Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Forest W Arnold

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Viral respiratory infections: a cause of community-acquired pneumonia or a predisposing factor?

Forest W Arnold, Joshua L Fuqua,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:A cause for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is only identified in ∼50% of cases. Nasopharyngeal PCR panels contain more viruses than previously. The problem then becomes determining the relevance of the organisms identified rather than figuring out which virus is present. This review addresses how to distinguish between viral ... Read more >>

Curr Opin Pulm Med (Current opinion in pulmonary medicine)
[2020, 26(3):208-214]

Cited: 0 times

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The Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Admission to an ICU in the United States.

Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Stephen Furmanek, Forest W Arnold, Leslie A Beavin, Richard G Wunderink, Michael S Niederman, Julio A Ramirez,

BACKGROUND:A paucity of studies have assessed the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that require ICU admission. We conducted a study on this group of patients with the primary objective of defining the incidence, epidemiology, and mortality rate of CAP in the ICUs in Louisville, KY. The secondary objective was to ... Read more >>

Chest (Chest)
[2020, :]

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Older Adults Hospitalized for Pneumonia in the United States: Incidence, Epidemiology, and Outcomes.

Forest W Arnold, Andrea M Reyes Vega, Vidyulata Salunkhe, Stephen Furmanek, Christian Furman, Laura Morton, Anna Faul, Pam Yankeelov, Julio A Ramirez,

OBJECTIVES:To define the current incidence, epidemiology, and mortality of older adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Louisville, KY and thus estimate the burden of CAP in the older adult population of the United States. To define risk factors associated with early and late outcomes. DESIGN:This was a secondary ... Read more >>

J Am Geriatr Soc (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society)
[2020, 68(5):1007-1014]

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Incidence and Mortality of Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia According to Clinical Course.

Paula Peyrani, Forest W Arnold, Jose Bordon, Stephen Furmanek, Carlos M Luna, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio Ramirez,

BACKGROUND:After hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), patients' clinical course may progress to clinical improvement, clinical failure, or nonresolving pneumonia. The epidemiology and outcomes of patients with CAP according to clinical course has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence and outcomes for each ... Read more >>

Chest (Chest)
[2020, 157(1):34-41]

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Root cause analysis of epidural spinal cord stimulator implant infections with resolution after implementation of an improved protocol for surgical placement.

Forest W Arnold, Sarah Bishop, David Johnson, LaShawn Scott, Crystal Heishman, Leah Oppy, Tyler Ball, Mayur Sharma, Claudia Angeli, Christie Ferreira, Yangsheng Chen, Susan Harkema, Maxwell Boakye,

Background:Placing a spinal stimulator for the purpose of restoring paralysed function is a novel procedure; however, paralysis predisposes people to infection. Preventing surgical site infections is critical to benefit this population. Objective:The objective of this study was to review the root cause analysis of postoperative wound infections by a hospital ... Read more >>

J Infect Prev (Journal of infection prevention)
[2019, 20(4):185-190]

Cited: 0 times

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Macrolide therapy is associated with lower mortality in community-acquired bacteraemic pneumonia.

Forest W Arnold, Gustavo Lopardo, Timothy L Wiemken, Robert Kelley, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Charles Feldman, Martin Gnoni, Rosemeri Maurici, Julio A Ramirez, ,

BACKGROUND:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has a potential complication of bacteremia. The objective of this study was to define the clinical outcomes of patients with CAP and bacteremia treated with and without a macrolide. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database of hospitalized patients with CAP. Patients with a ... Read more >>

Respir Med (Respiratory medicine)
[2018, 140:115-121]

Cited: 2 times

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Increased Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Septicemia and Illicit Intravenous Drug Use in the South.

Forest W Arnold, Leslie A Beavin,

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2018, 67(2):319-320]

Cited: 1 time

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Adults Hospitalized With Pneumonia in the United States: Incidence, Epidemiology, and Mortality.

Julio A Ramirez, Timothy L Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Forest W Arnold, Robert Kelley, William A Mattingly, Raul Nakamatsu, Senen Pena, Brian E Guinn, Stephen P Furmanek, Annuradha K Persaud, Anupama Raghuram, Francisco Fernandez, Leslie Beavin, Rahel Bosson, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Claudia Valdivieso, Joann Schulte, Ruth M Carrico, ,

Understanding the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is critical to allocate resources for prevention, management, and research. The objectives of this study were to define incidence, epidemiology, and mortality of adult patients hospitalized with CAP in the city of Louisville, and to estimate burden of CAP in the US adult ... Read more >>

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2017, 65(11):1806-1812]

Cited: 32 times

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The order of administration of macrolides and beta-lactams may impact the outcomes of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the community-acquired pneumonia organization.

Paula Peyrani, Timothy L Wiemken, Mark L Metersky, Forest W Arnold, William A Mattingly, Charles Feldman, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Jose Bordon, Julio A Ramirez,

The beneficial effect of macrolides for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in combination with beta-lactams may be due to their anti-inflammatory activity. In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, the use of steroids improves outcomes only if they are administered before beta-lactams. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes ... Read more >>

Infect Dis (Lond) (Infectious diseases (London, England))
[2018, 50(1):13-20]

Cited: 6 times

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Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.

Timothy L Wiemken, Stephen P Furmanek, William A Mattingly, Marc-Oliver Wright, Annuradha K Persaud, Brian E Guinn, Ruth M Carrico, Forest W Arnold, Julio A Ramirez,

BACKGROUND:Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast ... Read more >>

Am J Infect Control (American journal of infection control)
[2018, 46(2):124-132]

Cited: 0 times

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How Antibiotics Should be Prescribed to Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Forest W Arnold,

Elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be administered antimicrobials in the emergency department prior to transfer to the ward or intensive care unit (ICU). For ward patients, a β-lactam with a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone should be given to cover typical and atypical pathogens. For ICU ... Read more >>

Drugs Aging (Drugs & aging)
[2017, 34(1):13-20]

Cited: 1 time

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Using cluster analysis of cytokines to identify patterns of inflammation in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a pilot study.

Timothy L Wiemken, Robert R Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, William A Mattingly, Forest W Arnold, Stephen P Furmanek, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Paula Peyrani, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Stefano Aliberti, Julio A Ramirez,

Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host ... Read more >>

Univ Louisville J Respir Infect (The University of Louisville journal of respiratory infections)
[2017, 1(1):3-11]

Cited: 1 time

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Role of Atypical Pathogens in the Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Forest W Arnold, James T Summersgill, Julio A Ramirez,

Atypical pneumonia has been described for over 100 years, but some of the pathogens attributed to it have been identified only in the past decades. The most common pathogens are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these three pathogens have been studied since their ... Read more >>

Semin Respir Crit Care Med (Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine)
[2016, 37(6):819-828]

Cited: 3 times

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Comparing posteroanterior with lateral and anteroposterior chest radiography in the initial detection of parapneumonic effusions.

Bryan K Moffett, Tanmay S Panchabhai, Raul Nakamatsu, Forest W Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Timothy Wiemken, Juan Guardiola, Julio A Ramirez,

It is unclear whether anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior with lateral (PA/Lat) chest radiographs are superior in the early detection of clinically relevant parapneumonic effusions (CR-PPEs). The objective of this study was to identify which technique is preferred for detection of PPEs using chest computed tomography (CCT) as a reference standard.A ... Read more >>

Am J Emerg Med (The American journal of emergency medicine)
[2016, 34(12):2402-2407]

Cited: 2 times

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Trends in Pneumonia Mortality Rates and Hospitalizations by Organism, United States, 2002-2011(1).

Brandon A Wuerth, John P Bonnewell, Timothy L Wiemken, Forest W Arnold,

Because the epidemiology of pneumonia is changing, we performed an updated, population-based analysis of hospitalization and case-fatality rates for pneumonia patients in the United States. From 2002 to 2011, hospitalization rates decreased significantly for pneumonia caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae but increased significantly for Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and ... Read more >>

Emerging Infect. Dis. (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2016, 22(9):1624-1627]

Cited: 3 times

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Cost effectiveness of adherence to IDSA/ATS guidelines in elderly patients hospitalized for Community-Aquired Pneumonia.

Michael E Egger, John A Myers, Forest W Arnold, Leigh Ann Pass, Julio A Ramirez, Guy N Brock,

Adherence to guidelines for the treatment of hospitalized elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adherence to guidelines for the treatment of CAP in an elderly hospitalized patient cohort.Data from an international, multicenter observational study for patients age ... Read more >>

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak (BMC medical informatics and decision making)
[2016, 16:34]

Cited: 9 times

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The upper respiratory tract microbiome of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown aetiology: a pilot study.

Timothy L Wiemken, Venkatakrishna Rao Jala, Robert R Kelley, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Forest W Arnold, Patricio W Cabral, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Bodduluri Haribabu, Julio A Ramirez,

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome may play an important role in the development of lower respiratory tract infections. Here, we characterised the microbiome of the nasopharynx and oropharynx of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with unknown aetiology in an attempt to obtain insight into the aetiology ... Read more >>

Pneumonia (Nathan) (Pneumonia (Nathan Qld.))
[2015, 6:83-89]

Cited: 0 times

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Macrolide Use and Neutrophil Function/Cytokine Levels in Hospitalized Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Pilot Study.

Forest W Arnold, Jose Bordon, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Madhavi J Rane, Silvia M Uriarte, Robert Kelley, Timothy L Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Julio A Ramirez, ,

The objective of this study was to measure plasma cytokine levels and blood neutrophil functions as well as clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treated with or without macrolide use--a known modulator of inflammatory response.Subjects with CAP had peripheral blood analyzed for some neutrophil functions (degranulation of ... Read more >>

Lung (Lung)
[2016, 194(1):155-162]

Cited: 3 times

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Outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit.

Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Timothy Wiemken, Forest W Arnold, Carlos M Luna, Jose Bordon, Robert Kelley, Charles Feldman, James D Chalmers, Antoni Torres, Julio Ramirez,

Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) portends a serious prognosis. The temporal trend in outcome of severe CAP is not well established. We evaluated the temporal trends in the outcomes of severe CAP.This is a secondary analysis of 800 patients with severe CAP enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization International Cohort. Severe ... Read more >>

Respir Med (Respiratory medicine)
[2015, 109(6):743-750]

Cited: 9 times

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Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection presenting to US EDs.

Aaron M Smith, Brandon A Wuerth, Timothy L Wiemken, Forest W Arnold,

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. Secondary objectives included defining the burden of CDI. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational cohort study of 2006-2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database of 980 ... Read more >>

Am J Emerg Med (The American journal of emergency medicine)
[2015, 33(2):238-243]

Cited: 3 times

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DOES PAYER STATUS PREDICT CD4 CELL COUNT AND HIV VIRAL LOAD?

Forest W Arnold, Barbara Wojda, Daniel Truelove, Raul Nakamatsu, Timothy L Wiemken, Praveen Seshabhattar,

Physician Leadersh J (Physician leadership journal)
[2014, 1(1):44-6, 48-9]

Cited: 0 times

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Contrasting inflammatory responses in severe and non-severe community-acquired pneumonia.

Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Silvia M Uriarte, Forest W Arnold, Lisandra Rodriguez-Hernandez, Madhavi J Rane, Paula Peyrani, Timothy Wiemken, Robert Kelley, Srinivas Uppatla, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Francesco Blasi, Letizia Morlacchi, Stefano Aliberti, Colleen Jonsson, Julio A Ramirez, Jose Bordon,

The objective of this study was to compare systemic and local cytokine profiles and neutrophil responses in patients with severe versus non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Hospitalized patients with CAP were grouped according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI), as non-severe (PSI < 91 points) or severe (PSI ≥ 91 points). Blood and sputum samples ... Read more >>

Inflammation (Inflammation)
[2014, 37(4):1158-1166]

Cited: 18 times

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An unusual etiology of post-traumatic meningitis.

Allen T Griffin, Forest W Arnold,

Clostridium perfringens and related species are well-known culprits of post-traumatic soft tissue and bone infection. However, central nervous system involvement with these organisms spontaneously or subsequent to trauma is unusual. The authors reported a case of post-traumatic meningitis in which both C perfringens and Enterococcus faecium were isolated. ... Read more >>

Am. J. Med. Sci. (The American journal of the medical sciences)
[2013, 346(4):331-333]

Cited: 0 times

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Risk factors for cardiovascular events in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Allen T Griffin, Timothy L Wiemken, Forest W Arnold,

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of cardiovascular complications has been found in those with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Preliminary data suggest that pneumococcal pneumonia, more severe pneumonia, older age, renal disease, hypoalbuminemia, and inpatient sliding scale insulin administration contribute to risk. The objective of this study was to ascertain additional factors influencing ... Read more >>

Int. J. Infect. Dis. (International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases)
[2013, 17(12):e1125-9]

Cited: 12 times

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Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma in a HIV-positive patient.

Michael J Scott, Bashar Chihada Alhariri, Hanan Farghaly, Rafael Perez, Forest W Arnold,

We present a case of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) occurring simultaneously with Castleman's disease in the same patient. Castleman's disease is distinct from PEL, although both are associated with HHV-8. Other cases have debated whether the coexistence of PEL and Castleman's disease is a recurrence of an original PEL tumour ... Read more >>

Int J STD AIDS (International journal of STD & AIDS)
[2014, 25(6):455-457]

Cited: 0 times

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