Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Ilmo Leivo

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High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance.

Alena Skalova, Ilmo Leivo, Henrik Hellquist, Abbas Agaimy, Roderick H W Simpson, Göran Stenman, Vincent Vander Poorten, Justin A Bishop, Alessandro Franchi, Juan C Hernandez-Prera, David Slouka, Stefan M Willems, Kerry D Olsen, Alfio Ferlito,

High-grade transformation (HGT) or dedifferentiation has been described in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, including acinic cell carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. High-grade (HG) transformed tumors are composed of a conventional low-grade component characterized by specific ... Read more >>

Adv Anat Pathol (Advances in anatomic pathology)
[2021, 28(3):107-118]

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Biomarkers for Immunotherapy of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Challenges.

Alhadi Almangush, Ilmo Leivo, Antti A Mäkitie,

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) forms a major health problem in many countries. For several decades the management of OSCC consisted of surgery with or without radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Aiming to increase survival rate, recent research has underlined the significance of harnessing the immune response in treatment of many cancers. ... Read more >>

Front Oncol (Frontiers in oncology)
[2021, 11:616629]

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Molecular Profiling of Clear Cell Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Salivary Glands With EWSR1 Rearrangement Identifies Frequent PLAG1 Gene Fusions But No EWSR1 Fusion Transcripts.

Alena Skálová, Abbas Agaimy, Tomas Vanecek, Martina Baněčková, Jan Laco, Nikola Ptáková, Petr Šteiner, Hanna Majewska, Wojciech Biernat, Luigi Corcione, Václav Eis, Olena Koshyk, Jan Vondrák, Michal Michal, Ilmo Leivo,

Myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands is an underrecognized and challenging entity with a broad morphologic spectrum, including an EWSR1-rearranged clear cell variant. Myoepithelial carcinoma is generally aggressive with largely unknown genetic features. A retrospective review of Salivary Gland Tumor Registry in Pilsen searching for the key words "clear cell myoepithelial ... Read more >>

Am J Surg Pathol (The American journal of surgical pathology)
[2021, 45(1):1-13]

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Back to basics: Hematoxylin and eosin staining is the principal tool for histopathological risk assessment of oral cancer.

Alhadi Almangush, Antti A Mäkitie, Ilmo Leivo,

Oral Oncol (Oral oncology)
[2021, 115:105134]

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Biopsy quality is essential for preoperative prognostication in oral tongue cancer.

Ibrahim O Bello, Pia M Wennerstrand, Ilida Suleymanova, Maria Siponen, Ahmed Qannam, Pentti Nieminen, Ilmo Leivo, Alhadi Almangush, Tuula Salo,

A role for incisional biopsy in preoperative prognostication is increasingly being advocated in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC). Biopsies at two locations were compared, and prognostic factors in biopsies and their corresponding resections were evaluated. A total of 138 OTSCC biopsy slides from Finland and Saudi Arabia were compared ... Read more >>

APMIS (APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica)
[2021, 129(3):118-127]

Cited: 1 time

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Molecular Profiling of Salivary Oncocytic Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas Helps to Resolve Differential Diagnostic Dilemma With Low-grade Oncocytic Lesions.

Alena Skálová, Abbas Agaimy, Olga Stanowska, Martina Baneckova, Nikola Ptáková, Laura Ardighieri, Piero Nicolai, Davide Lombardi, Monika Durzynska, Luigi Corcione, Jan Laco, Olena Koshyk, Radim Žalud, Michal Michal, Tomáš Vanecek, Ilmo Leivo,

Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OMEC) is a rare but diagnostically challenging variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). OMEC is notable for differential diagnostic considerations that are raised as a result of overlap with other benign and low-grade oncocytic salivary gland tumors. Diffuse and strong immunoreactivity of p63 protein may be useful in ... Read more >>

Am J Surg Pathol (The American journal of surgical pathology)
[2020, 44(12):1612-1622]

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Matrix metalloproteinase-7, -8, -9, -15, and -25 in minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Hanna Hämetoja, Antti Mäkitie, Leif Bäck, Ilmo Leivo, Caj Haglund, Timo Sorsa, Jaana Hagström,

Knowledge on the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is limited. MMPs are capable of degrading almost all extracellular and pericellular components to promote invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7, -8, -9, -15, and -25 in ACC and to ... Read more >>

Pathol Res Pract (Pathology, research and practice)
[2021, 217:153293]

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Comparison of nomogram with machine learning techniques for prediction of overall survival in patients with tongue cancer.

Rasheed Omobolaji Alabi, Antti A Mäkitie, Matti Pirinen, Mohammed Elmusrati, Ilmo Leivo, Alhadi Almangush,

<h4>Background</h4>The prediction of overall survival in tongue cancer is important for planning of personalized care and patient counselling.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study compares the performance of a nomogram with a machine learning model to predict overall survival in tongue cancer. The nomogram and machine learning model were built using a large data set ... Read more >>

Int J Med Inform (International journal of medical informatics)
[2021, 145:104313]

Cited: 1 time

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Expanding the Molecular Spectrum of Secretory Carcinoma of Salivary Glands With a Novel VIM-RET Fusion.

Alena Skálová, Martina Banečkova, Lester D R Thompson, Nikola Ptáková, Todd M Stevens, Luka Brcic, Martin Hyrcza, Michael Michal, Roderick H W Simpson, Thalita Santana, Michal Michal, Tomas Vaněček, Ilmo Leivo,

<h4>Background</h4>Secretory carcinoma (SC), originally described as mammary analogue SC, is a predominantly low-grade salivary gland neoplasm characterized by a recurrent t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Recently, alternative ETV6-RET, ETV6-MAML3, and ETV6-MET fusions have been found in a subset of SCs lacking the classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript, but still ... Read more >>

Am J Surg Pathol (The American journal of surgical pathology)
[2020, 44(10):1295-1307]

Cited: 2 times

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Stromal categorization in early oral tongue cancer.

Alhadi Almangush, Ibrahim O Bello, Ilkka Heikkinen, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Pentti Nieminen, Ricardo D Coletta, Antti A Mäkitie, Tuula Salo, Ilmo Leivo,

Stromal categorization has been used to classify many epithelial cancer types. We assessed the desmoplastic reaction and compared its significance with other stromal characteristics in early (cT1-2N0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). In this multi-institutional study, we included 308 cases treated for early OTSCC at five Finnish university hospitals ... Read more >>

Virchows Arch (Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology)
[2020, :]

Cited: 1 time

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Cell-in-cell phenomenon associates with aggressive characteristics and cancer-related mortality in early oral tongue cancer.

Alhadi Almangush, Antti A Mäkitie, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Pentti Nieminen, Ricardo D Coletta, Tuula Salo, Ilmo Leivo,

<h4>Background</h4>Cell-in-cell structures (caused by cell cannibalistic activity) have been related to prognosis of many cancers. This is the first multi-institutional study to assess the prognostic impact of cell-in-cell structures in a large cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 308 cases from five Finnish University Hospitals ... Read more >>

BMC Cancer (BMC cancer)
[2020, 20(1):843]

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Biopsy Quality is Essential for Preoperative Prognostication in Oral Tongue Cancer

Ibrahim Bello, Pia Wennerstrand, Ilida Suleymanova, Maria Siponen, Ahmed Qannam, Pentti Nieminen, Ilmo Leivo, Alhadi Almangush, Tuula Salo,

<h4>Background: </h4> A role for incisional biopsy in preoperative prognostication is increasingly being advocated in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC). Biopsies at two locations were compared and prognostic factors in biopsies and their corresponding resections were evaluated. <h4>Methods: </h4> A total of 138 OTSCC biopsy slides from Finland and ... Read more >>

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High tumor mutation burden predicts favorable outcome among patients with aggressive histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma: A population-based single-institution study.

Eva-Maria Talvitie, Heikki Vilhonen, Samu Kurki, Antti Karlsson, Katri Orte, Alhadi Almangush, Hesham Mohamed, Lassi Liljeroos, Yajuvinder Singh, Ilmo Leivo, Tarja Laitinen, Markku Kallajoki, Pekka Taimen,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is an emerging predictive cancer biomarker. Few studies have addressed the prognostic role of TMB in non-small cell lung carcinoma, with conflicting results. Moreover, the association of TMB with different histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma has hitherto not been systematically evaluated. Here we studied the prognostic ... Read more >>

Neoplasia (Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.))
[2020, 22(9):333-342]

Cited: 1 time

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Risk stratification in oral squamous cell carcinoma using staging of the eighth American Joint Committee on Cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Alhadi Almangush, Matti Pirinen, Omar Youssef, Antti A Mäkitie, Ilmo Leivo,

The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8) staging manual has major changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We searched PubMed, OvidMedline, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that examined the performance of AJCC8 in OSCC. A total of 40 808 patients were included in the ... Read more >>

Head Neck (Head & neck)
[2020, 42(10):3002-3017]

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What is hiding behind S100 protein and SOX10 positive oncocytomas? Oncocytic pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelioma with novel gene fusions in a subset of cases.

Martina Baněčková, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Nikola Ptáková, Petr Šteiner, Olga Stanowska, Giulio Benincasa, Giuseppe Colella, Jan Vondrák, Michal Michal, Ilmo Leivo, Alena Skálová,

Oncocytomas (OCs) in salivary glands are rare benign tumors composed of mitochondria-rich epithelial cells (oncocytes), mostly localized in the parotid gland. The treatment of choice is simple excision. Extensive oncocytic metaplasia of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and myoepithelioma (ME) can be diagnostically challenging and may camouflage the correct diagnosis. These tumors ... Read more >>

Hum Pathol (Human pathology)
[2020, 103:52-62]

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Staging and grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma: An update.

Alhadi Almangush, Antti A Mäkitie, Asterios Triantafyllou, Remco de Bree, Primož Strojan, Alessandra Rinaldo, Juan C Hernandez-Prera, Carlos Suárez, Luiz P Kowalski, Alfio Ferlito, Ilmo Leivo,

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck region. OSCC has a relatively low survival rate and the incidence of the disease is increasing in some geographic areas. Staging and grading of OSCC are established prerequisites for management, as they influence risk stratification and ... Read more >>

Oral Oncol (Oral oncology)
[2020, 107:104799]

Cited: 3 times

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Overall assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: time to take notice.

Alhadi Almangush, Ilmo Leivo, Antti A Mäkitie,

<b>Background:</b> The immune response has an important role in cancer progression. At the same time, anti-tumor effect of the immune response has been speculated to cause destruction of cancer cells. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in different cancers. The International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group has ... Read more >>

Acta Otolaryngol (Acta oto-laryngologica)
[2020, 140(3):246-248]

Cited: 3 times

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A systematic review of predictive models for recurrence and mortality in patients with tongue cancer.

Alhadi Almangush, Ricardo D Coletta, Pentti Nieminen, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Ilmo Leivo, Tuula Salo,

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) (European journal of cancer care)
[2020, 29(2):e13211]

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Histological characteristics of early-stage oral tongue cancer in young versus older patients: A multicenter matched-pair analysis.

Ibrahim O Bello, Alhadi Almangush, Ilkka Heikkinen, Caj Haglund, Ricardo D Coletta, Luiz P Kowalski, Antti A Mäkitie, Pentti Nieminen, Ilmo Leivo, Tuula Salo,

Little is known about the histopathological characteristics that may differentiate early oral tongue cancer (OTSCC) between young and older patients. From a total of 311 cases diagnosed with clinically early-stage OTSCC at 6 institutions, only 42 patients were young patients were aged ≤45 years. For comparison, 42 patients >60 years old were ... Read more >>

Oral Dis (Oral diseases)
[2020, 26(5):1081-1085]

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Immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas and seromucinous hamartomas: are they precursor lesions to sinonasal low-grade tubulopapillary adenocarcinomas?

Martina Baněčková, Michael Michal, Jan Laco, Ilmo Leivo, Nikola Ptáková, Markéta Horáková, Michal Michal, Alena Skálová,

Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) and seromucinous hamartoma (SH) are rare tumor-like lesions of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. The pathogenesis of REAH/SH is still unclear. Neoplastic proliferation, chronic mechanical irritation, inflammation, or possible embryological tissue misplacement are speculated as possible mechanisms of their development. Low-grade tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma ... Read more >>

Hum Pathol (Human pathology)
[2020, 97:94-102]

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Comparison of supervised machine learning classification techniques in prediction of locoregional recurrences in early oral tongue cancer.

Rasheed Omobolaji Alabi, Mohammed Elmusrati, Iris Sawazaki-Calone, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Caj Haglund, Ricardo D Coletta, Antti A Mäkitie, Tuula Salo, Alhadi Almangush, Ilmo Leivo,

BACKGROUND:The proper estimate of the risk of recurrences in early-stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is mandatory for individual treatment-decision making. However, this remains a challenge even for experienced multidisciplinary centers. OBJECTIVES:We compared the performance of four machine learning (ML) algorithms for predicting the risk of locoregional recurrences in ... Read more >>

Int J Med Inform (International journal of medical informatics)
[2020, 136:104068]

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NCOA4-RET and TRIM27-RET Are Characteristic Gene Fusions in Salivary Intraductal Carcinoma, Including Invasive and Metastatic Tumors: Is "Intraductal" Correct?

Alena Skálová, Nikola Ptáková, Thalita Santana, Abbas Agaimy, Stephan Ihrler, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Lester D R Thompson, Justin A Bishop, Martina Baněčkova, Niels J Rupp, Patrizia Morbini, Stefano de Sanctis, Marco Schiavo-Lena, Tomas Vanecek, Michal Michal, Ilmo Leivo,

Intraductal carcinoma (IC) is the new WHO designation for tumors previously encompassed by "low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and "low-grade salivary duct carcinoma." The relationship of IC to salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is controversial, even though they are considered to be distinct entities. IC is a rare low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm ... Read more >>

Am J Surg Pathol (The American journal of surgical pathology)
[2019, 43(10):1303-1313]

Cited: 6 times

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Assessment of Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Predicts the Behavior of Early-stage Oral Tongue Cancer.

Ilkka Heikkinen, Ibrahim O Bello, Awais Wahab, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Ricardo D Coletta, Pentti Nieminen, Antti A Mäkitie, Tuula Salo, Ilmo Leivo, Alhadi Almangush,

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have shown a promising prognostic value in many epithelial cancers. We sought to assess the prognostic value of TILs in a multicenter cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). The percentage of TILs was assessed on the surgical resection slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Read more >>

Am J Surg Pathol (The American journal of surgical pathology)
[2019, 43(10):1392-1396]

Cited: 1 time

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Machine learning application for prediction of locoregional recurrences in early oral tongue cancer: a Web-based prognostic tool.

Rasheed Omobolaji Alabi, Mohammed Elmusrati, Iris Sawazaki-Calone, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Caj Haglund, Ricardo D Coletta, Antti A Mäkitie, Tuula Salo, Ilmo Leivo, Alhadi Almangush,

Estimation of risk of recurrence in early-stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) remains a challenge in the field of head and neck oncology. We examined the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict recurrences in early-stage OTSCC. A Web-based tool available for public use was also developed. A ... Read more >>

Virchows Arch (Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology)
[2019, 475(4):489-497]

Cited: 1 time

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Hallmarks of cancer: Tumor budding as a sign of invasion and metastasis in head and neck cancer.

Antti A Mäkitie, Alhadi Almangush, Juan P Rodrigo, Alfio Ferlito, Ilmo Leivo,

Invasion and metastasis are hallmarks of cancer. The concept of tumor budding at tumor-host interface has been documented in many carcinomas. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumor budding is a sign of invasion and early step for metastasis of many epithelial cancers including head and neck squamous cell ... Read more >>

Head Neck (Head & neck)
[2019, 41(10):3712-3718]

Cited: 8 times

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