Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Jack E Zimmerman

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The authors reply.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman, William A Knaus,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2021, 49(11):e1177]

Cited: 0 times

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Severity of Illness and Predictive Models in Society of Critical Care Medicine's First 50 Years: A Tale of Concord and Conflict.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman, William A Knaus,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2021, 49(5):728-740]

Cited: 0 times

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Variations in Case-Mix-Adjusted Duration of Mechanical Ventilation Among ICUs.

Andrew A Kramer, Hayley B Gershengorn, Hannah Wunsch, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To develop a model that predicts the duration of mechanical ventilation and then to use this model to compare observed versus expected duration of mechanical ventilation across ICUs.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort analysis.<h4>Setting</h4>Eighty-six eligible ICUs at 48 U.S. hospitals.<h4>Patients</h4>ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation on day 1 (n = 56,336) admitted from January 2013 to ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2016, 44(6):1042-1048]

Cited: 3 times

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Can this patient be safely discharged from the ICU?

Andrew A Kramer, Thomas L Higgins, Jack E Zimmerman,

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2016, 42(4):580-582]

Cited: 2 times

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Comparing observed and predicted mortality among ICUs using different prognostic systems: why do performance assessments differ?

Andrew A Kramer, Thomas L Higgins, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare ICU performance using standardized mortality ratios generated by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa and a National Quality Forum-endorsed methodology and examine potential reasons for model-based standardized mortality ratio differences.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective analysis of day 1 hospital mortality predictions at the ICU level using Acute Physiology and Chronic ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2015, 43(2):261-269]

Cited: 12 times

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A history of outcome prediction in the ICU.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer,

<h4>Purpose of review</h4>There are few first-hand accounts that describe the history of outcome prediction in critical care. This review summarizes the authors' personal perspectives about the development and evolution of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation over the past 35 years.<h4>Recent findings</h4>We emphasize what we have learned in the past ... Read more >>

Curr Opin Crit Care (Current opinion in critical care)
[2014, 20(5):550-556]

Cited: 11 times

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Comparison of the Mortality Probability Admission Model III, National Quality Forum, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV hospital mortality models: implications for national benchmarking*.

Andrew A Kramer, Thomas L Higgins, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the accuracy of the original Mortality Probability Admission Model III, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum modification of Mortality Probability Admission Model III, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa models for comparing observed and risk-adjusted hospital mortality predictions.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective paired analyses of day 1 hospital mortality predictions using ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2014, 42(3):544-553]

Cited: 15 times

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Changes in hospital mortality for United States intensive care unit admissions from 1988 to 2012.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer, William A Knaus,

<h4>Introduction</h4>A decrease in disease-specific mortality over the last twenty years has been reported for patients admitted to United States (US) hospitals, but data for intensive care patients are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe changes in hospital mortality and case-mix using clinical data for patients admitted to ... Read more >>

Crit Care (Critical care (London, England))
[2013, 17(2):R81]

Cited: 137 times

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The association between ICU readmission rate and patient outcomes.

Andrew A Kramer, Thomas L Higgins, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the association between ICU readmission rates and case-mix-adjusted outcomes.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort study of ICU admissions from 2002 to 2010.<h4>Setting</h4>One hundred five ICUs at 46 United States hospitals.<h4>Patients</h4>Of 369,129 admissions, 263,082 were first admissions that were alive at ICU discharge and candidates for readmission.<h4>Interventions</h4>None.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>The median unit readmission ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2013, 41(1):24-33]

Cited: 54 times

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Intensive care unit readmissions in U.S. hospitals: patient characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes.

Andrew A Kramer, Thomas L Higgins, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objective</h4>To examine which patient characteristics increase the risk for intensive care unit readmission and assess the association of readmission with case-mix adjusted mortality and resource use.<h4>Design</h4>: Retrospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Ninety-seven intensive and cardiac care units at 35 hospitals in the United States.<h4>Patients</h4>A total of 229,375 initial intensive care unit admissions during ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2012, 40(1):3-10]

Cited: 80 times

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Institutional variations in frequency of discharge of elderly intensive care survivors to postacute care facilities.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objective</h4>To examine variations in the frequency of discharge of elderly patients to postacute care facilities across multiple intensive care units and identify the influence of institutional and patient factors on the frequency of postacute care discharge.<h4>Design</h4>Observational cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Consecutive admissions from 65 intensive and coronary care units in 24 US hospitals ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2010, 38(12):2319-2328]

Cited: 6 times

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The relationship between hospital and intensive care unit length of stay.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess variations in case-mix-adjusted hospital and intensive care unit length of stay and to examine the relationship between intensive care unit and hospital stay.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Sixty-nine intensive and cardiac care units in 23 U.S. hospitals during 2002 to 2008.<h4>Patients</h4>Intensive care unit admissions (202,300) who met inclusion criteria.<h4>Interventions</h4>None.<h4>Measurements and main ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2011, 39(5):1015-1022]

Cited: 15 times

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A predictive model for the early identification of patients at risk for a prolonged intensive care unit length of stay.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Background</h4>Patients with a prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay account for a disproportionate amount of resource use. Early identification of patients at risk for a prolonged length of stay can lead to quality enhancements that reduce ICU stay. This study developed and validated a model that identifies patients ... Read more >>

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak (BMC medical informatics and decision making)
[2010, 10:27]

Cited: 32 times

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Intensive care unit occupancy: making room for more patients.

Jack E Zimmerman,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2009, 37(5):1794-1795]

Cited: 4 times

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A model for identifying patients who may not need intensive care unit admission.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study presents a new model for identifying patients who might be too well to benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) care.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Intensive care unit admissions in 2002 to 2003 were used to develop a model to predict whether patients monitored on day one would receive one or more ... Read more >>

J Crit Care (Journal of critical care)
[2010, 25(2):205-213]

Cited: 41 times

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Outcome prediction in critical care: the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation models.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer,

<h4>Purpose of review</h4>A new generation of predictive models for critically ill patients was described between 2005 and 2008. This review will give details of the latest version of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) predictive models, and discuss it in relation to recent critical care outcome studies. We ... Read more >>

Curr Opin Crit Care (Current opinion in critical care)
[2008, 14(5):491-497]

Cited: 35 times

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Predicting outcomes for cardiac surgery patients after intensive care unit admission.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman,

Most performance assessments of cardiac surgery programs use models based on preoperative risk factors. Models that were primarily developed to assess performance in general intensive care unit (ICU) populations have also been used to evaluate the quality of surgical, anesthetic, and ICU management after cardiac surgery. Although there are currently ... Read more >>

Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth (Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia)
[2008, 12(3):175-183]

Cited: 14 times

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Assessing the calibration of mortality benchmarks in critical care: The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revisited.

Andrew A Kramer, Jack E Zimmerman,

<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the Hosmer-Lemeshow test's sensitivity in evaluating the calibration of models predicting hospital mortality in large critical care populations.<h4>Design</h4>Simulation study.<h4>Setting</h4>Intensive care unit databases used for predictive modeling.<h4>Patients</h4>Data sets were simulated representing the approximate number of patients used in earlier versions of critical care predictive models (n = 5,000 and ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2007, 35(9):2052-2056]

Cited: 311 times

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Intensive care unit readmission: the issue is safety not frequency.

Jack E Zimmerman,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2008, 36(3):984-985]

Cited: 8 times

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Intensive care unit length of stay: Benchmarking based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer, Douglas S McNair, Fern M Malila, Violet L Shaffer,

<h4>Objective</h4>To revise and update the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay.<h4>Design</h4>Observational cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>One hundred and four ICUs in 45 U.S. hospitals.<h4>Patients</h4>Patients included 131,618 consecutive ICU admissions during 2002 and 2003, of which 116,209 met inclusion criteria.<h4>Interventions</h4>None.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>The ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2006, 34(10):2517-2529]

Cited: 110 times

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Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV: hospital mortality assessment for today's critically ill patients.

Jack E Zimmerman, Andrew A Kramer, Douglas S McNair, Fern M Malila,

<h4>Objective</h4>To improve the accuracy of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) method for predicting hospital mortality among critically ill adults and to evaluate changes in the accuracy of earlier APACHE models.<h4>Design</h4>: Observational cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>A total of 104 intensive care units (ICUs) in 45 U.S. hospitals.<h4>Patients</h4>A total of 131,618 ... Read more >>

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2006, 34(5):1297-1310]

Cited: 666 times

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Measuring intensive care unit performance: a way to move forward.

Jack E Zimmerman,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2002, 30(9):2149-2150]

Cited: 7 times

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The use of benchmarking to identify top performing critical care units: a preliminary assessment of their policies and practices.

Jack E Zimmerman, Carlos Alzola, Kathryn T Von Rueden,

PURPOSE: To describe the policies and practices of intensive care units (ICUs) with good patient survival and highly efficient resource use and to identify relevant variables for future investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used clinical data for 359,715 patients from 108 ICUs to compare the ratios of actual with Acute ... Read more >>

J Crit Care (Journal of critical care)
[2003, 18(2):76-86]

Cited: 47 times

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Potentially ineffective care: a useful step forward.

Jack E Zimmerman,

Crit Care Med (Critical care medicine)
[2002, 30(8):1920-1921]

Cited: 0 times

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Quality indicators: the continuing struggle to improve the quality of critical care.

Jack E Zimmerman,

J Crit Care (Journal of critical care)
[2002, 17(1):12-15]

Cited: 1 time

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