Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Gerald R Cunha

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Estrogens and development of the mouse and human external genitalia.

Laurence Baskin, Adriane Sinclair, Amber Derpinghaus, Mei Cao, Yi Li, Maya Overland, Sena Aksel, Gerald R Cunha,

The Jost hypothesis states that androgens are necessary for normal development of the male external genitalia. In this review, we explore the complementary hypothesis that estrogens can elicit abnormal development of male external genitalia. Herein, we review available data in both humans and mice on the deleterious effects of estrogen ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, :]

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Ontogeny of estrogen receptors in human male and female fetal reproductive tracts.

Gerald R Cunha, Yi Li, Cao Mei, Amber Derpinghaus, Laurence S Baskin,

This paper reviews and provides new observations on the ontogeny of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) in developing human male and female internal and external genitalia. Included in this study are observations on the human fetal uterine tube, the uterotubal junction, uterus, cervix, vagina, penis and ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, :]

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Spotted hyaenas and the sexual spectrum: reproductive endocrinology and development.

Alan Conley, Ned J Place, Erin L Legacki, Geoff L Hammond, Gerald R Cunha, Christine M Drea, Mary L Weldele, Steve E Glickman,

The spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) is a unique species, even amongst the Hyaenidae. Extreme clitoral development in female spotted hyaenas challenges aspects of the accepted framework of sexual differentiation and reproductive function. They lack a vulva and instead urinate, copulate and give birth through a single, long urogenital canal that ... Read more >>

J Endocrinol (The Journal of endocrinology)
[2020, 247(1):R27-R44]

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Anatomy of the mouse penis and internal prepuce.

Gerald R Cunha, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Amber Derpinghaus, Laurence S Baskin,

This paper addresses a confusing issue of preputial anatomy of the mouse. The term "internal prepuce" was used in 2013 to describe a preputial structure integral to the mouse glans penis. Subsequently in 2015 the same term was applied by another group to describe entirely different morphology, generating confusion in ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 116:26-37]

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A comparison of prostatic development in xenografts of human fetal prostate and human female fetal proximal urethra grown in dihydrotestosterone-treated hosts.

Gerald R Cunha, Mei Cao, Omar Franco, Laurence S Baskin,

The goal of this paper is to explore the ability of the human female urogenital sinus immediately below the bladder (proximal urethra) to undergo prostatic development in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To establish this idea, xenografts of human fetal female proximal urethra were grown in castrated nude mouse hosts receiving ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 115:37-52]

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Comments on Professor Hüseyin Özbey's letter.

Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin,

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 113:26]

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Hot spots in fetal human penile and clitoral development.

Laurence Baskin, Amber Derpinghaus, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Yi Li, Maya Overland, Gerald R Cunha,

To better understand how the human fetal penis and clitoris grows and remodels, we undertook an investigation to define active areas of cellular proliferation and programmed cell death spatially and temporally during development of human fetal external genitalia from the indifferent stage (8 weeks) to 18 weeks of gestation. Fifty ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 112:27-38]

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Loss of androgen signaling in mesenchymal sonic hedgehog responsive cells diminishes prostate development, growth, and regeneration.

Vien Le, Yongfeng He, Joseph Aldahl, Erika Hooker, Eun-Jeong Yu, Adam Olson, Won Kyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Monica Wong, Ruoyu Sheng, Jiaqi Mi, Joseph Geradts, Gerald R Cunha, Zijie Sun,

Prostate embryonic development, pubertal and adult growth, maintenance, and regeneration are regulated through androgen signaling-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Specifically, the essential role of mesenchymal androgen signaling in the development of prostate epithelium has been observed for over 30 years. However, the identity of the mesenchymal cells responsible for this paracrine regulation ... Read more >>

PLoS Genet (PLoS genetics)
[2020, 16(1):e1008588]

Cited: 1 time

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Development of the external genitalia.

Gerald R Cunha, Laurence S Baskin,

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 112:7-9]

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Reproductive tract biology: Of mice and men.

Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Will A Ricke, Stanley J Robboy, Mei Cao, Laurence S Baskin,

The study of male and female reproductive tract development requires expertise in two separate disciplines, developmental biology and endocrinology. For ease of experimentation and economy, the mouse has been used extensively as a model for human development and pathogenesis, and for the most part similarities in developmental processes and hormone ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2019, 110:49-63]

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Development of the human prepuce and its innervation.

Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Laurence S Baskin,

Development of the human prepuce was studied over the course of 9-17 weeks of gestation in 30 specimens. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle surface features that were associated with preputial development, namely the appearance of epidermal aggregates that appeared to be associated with formation of the preputial fold. Transverse and ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 111:22-40]

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Androgen-independent events in penile development in humans and animals.

Gerald R Cunha, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Steve Glickman, Paul S Cooke, Laurence Baskin,

The common view on penile development is that it is androgen-dependent, based first and foremost on the fact that the genital tubercle forms a penis in males and a clitoris in females. However, critical examination of the complex processes involved in human penile development reveals that many individual steps in ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 111:98-114]

Cited: 1 time

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Androgen and estrogen receptor expression in the developing human penis and clitoris.

Laurence Baskin, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Yi Li, Maya Overland, Dylan Isaacson, Gerald R Cunha,

To better understand how the human fetal penis and clitoris grows and remodels, we undertook an investigation to define active areas of cellular proliferation and programmed cell death spatially and temporally during development of human fetal external genitalia from the indifferent stage (8 weeks) to 18 weeks of gestation. Fifty ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 111:41-59]

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Clitoral development in the mouse and human.

Gerald R Cunha, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Laurence Baskin,

The goal of this report is (a) to provide the first detailed description of mouse clitoral development, and (b) to compare mouse and human clitoral development. For this purpose, external genitalia of female mice were examined by wholemount microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry from 14 days of gestation to 10 days ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2020, 111:79-97]

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A pivotal role of androgen signaling in Notch-responsive cells in prostate development, maturation, and regeneration.

Joseph Aldahl, Eun-Jeong Yu, Yongfeng He, Erika Hooker, Monica Wong, Vien Le, Adam Olson, Dong-Hoon Lee, Won Kyung Kim, Charles L Murtaugh, Gerald R Cunha, Zijie Sun,

Androgen signaling is essential for prostate development, morphogenesis, and regeneration. Emerging evidence also indicates a regulatory role of Notch signaling in prostate development, differentiation, and growth. However, the collaborative regulatory mechanisms of androgen and Notch signaling during prostate development, growth, and regeneration are largely unknown. Hairy and Enhancer of Split ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2019, 107:1-10]

Cited: 1 time

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Androgen signaling is essential for development of prostate cancer initiated from prostatic basal cells.

Yongfeng He, Erika Hooker, Eun-Jeong Yu, Gerald R Cunha, Lan Liao, Jianming Xu, Andrew Earl, Huiqing Wu, Michael L Gonzalgo, Zijie Sun,

Emerging evidence has shown that both prostatic basal and luminal cells are able to initiate oncogenic transformation. However, despite the diversity of tumor-initiating cells, most prostate cancer cells express the androgen receptor (AR) and depend on androgens for their growth and expansion, implicating an essential role of androgen signaling in ... Read more >>

Oncogene (Oncogene)
[2019, 38(13):2337-2350]

Cited: 4 times

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Three-dimensional imaging of the developing human fetal urogenital-genital tract: Indifferent stage to male and female differentiation.

Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan McCreedy, Meredith Calvert, Todd McDevitt, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin,

Recent studies in our lab have utilized three imaging techniques to visualize the developing human fetal urogenital tract in three dimensions: optical projection tomography, scanning electron microscopy and lightsheet fluorescence microscopy. We have applied these technologies to examine changes in morphology and differential gene expression in developing human external genital ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:14-23]

Cited: 2 times

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Immunohistochemical expression analysis of the human fetal lower urogenital tract.

Joel Shen, Dylan Isaacson, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin,

We have studied the ontogeny of the developing human male and female urogenital tracts from 9 weeks (indifferent stage) to 16 weeks (advanced sex differentiation) of gestation by immunohistochemistry on mid-sagittal sections. Sixteen human fetal pelvises were serial sectioned in the sagittal plane and stained with antibodies to epithelial, muscle, ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:100-119]

Cited: 2 times

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Development of the human female reproductive tract.

Gerald R Cunha, Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Laurence S Baskin,

Development of the human female reproductive tract is reviewed from the ambisexual stage to advanced development of the uterine tube, uterine corpus, uterine cervix and vagina at 22 weeks. Historically this topic has been under-represented in the literature, and for the most part is based upon hematoxylin and eosin stained ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:46-65]

Cited: 4 times

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Development of the human penis and clitoris.

Laurence Baskin, Joel Shen, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Dylan Isaacson, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Gerald R Cunha,

The human penis and clitoris develop from the ambisexual genital tubercle. To compare and contrast the development of human penis and clitoris, we used macroscopic photography, optical projection tomography, light sheet microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. The human genital tubercle differentiates into a penis under the influence of ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:74-85]

Cited: 3 times

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Human glans and preputial development.

Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Joel Shen, Aaron Yue, Dylan Isaacson, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin,

The urethra within the human penile shaft develops via (1) an "Opening Zipper" that facilitates distal canalization of the solid urethral plate to form a wide urethral groove and (2) a "Closing Zipper" that facilitates fusion of the epithelial surfaces of the urethral folds. Herein, we extend our knowledge by ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:86-99]

Cited: 2 times

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Macroscopic whole-mounts of the developing human fetal urogenital-genital tract: Indifferent stage to male and female differentiation.

Joel Shen, Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan Isaacson, Laurence Baskin,

We present a detailed review of fetal development of the male and female human urogenital tract from 8 to 22 weeks gestation at the macroscopic and morphometric levels. Human fetal specimens were sexed based on macroscopic identification of fetal testes or ovaries, Wolffian or Müllerian structures and the presence of ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:5-13]

Cited: 2 times

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Development of the human bladder and ureterovesical junction.

Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin,

The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:66-73]

Cited: 2 times

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Development of human male and female urogenital tracts.

Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin,

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:1-4]

Cited: 1 time

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Development of the human prostate.

Gerald R Cunha, Chad M Vezina, Dylan Isaacson, William A Ricke, Barry G Timms, Mei Cao, Omar Franco, Laurence S Baskin,

This paper provides a detailed compilation of human prostatic development that includes human fetal prostatic gross anatomy, histology, and ontogeny of selected epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers and signaling molecules throughout the stages of human prostatic development: (a) pre-bud urogenital sinus (UGS), (b) emergence of solid prostatic epithelial buds from ... Read more >>

Differentiation (Differentiation; research in biological diversity)
[2018, 103:24-45]

Cited: 9 times

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