Polidori, Anna May, Jonathan Wolf, Andrew Chan, Alexander Hammers, Emma Duncan, Tim Spector, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire Steves,

<h4>Background</h4> COVID-19 vaccines show excellent efficacy in clinical trials and real-world data, but some people still contract SARS-CoV-2 despite vaccination. This study sought to identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection post-vaccination and describe characteristics of post-vaccination illness. <h4>Methods</h4> Amongst 1,102,192 vaccinated UK adults from the COVID Symptom Study, 2394 ... Read more >>

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Author Correction: Attributes and predictors of long COVID.

Carole H Sudre, Benjamin Murray, Thomas Varsavsky, Mark S Graham, Rose S Penfold, Ruth C Bowyer, Joan Capdevila Pujol, Kerstin Klaser, Michela Antonelli, Liane S Canas, Erika Molteni, Marc Modat, M Jorge Cardoso, Anna May, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Richard Davies, Long H Nguyen, David A Drew, Christina M Astley, Amit D Joshi, Jordi Merino, Neli Tsereteli, Tove Fall, Maria F Gomez, Emma L Duncan, Cristina Menni, Frances M K Williams, Paul W Franks, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Tim Spector, Claire J Steves,

Nat Med (Nature medicine)
[2021, 27(6):1116]

Cited: 1 time

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Diabetes and blood pressure mediate the effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

Jordi Merino,

Int J Obes (Lond) (International journal of obesity (2005))
[2021, 45(8):1629-1630]

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Vaccine side-effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK: a prospective observational study.

Cristina Menni, Kerstin Klaser, Anna May, Lorenzo Polidori, Joan Capdevila, Panayiotis Louca, Carole H Sudre, Long H Nguyen, David A Drew, Jordi Merino, Christina Hu, Somesh Selvachandran, Michela Antonelli, Benjamin Murray, Liane S Canas, Erika Molteni, Mark S Graham, Marc Modat, Amit D Joshi, Massimo Mangino, Alexander Hammers, Anna L Goodman, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan Wolf, Claire J Steves, Ana M Valdes, Sebastien Ourselin, Tim D Spector,

<h4>Background</h4>The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccines have shown excellent safety and efficacy in phase 3 trials. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines in a UK community setting.<h4>Methods</h4>In this prospective observational study, we examined the proportion and probability of self-reported systemic and ... Read more >>

Lancet Infect Dis (The Lancet. Infectious diseases)
[2021, 21(7):939-949]

Cited: 13 times

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Racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake

Long Nguyen, Amit Joshi, David Drew, Jordi Merino, Wenjie Ma, Chun-Han Lo, Sohee Kwon, Kai Wang, Mark Graham, Lorenzo Polidori, Cristina Menni, Carole Sudre, Adjoa Anyane-Yeboa, Christina Astley, Erica Warner, Christina Hu, Somesh Selvachandran, Richard Davies, Denis Nash, Paul Franks, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire Steves, Tim Spector, Andrew Chan,

<h4>Background</h4> Racial and ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. In the initial phase of population-based vaccination in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.), vaccine hesitancy and limited access may result in disparities in uptake. <h4>Methods</h4> We performed a cohort study among U.S. and U.K. participants in ... Read more >>

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Attributes and predictors of long COVID.

Carole H Sudre, Benjamin Murray, Thomas Varsavsky, Mark S Graham, Rose S Penfold, Ruth C Bowyer, Joan Capdevila Pujol, Kerstin Klaser, Michela Antonelli, Liane S Canas, Erika Molteni, Marc Modat, M Jorge Cardoso, Anna May, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Richard Davies, Long H Nguyen, David A Drew, Christina M Astley, Amit D Joshi, Jordi Merino, Neli Tsereteli, Tove Fall, Maria F Gomez, Emma L Duncan, Cristina Menni, Frances M K Williams, Paul W Franks, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Tim Spector, Claire J Steves,

Reports of long-lasting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, the so-called 'long COVID', are rising but little is known about prevalence, risk factors or whether it is possible to predict a protracted course early in the disease. We analyzed data from 4,182 incident cases of COVID-19 in which individuals self-reported their ... Read more >>

Nat Med (Nature medicine)
[2021, 27(4):626-631]

Cited: 21 times

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Impact of COVID-19 on health behaviours and body weight: A prospective observational study in a cohort of 1.1 million UK and US individuals

Mohsen Mazidii, Emily Leeming, Jordi Merino, Long Nguyen, Somesh Selvachandran, Tyler Maher, Kirstin Kadé, Benjamin Murray, Mark Graham, Carole Sudre, Jonathan Wolf, Christina Hu, David Drew, Claire Steves, Sebastien Ourselin, Christopher Gardner, Tim Spector, Andrew Chan, Paul Franks, Rachel Gibson, Sarah Berry,

Evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 on health behaviours is limited. In this prospective study including 1.1 million UK and US participants we collected diet and lifestyle data ‘pre-’ and ‘peri-’ pandemic, and computed a bi-directional health behaviour disruption index. We show that disruption was higher in the younger, female ... Read more >>

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Vaccine after Effects and Post-Vaccine Infection in a Real World Setting: Results from the COVID Symptom Study App

Cristina Menni, Kerstin Klaser, Anna May, Lorenzo Polidori, Joan Capdevila, Panayiotis Louca, Carole Sudre-Ferraris, Long Nguyen, David Drew, Jordi Merino, Michela Antonelli, Benjamin Murray, Liane Canas, Erika Molteni, Mark Graham, Marc Modat, Amit Joshi, Massimo Mangino, Alexander Hammers, Tim Spector, Ana Valdes, Anna Goodman, Andrew Chan, Jonathan Wolf, Claire Steves, Sebastien Ourselin, Tim Spector,

Background: The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford/AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccines have shown excellent safety and efficacy in Phase III trials. Here we report results from a real world setting on the two most administered vaccines in the UK.<br><br>Methods: We investigated self-reported systemic and local effects within ... Read more >>

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Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app

Panayiotis Louca, Benjamin Murray, Kerstin Klaser, Mark S Graham, Mohsen Mazidi, Emily R Leeming, Ellen Thompson, Ruth Bowyer, David A Drew, Long H Nguyen, Jordi Merino, Maria Gomez, Olatz Mompeo, Ricardo Costeira, Carole H Sudre, Rachel Gibson, Claire J Steves, Jonathan Wolf, Paul W Franks, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew T Chan, Sarah E Berry, Ana M Valdes, Philip C Calder, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni,

<h4>Objectives</h4> Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. <h4>Design</h4> App-based community survey. <h4>Setting</h4> 445 850 subscribers of an ... Read more >>

BMJ Nutr Prev Health (BMJ nutrition, prevention & health)
[2021, 4(1):149-157]

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Association of social distancing and masking with risk of COVID-19

Sohee Kwon, Amit Joshi, Chun-Han Lo, David Drew, Long Nguyen, Chuan-Guo Guo, Wenjie Ma, Raaj Mehta, Erica Warner, Christina Astley, Jordi Merino, Benjamin Murray, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire Steves, Tim Spector, Jaime Hart, Mingyang Song, Trang VoPham, Andrew Chan,

Given the continued burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) across the U.S., there is a high unmet need for data to inform decision-making regarding social distancing and universal masking. We examined the association of community-level social distancing measures and individual masking with risk of ... Read more >>

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Dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 1.4M users of the COVID Symptom Study app - a longitudinal app-based community survey

Panayiotis Louca, Benjamin Murray, Kerstin Klaser, Mark Graham, Mohsen Mazidi, Emily Leeming, Ellen Thompson, Ruth Bowyer, David Drew, Long Nguyen, Jordi Merino, Maria Gomez, Olatz Mompeo, Ricardo Costeira, Carole Sudre, Rachel Gibson, Claire Steves, Jonathan Wolf, Paul Franks, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew Chan, Sarah Berry, Ana Valdes, Philip Calder, Tim Spector, Cristina Menni,

<h4>Objectives</h4> Dietary supplements may provide nutrients of relevance to ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support a role is lacking. We investigate whether the regular use of dietary supplements can reduce the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in around 1.4M users of the COVID Symptom Study App ... Read more >>

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Clinical and metabolic predictors of regression to normoglycemia in a population at intermediate cardiometabolic risk

Magdalena del Rocio Sevilla-Gonzalez, Jordi Merino, Hortensia Moreno, Rosalba Rojas-Martinez, Donaji Gomez-Velasco, Alisa Manning,

<h4>Background: </h4> Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a prevalent and potentially reversible intermediate stage leading to type 2 diabetes that increases risk for cardiometabolic complications. The identification of clinical and molecular factors associated with the reversal, or regression, from IFG to a normoglycemia state would enable more efficient cardiovascular risk ... Read more >>

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Publisher Correction: Human postprandial responses to food and potential for precision nutrition.

Sarah E Berry, Ana M Valdes, David A Drew, Francesco Asnicar, Mohsen Mazidi, Jonathan Wolf, Joan Capdevila, George Hadjigeorgiou, Richard Davies, Haya Al Khatib, Christopher Bonnett, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Elco Bakker, Deborah Hart, Massimo Mangino, Jordi Merino, Inbar Linenberg, Patrick Wyatt, Jose M Ordovas, Christopher D Gardner, Linda M Delahanty, Andrew T Chan, Nicola Segata, Paul W Franks, Tim D Spector,

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. ... Read more >>

Nat Med (Nature medicine)
[2020, 26(11):1802]

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Attributes and predictors of Long-COVID: analysis of COVID cases and their symptoms collected by the Covid Symptoms Study App

Carole Sudre, Benjamin Murray, Thomas Varsavsky, Mark Graham, Rose Penfold, Ruth Bowyer, Joan Capdevila Pujol, Kerstin Klaser, Michela Antonelli, Liane Canas, Erika Molteni, Marc Modat, Jorge Cardoso, Anna May, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Richard Davies, Long Nguyen, David Drew, Christina Astley, Amit Joshi, Jordi Merino, Neli Tsereteli, Tove Fall, Maria Gomez, Emma Duncan, Cristina Menni, Frances M.K. Williams, Paul Franks, Andrew Chan, Jonathan Wolf, Sebastien Ourselin, Tim Spector, Claire Steves,

Reports of “Long-COVID”, are rising but little is known about prevalence, risk factors, or whether it is possible to predict a protracted course early in the disease. We analysed data from 4182 incident cases of COVID-19 who logged their symptoms prospectively in the COVID Symptom Study app. 558 (13.3%) had ... Read more >>

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LDL Cholesterol and Dysglycemia: an Intriguing Physiological Relationship.

Jordi Merino, Jerome I Rotter,

Diabetes (Diabetes)
[2020, 69(10):2058-2060]

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Mendelian Randomization Study of Obesity and Cerebrovascular Disease.

Sandro Marini, Jordi Merino, Bailey E Montgomery, Rainer Malik, Catherine L Sudlow, Martin Dichgans, Jose C Florez, Jonathan Rosand, Dipender Gill, Christopher D Anderson, ,

<h4>Objective</h4>To systematically investigate causal relationships between obesity and cerebrovascular disease and the extent to which hypertension and hyperglycemia mediate the effect of obesity on cerebrovascular disease.<h4>Methods</h4>We used summary statistics from genome-wide association studies for body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and multiple cerebrovascular disease phenotypes. We explored causal associations ... Read more >>

Ann Neurol (Annals of neurology)
[2020, 87(4):516-524]

Cited: 7 times

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Interaction Between Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Strategies and Genetic Determinants of Coronary Artery Disease on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

Jordi Merino, Kathleen A Jablonski, Josep M Mercader, Steven E Kahn, Ling Chen, Maegan Harden, Linda M Delahanty, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Geoffrey A Walford, Suzanne B R Jacobs, Uzoma N Ibebuogu, Paul W Franks, William C Knowler, Jose C Florez, ,

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is more frequent among individuals with dysglycemia. Preventive interventions for diabetes can improve cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs), but it is unclear whether the benefits on CRFs are similar for individuals at different genetic risk for CAD. We built a 201-variant polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD ... Read more >>

Diabetes (Diabetes)
[2020, 69(1):112-120]

Cited: 1 time

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Using genetic variation to disentangle the complex relationship between food intake and health outcomes

Nicola Pirastu, Ciara McDonnell, Eryk Grzeszkowiak, Ninon Mounier, Fumiaki Imamura, Jordi Merino, Felix Day, Jie Zheng, Nele Taba, Maria Pina Concas, Linda Repetto, Katherine Kentistou, Antonietta Robino, Tõnu Esko, Peter Joshi, Krista Fischer, Ken Ong, Tom Gaunt, Zoltan Kutalik, John Perry, James Wilson,

Despite food choices being one of the most important factors influencing health, efforts to identify individual food groups and dietary patterns that cause disease have been challenging, with traditional nutritional epidemiological approaches plagued by biases and confounding. After identifying 302 individual genetic determinants of dietary intake in 445,779 individuals in ... Read more >>

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