Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Geoffrey T Fong

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Trends in Social Norms Towards Smoking Between 2002 and 2015 Among Daily Smokers: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC 4C).

Katherine A East, Sara C Hitchman, Ann McNeill, Stuart G Ferguson, Hua-Hie Yong, K Michael Cummings, Geoffrey T Fong, Ron Borland,

<h4>Objective</h4>To assess trends in daily smokers' social norms and opinions of smoking between 2002 and 2015 in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.<h4>Method</h4>Data were from wave 1 (2002) to wave 9 (2013-2015) of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (Canada, the United States, the United ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2021, 23(1):203-211]

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Adults' E-Cigarette Flavor Use and Cigarette Quit Attempts: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Findings.

Karin A Kasza, Kathryn C Edwards, Shannon Gravely, Blair Coleman, Heather Kimmel, Colm Everard, Maciej L Goniewicz, Geoffrey T Fong, Andrew Hyland,

Am J Prev Med (American journal of preventive medicine)
[2020, :]

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Support for Minimum Legal Sales Age Laws Set to Age 21 Across Australia, Canada, England, and United States: Findings From the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine Craig, Geoffrey T Fong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, David Levy, Sara C Hitchman,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Although the United States has seen a rapid increase in tobacco minimum legal sales age (MLSA) laws set to age 21, there is wide variation across high-income countries and less is known about policy support outside of the United States. We examined the prevalence of support for tobacco MLSA 21 ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, 22(12):2266-2270]

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Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Support for Complete Smoking Bans in Multiunit Housing Among Smokers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

Pete Driezen, Geoffrey T Fong, Andrew Hyland, Lorraine V Craig, Genevieve Sansone, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke most frequently occurs at home, which is problematic for residents of multiunit housing (MUH). The primary objective of this study was to estimate the extent of secondhand smoke incursions into the homes of MUH smokers who banned smoking in their homes but lived in buildings ... Read more >>

Prev Chronic Dis (Preventing chronic disease)
[2020, 17:E147]

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Awareness of Marketing of Heated Tobacco Products and Cigarettes and Support for Tobacco Marketing Restrictions in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey.

Lorraine V Craig, Itsuro Yoshimi, Geoffrey T Fong, Gang Meng, Mi Yan, Yumiko Mochizuki, Takahiro Tabuchi, James F Thrasher, Steve S Xu, Anne C K Quah, Janine Ouimet, Genevieve Sansone, Janet Chung-Hall,

Japan is one of the world's largest cigarette markets and the top heated tobacco product (HTP) market. No forms of tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) are banned under national law, although the industry has some voluntary TAPS restrictions. This study examines Japanese tobacco users' self-reported exposure to cigarette and ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(22):]

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Menthol and mint cigarettes and cigars: Initiation and progression in youth, young adults and adults in Waves 1 - 4 of the PATH Study, 2013 - 2017.

Andrea C Villanti, Amanda L Johnson, Michael Halenar, Eva Sharma, K Michael Cummings, Cassandra A Stanton, Cristine D Delnevo, Olivia A Wackowski, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Jennifer L Pearson, David B Abrams, Raymond S Niaura, Geoffrey T Fong, Tara Elton-Marshall, Dorothy Hatsukami, Dennis R Trinidad, Annette Kaufman, Michael D Sawdey, Ethel V Taylor, Wendy I Slavit, Olga Rass, Wilson M Compton, Andrew Hyland,

<h4>Introduction</h4>This study examined in youth (12-17 years), young adults (18-24 years), and adults (25+ years) the: 1) prevalence of first menthol cigarette and menthol/mint cigar use among new tobacco users; 2) association between first menthol/mint use, subsequent tobacco use, and nicotine dependence approximately one year later compared to first non-menthol/mint ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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Changes in responses to nicotine vaping product warnings and leaflets in England compared with Canada, the US and Australia: findings from the 2016-2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys.

Eve Violet Taylor, Katherine A East, Ann McNeill, Michael Cummings, James Thrasher, Geoffrey T Fong, Anne C K Quah, Máirtín McDermot, Grace Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Sarah Aleyan, Sara C Hitchman,

<h4>Background and aims</h4>In May 2017, black-and-white text nicotine addiction warning labels ('warnings') and health and safety leaflets ('leaflets') became mandatory for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) in England, in accordance with the European Union's Tobacco Products Directive. We compared changes over time in noticing warnings and leaflets, recall of warnings about ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

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Are health conditions and concerns about health effects of smoking predictive of quitting? Findings from the ITC 4CV Survey ( 2016-2018 ).

Lin Li, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, Ann McNeill, Bryan W Heckman, Geoffrey T Fong, Richard J O'Connor, Pete Driezen,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Limited research has investigated the relationship between multiple health conditions and subsequent quitting activities at the population level. This study examines whether nine health conditions and concerns related to smoking are predictive of quit attempts and success among those who tried.<h4>Methods</h4>Data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking ... Read more >>

Tob Prev Cessat (Tobacco prevention & cessation)
[2020, 6:60]

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Reasons for Regularly Using Heated Tobacco Products among Adult Current and Former Smokers in Japan: Finding from 2018 ITC Japan Survey.

Steve S Xu, Gang Meng, Mi Yan, Shannon Gravely, Anne C K Quah, Janine Ouimet, Richard J O'Connor, Edward Sutanto, Itsuro Yoshimi, Yumiko Mochizuki, Takahiro Tabuchi, Geoffrey T Fong,

The market growth of heated tobacco products (HTPs), such as IQOS, Ploom TECH, and glo, has increased dramatically in Japan since 2016. Little is known about the reasons why current and former smokers are using HTPs. The data for this cross-sectional study were from the 2018 (Wave 1) International Tobacco ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(21):]

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Reasons for stopping e-cigarette use among smokers: findings from the 2018 ITC New Zealand Survey.

Maddie White, Richard Edwards, James Stanley, Janet Hoek, Andrew M Waa, Janine Ouimet, Anne Ck Quah, Geoffrey T Fong,

N Z Med J (The New Zealand medical journal)
[2020, 133(1523):117-121]

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Identifying factors that conjointly influence nicotine vaping product relative harm perception among smokers and recent ex-smokers: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Hua-Hie Yong, Chandan Karmakar, Mohammod Abdul Motin, Ron Borland, Tara Elton-Marshall, K Michael Cummings, Geoffrey T Fong, Mary E Thompson,

<h4>Background</h4>Use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) to replace smoking is often influenced by perceived harmfulness of these products relative to smoking. This study aimed to identify factors that conjointly influenced NVP relative harm perception among smokers and ex-smokers.<h4>Methods</h4>Data (n = 11,838) from adult smokers and ex-smokers (quit < 2 years) ... Read more >>

Drug Alcohol Depend (Drug and alcohol dependence)
[2021, 218:108370]

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Changes in Smoking and Vaping over 18 Months among Smokers and Recent Ex-Smokers: Longitudinal Findings from the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys.

Shannon Gravely, Gang Meng, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Karin A Kasza, Ann McNeill, Mary E Thompson, Sara C Hitchman, David T Levy, James F Thrasher, Anne C K Quah, Nadia Martin, Janine Ouimet, Christian Boudreau, Geoffrey T Fong,

This descriptive study of smokers (smoked at least monthly) and recent ex-smokers (quit for ≤2 years) examined transitions over an 18 month period in their smoking and vaping behaviors. Data are from Waves 1 (W1: 2016) and 2 (W2: 2018) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, a ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(19):]

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The Association of E-cigarette Flavors With Satisfaction, Enjoyment, and Trying to Quit or Stay Abstinent From Smoking Among Regular Adult Vapers From Canada and the United States: Findings From the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Shannon Gravely, K Michael Cummings, David Hammond, Eric Lindblom, Danielle M Smith, Nadia Martin, Ruth Loewen, Ron Borland, Andrew Hyland, Mary E Thompson, Christian Boudreau, Karin Kasza, Janine Ouimet, Anne C K Quah, Richard J O'Connor, Geoffrey T Fong,

<h4>Aims</h4>This study examined whether nontobacco flavors are more commonly used by vapers (e-cigarette users) compared with tobacco flavor, described which flavors are most popular, and tested whether flavors are associated with: vaping satisfaction relative to smoking, level of enjoyment with vaping, reasons for using e-cigarettes, and making an attempt to ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, 22(10):1831-1841]

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Gender differences in reasons for using electronic cigarettes and product characteristics: Findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Pongkwan Yimsaard, Ann McNeill, Hua-Hie Yong, K Michael Cummings, Janet Chung-Hall, Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T Fong, Richard J O'Connor, Sara C Hitchman,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Little is known about why males are more likely to use electronic cigarettes (ECs) compared to females. This study examined gender differences in reasons for vaping and characteristics of EC used (device type, device capacity, e-liquid nicotine strength, and flavour).<h4>Methods</h4>Data from 3938 current adult (18+ years) at-least-weekly EC users who ... Read more >>

Nicotine Tob Res (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
[2020, :]

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Awareness, trial and use of heated tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users: findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Connor R Miller, Edward Sutanto, Danielle M Smith, Sara C Hitchman, Shannon Gravely, Hua H Yong, Ron Borland, Richard J O'Connor, K Michael Cummings, Geoffrey T Fong, Andrew Hyland, Anne C K Quah, Maciej L Goniewicz,

<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate heated tobacco product (HTP) awareness, trial and current use among adult cigarette smokers and vaping product users in four countries with varying regulations governing HTP sales.<h4>Design</h4>Data came from Wave 2 of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, collected from February to July 2018. Respondents were current ... Read more >>

Tob Control (Tobacco control)
[2020, :]

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What kind of smoking identity following quitting would elevate smokers relapse risk?

Laura Callaghan, Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, Sara C Hitchman, Geoffrey T Fong,

<h4>Background</h4>Research has suggested that smokers who quit smoking and continue to identify themselves as a smoker versus a non-smoker are at greater risk of relapse. This study examines the relationship between post-quit smoker identities and relapse risk of former smokers in Australia and the UK comparing those who still identified ... Read more >>

Addict Behav (Addictive behaviors)
[2021, 112:106654]

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Transitions in frequency of hookah smoking among youth and adults: findings from waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, 2013-15.

Samir Soneji, Kristin E Knutzen, Shannon Gravely, Tara Elton-Marshall, James Sargent, Elizabeth Lambert, Nahla Hilmi, Eva Sharma, Kia J Jackson, Baoguang Wang, Joelle Robinson, Pete Driezen, Michelle Bover Manderski, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Andrew Hyland, Mark Travers, Duck-Hye Yang, Rui Dang, Geoffrey T Fong,

<h4>Background and aims</h4>The prevalence of hookah smoking has increased in the United States since at least 2010, especially among youth and young adults. This study assessed self-reported reasons for hookah smoking cessation and transition to or maintenance of high-frequency hookah smoking among current hookah smokers.<h4>Design</h4>Separately analyzed data from the Population ... Read more >>

Addiction (Addiction (Abingdon, England))
[2020, :]

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Perceived relative harm of heated tobacco products (IQOS), e-cigarettes, and cigarettes among adults in Canada: Findings from the ITC Project.

Edward Sutanto, Connor R Miller, Danielle M Smith, Richard J O'Connor, Shannon Gravely, David Hammond, Andrew Hyland, Kenneth M Cummings, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T Fong, Thomas K Agar, Maciej L Goniewicz,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Tobacco companies have introduced heated tobacco products (HTPs), such as IQOS, which may compete with e-cigarettes among smokers interested in switching to potentially reduced-risk products. Non-smokers may also start using IQOS if they believe this product is less harmful than other nicotine products. Smokers' and non-smokers' decisions may be driven ... Read more >>

Tob Induc Dis (Tobacco induced diseases)
[2020, 18:81]

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Patterns of Use of Vaping Products Among Smokers: Findings from the 2016-2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) New Zealand Surveys.

Richard Edwards, James Stanley, Andrew M Waa, Maddie White, Susan C Kaai, Janine Ouimet, Anne C K Quah, Geoffrey T Fong,

Alternative nicotine products like e-cigarettes could help achieve an end to the epidemic of ill health and death caused by smoking. However, in-depth information about their use is often limited. Our study investigated patterns of use of e-cigarettes and attitudes and beliefs among smokers and ex-smokers in New Zealand (NZ), ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(18):]

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Role of e-cigarettes and pharmacotherapy during attempts to quit cigarette smoking: The PATH Study 2013-16.

John P Pierce, Tarik Benmarhnia, Ruifeng Chen, Martha White, David B Abrams, Bridget K Ambrose, Carlos Blanco, Nicolette Borek, Kelvin Choi, Blair Coleman, Wilson M Compton, K Michael Cummings, Cristine D Delnevo, Tara Elton-Marshall, Maciej L Goniewicz, Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Dorothy Hatsukami, James Henrie, Karin A Kasza, Sheila Kealey, Heather L Kimmel, Jean Limpert, Raymond S Niaura, Carolina Ramôa, Eva Sharma, Marushka L Silveira, Cassandra A Stanton, Michael B Steinberg, Ethel Taylor, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Dennis R Trinidad, Lisa D Gardner, Andrew Hyland, Samir Soneji, Karen Messer,

<h4>Background</h4>More smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit than FDA-approved pharmacotherapy.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the association of e-cigarettes with future abstinence from cigarette and tobacco use.<h4>Design</h4>Cohort study of US sample, with annual follow-up.<h4>Participants</h4>US adult (ages 18+) daily cigarette smokers identified at Wave 1 (W1; 2013-14) of the PATH Study, who reported ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2020, 15(9):e0237938]

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Perceptions, Predictors of and Motivation for Quitting among Smokers from Six European Countries from 2016 to 2018: Findings from EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Charis Girvalaki, Filippos T Filippidis, Christina N Kyriakos, Pete Driezen, Aleksandra Herbeć, Ute Mons, Sophia Papadakis, Enkeleint A Mechili, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Esteve Fernández, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, On Behalf Of The Eurest-Plus Consortium,

The European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) was introduced in 2016 in an effort to decrease prevalence of smoking and increase cessation in the European Union (EU). This study aimed to explore quitting behaviours, motivation, reasons and perceptions about quitting, as well as predictors (reported before the TPD implementation) associated with ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(17):]

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Cannabis health knowledge and risk perceptions among Canadian youth and young adults.

Cesar Leos-Toro, Geoffrey T Fong, Samantha B Meyer, David Hammond,

<h4>Background</h4>Although recreational cannabis is now legal in Canada, little empirical evidence exists regarding young Canadians' cannabis literacy, cannabis-related risk perceptions, and risk of different forms of cannabis or the effect that public health education may have on these perceptions. The present study sought to address these knowledge gaps to examine ... Read more >>

Harm Reduct J (Harm reduction journal)
[2020, 17(1):54]

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The double-edged relationship between COVID-19 stress and smoking: Implications for smoking cessation.

Jeroen Bommele, Petra Hopman, Bethany Hipple Walters, Cloé Geboers, Esther Croes, Geoffrey T Fong, Anne C K Quah, Marc Willemsen,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Although recent research shows that smokers respond differently to the COVID-19 pandemic, it offers little explanation of why some have increased their smoking, while others decreased it. In this study, we examined a possible explanation for these different responses: pandemic-related stress.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted an online survey among a representative sample of ... Read more >>

Tob Induc Dis (Tobacco induced diseases)
[2020, 18:63]

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Quitting behaviours and cessation methods used in eight European Countries in 2018: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sophia Papadakis, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Christina N Kyriakos, James Balmford, Chara Tzavara, Charis Girvalaki, Pete Driezen, Filippos T Filippidis, Aleksandra Herbeć, Karin Hummel, Ann McNeill, Ute Mons, Esteve Fernández, Marcela Fu, Antigona C Trofor, Tibor Demjén, Witold A Zatoński, Marc Willemsen, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, ,

<h4>Background</h4>We examined quit attempts, use of cessation assistance, quitting beliefs and intentions among smokers who participated in the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys in eight European Union Member States (England, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Spain).<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional data from 11 543 smokers were collected from Wave 2 ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Suppl_3):iii26-iii33]

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Impact of the Tobacco Products Directive on self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship in smokers-findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys.

Sarah Kahnert, Pete Driezen, James Balmford, Christina N Kyriakos, Tibor Demjén, Esteve Fernández, Paraskevi A Katsaounou, Antigona C Trofor, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Witold A Zatoński, Geoffrey T Fong, Constantine I Vardavas, Ute Mons, ,

<h4>Background</h4>Advertising, promotion and sponsorship of electronic cigarettes (ECAPS) have increased in recent years. Since May 2016, the Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU (TPD2) prohibits ECAPS in various advertising channels, including media that have cross-border effects. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in exposure to ECAPS in a cohort ... Read more >>

Eur J Public Health (European journal of public health)
[2020, 30(Suppl_3):iii55-iii61]

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