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Pulmonary Manifestations of Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Liver Diseases in Children.

Emily R Le Fevre, Kathleen H McGrath, Dominic A Fitzgerald,

Pulmonary manifestations of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are often subtle, and underlying disease may precede overt symptoms. A high index of suspicion and a low threshold for consultation with a pediatric pulmonologist is warranted in common GI conditions. This article outlines the pulmonary manifestations of different GI, pancreatic, and liver diseases ... Read more >>

Pediatr Clin North Am (Pediatric clinics of North America)
[2021, 68(1):41-60]

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Using expert knowledge to support Endangered Species Act decision-making for data-deficient species.

Daniel B Fitzgerald, David R Smith, David C Culver, Daniel Feller, Daniel W Fong, Jeff Hajenga, Matthew L Niemiller, Daniel C Nolfi, Wil D Orndorff, Barbara Douglas, Kelly O Maloney, John A Young,

Many questions relevant to conservation decision making are characterized by extreme uncertainty due to lack of empirical data and complexity of the underlying ecological processes, leading to a rapid increase in the use of structured protocols to elicit expert knowledge. Published ecological applications often employ a modified Delphi method, where ... Read more >>

Conserv Biol (Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology)
[2021, :]

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Cervicovaginal bacterial communities in reproductive-aged Tanzanian women with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, or without schistosome infection.

Brooke W Bullington, Myung Hee Lee, Jane Mlingi, Ndalloh Paul, Christine Aristide, Emily Fontana, Eric R Littmann, Crispin Mukerebe, Peter Shigella, Philibert Kashangaki, Samuel E Kalluvya, Claudia J de Dood, Govert J van Dam, Paul L A M Corstjens, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Eric G Pamer, Jennifer A Downs,

Schistosome infection is recognized as a potentially modifiable risk factor for HIV in women by the World Health Organization. Alterations in cervicovaginal bacteria have been associated with HIV acquisition and have not been studied in schistosome infection. We collected cervical swabs from Tanzanian women with and without S. mansoni and ... Read more >>

ISME J (The ISME journal)
[2021, :]

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Myocardial Diastolic Dysfunction and Soluble ST2 Concentration in Tanzanian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Justin R Kingery, Parag Goyal, Rahul Hosalli, Myung Hee Lee, Bernard Desderius, Fredrick Kalokola, Abel Makubi, Salama Fadhil, Saidi Kapiga, Dipan Karmali, Daniel Kaminstein, Richard Devereux, Margaret McNairy, Warren Johnson, Daniel Fitzgerald, Robert Peck,

<h4>Background</h4>The aims of this study were (1) to compare the prevalence of myocardial diastolic dysfunction (DD) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected adults in East Africa and (2) to determine the association between serum concentration of the cardiac biomarkers ST2 ... Read more >>

J Infect Dis (The Journal of infectious diseases)
[2021, 223(1):83-93]

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High Blood Pressure Confirmed with 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Tanzanian Adolescents Enrolling in a Cohort Study

Mussa Nsanya, Philip Ayieko, Ramadhan Hashim, Ezekiel Mgema, Daniel Fitzgerald, Saidi Kapiga, Robert Peck,

Prevalence estimates for high blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa vary widely and most studies have relied on attended automated office BP (AOBP) measurements. We aimed to estimate prevalence of high BP using unattended AOBP followed by 24-Hour ambulatory BP monitoring (24-Hour ABPM) for confirmation and to determine ... Read more >>

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Respiratory outcomes post nusinersen in spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

Kate Gonski, Dominic A Fitzgerald,

Pediatr Pulmonol (Pediatric pulmonology)
[2020, :]

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STARRPeaker: uniform processing and accurate identification of STARR-seq active regions.

Donghoon Lee, Manman Shi, Jennifer Moran, Martha Wall, Jing Zhang, Jason Liu, Dominic Fitzgerald, Yasuhiro Kyono, Lijia Ma, Kevin P White, Mark Gerstein,

STARR-seq technology has employed progressively more complex genomic libraries and increased sequencing depths. An issue with the increased complexity and depth is that the coverage in STARR-seq experiments is non-uniform, overdispersed, and often confounded by sequencing biases, such as GC content. Furthermore, STARR-seq readout is confounded by RNA secondary structure ... Read more >>

Genome Biol (Genome biology)
[2020, 21(1):298]

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Hyaluronic acid in viscous malignant mesothelioma pleural effusion.

Hui Min Cheah, Deirdre Fitzgerald, Amber Louw, Jenette Creaney, Y C Gary Lee,

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common with mesothelioma. We report two cases of extraordinarily viscous MPEs associated with mesothelioma. The viscosity prohibited spontaneous gravity-dependent drainage via indwelling pleural catheters. Our ex vivo experiments found very high hyaluronic acid (HA) content within the fluid. Treatment of the fluid with hyaluronidase, but ... Read more >>

Respirol Case Rep (Respirology case reports)
[2021, 9(1):e00694]

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CCN3 is dynamically regulated by treatment and disease state in multiple sclerosis.

Michelle Naughton, Jill Moffat, George Eleftheriadis, Nira de la Vega Gallardo, Andrew Young, John Falconer, Kristen Hawkins, Ben Pearson, Bernard Perbal, Andrew Hogan, Paul Moynagh, Sam Loveless, Neil P Robertson, Bruno Gran, Rachael Kee, Stella Hughes, Gavin McDonnell, Owain Howell, Denise C Fitzgerald,

<h4>Background</h4>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the profile of CCN3, a known regulator of immune function and a potential mediator of myelin regeneration, in multiple sclerosis in the context of disease state and disease-modifying treatment.<h4>Methods</h4>CCN3 expression was analysed ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2020, 17(1):349]

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Clump material within drainage chest tubes contain diagnostic information: A proof-of-concept case series.

Amber Louw, Calvin Sidhu, Deirdre B Fitzgerald, Jenette Creaney, Siaw Ming Chai, Y C Gary Lee,

Eur Respir J (The European respiratory journal)
[2020, :]

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Systematic approach to selecting licensed drugs for repurposing in the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis.

Nick Cunniffe, Khue Anh Vuong, Debbie Ainslie, David Baker, Judy Beveridge, Sorrel Bickley, Patrick Camilleri, Matthew Craner, Denise Fitzgerald, Alerie G de la Fuente, Gavin Giovannoni, Emma Gray, Lorraine Hazlehurst, Raj Kapoor, Ranjit Kaur, David Kozlowski, Brooke Lumicisi, Don Mahad, Björn Neumann, Alan Palmer, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Stefano Pluchino, Jennifer Robertson, Alan Rothaul, Lyndsey Shellard, Kenneth J Smith, Alastair Wilkins, Anna Williams, Alasdair Coles,

<h4>Objective</h4>To establish a rigorous, expert-led, evidence-based approach to the evaluation of licensed drugs for repurposing and testing in clinical trials of people with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS).<h4>Methods</h4>We long-listed licensed drugs with evidence of human safety, blood-brain barrier penetrance and demonstrable efficacy in at least one animal model, or mechanistic target, ... Read more >>

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry (Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry)
[2020, :]

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The Haiti cardiovascular disease cohort: study protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort.

Jean Lookens, Olga Tymejczyk, Vanessa Rouzier, Caleigh Smith, Fabyola Preval, Inddy Joseph, Raynold Jean Baptiste, Joscar Victor, Patrice Severe, Sandra Apollon, Emelyne Dumont, Guyrlaine Forestal, Stephano St Preux, Vanessa Rivera, Grace Seo, Benedict Charles, Wilson Ariste, Justin Kingery, Jessy Devieux, Serena Koenig, Denis Nash, Daniel Fitzgerald, Monika Safford, Marie Marcelle Deschamps, Jean Pape, Margaret McNairy,

<h4>Background</h4>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among Haitians, having surpassed HIV in the last decade. Understanding the natural history of CVD in Haitians, including the age of onset, prevalence, incidence, and role of major risk factors and social determinants, is urgently needed to develop prevention and treatment ... Read more >>

BMC Public Health (BMC public health)
[2020, 20(1):1633]

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Case Report: Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and COVID-19 Coinfection in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Stalz Charles Vilbrun, Laurent Mathurin, Jean W Pape, Daniel Fitzgerald, Kathleen F Walsh,

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique threat to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe a case of a patient with pulmonary MDR-TB and COVID-19 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and highlight the challenges and approach to managing a patient with both diseases. ... Read more >>

Am J Trop Med Hyg (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2020, 103(5):1986-1988]

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Whole-genome analysis of Nigerian patients with breast cancer reveals ethnic-driven somatic evolution and distinct genomic subtypes

Naser Ansari-Pour, Yonglan Zheng, Jason Pitt, Stefan Dentro, Toshio Yoshimatsu, Ayodele Sanni, Mustapha Ajani, Anna Woodard, Padma Sheila Rajagopal, Dominic Fitzgerald, Andreas Gruber, Abayomi Odetunde, Abiodun Popoola, Adeyinka Falusi, Chinedum Peace Babalola, Temidayo Ogundiran, John Obafunwa, Oladosu Ojengbede, Nasiru Ibrahim, Jordi Barretina, Peter Van Loo, Mengjie Chen, Kevin White, Dezheng Huo, David Wedge, Olufunmilayo Olopade,

Black women of African ancestry experience more aggressive breast cancer with higher mortality rates than White women of European ancestry. Although inter-ethnic germline variation is known, differential somatic evolution has not been investigated in detail. Analysis of deep whole genomes of 97 breast tumors, with RNA-seq in a subset, from ... Read more >>

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Single cell transcriptional profiling reveals helper, effector, and regulatory MAIT cell populations enriched during homeostasis and activation

Charles Kyriakos Vorkas, Chirag Krishna, Kelin Li, Jeffrey Aubé, Daniel Fitzgerald, Linas Mazutis, Christina Leslie, Michael Glickman,

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that recognize microbial vitamin B metabolites and have emerging roles in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. Although MAIT cells are identified by a semi-invariant T cell receptor, their phenotypic and functional heterogeneity is not well understood. Here we present an integrated single ... Read more >>

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Paediatric pneumonia in high-income countries: Defining and recognising cases at increased risk of severe disease.

Stuart Haggie, Hiran Selvadurai, Hasantha Gunasekera, Dominic A Fitzgerald,

World Health Organisation definitions of pneumonia severity are routinely used in research. In high income health care settings with high rates of pneumococcal vaccination and low rates of mortality, malnutrition and HIV infection, these definitions are less applicable. National guidelines from leading thoracic and infectious disease societies describe 'severe pneumonia' ... Read more >>

Paediatr Respir Rev (Paediatric respiratory reviews)
[2020, :]

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Applying lessons learnt from research of child pneumonia management in Vietnam.

T K P Nguyen, B B S Bui, Q C Ngo, D A Fitzgerald, S M Graham, B J Marais,

Pneumonia is the leading cause of paediatric hospitalisation in Vietnam, placing a huge burden on the health care system. Pneumonia is also the main reason for antibiotic use in children. Unfortunately many hospital admissions for child pneumonia in Vietnam are unnecessary and inappropriate use of antibiotics is common, as in ... Read more >>

Paediatr Respir Rev (Paediatric respiratory reviews)
[2020, :]

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Interventions to Improve Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Adolescents and Youth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review 2015-2019.

Lindsey K Reif, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen Arpadi, Batya Elul, Margaret L McNairy, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Louise Kuhn,

Adolescents and youth living with HIV have poorer antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and viral suppression outcomes than all other age groups. Effective interventions promoting adherence are urgently needed. We reviewed and synthesized recent literature on interventions to improve ART adherence among this vulnerable population. We focus on studies conducted in ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2020, 24(10):2797-2810]

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Free fatty acid binding pocket in the locked structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Christine Toelzer, Kapil Gupta, Sathish K N Yadav, Ufuk Borucu, Andrew D Davidson, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Deborah K Shoemark, Frederic Garzoni, Oskar Staufer, Rachel Milligan, Julien Capin, Adrian J Mulholland, Joachim Spatz, Daniel Fitzgerald, Imre Berger, Christiane Schaffitzel,

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), represents a global crisis. Key to SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development is unraveling the mechanisms that drive high infectivity, broad tissue tropism, and severe pathology. Our 2.85-angstrom cryo-electron microscopy structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein reveals that the receptor ... Read more >>

Science (Science (New York, N.Y.))
[2020, 370(6517):725-730]

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Real-world respiratory and bulbar comorbidities of SMA type 1 children treated with nusinersen: 2-Year single centre Australian experience.

Kerrie-Anne Chen, John Widger, Arthur Teng, Dominic A Fitzgerald, Arlene D'Silva, Michelle Farrar,

<h4>Aim</h4>To describe the respiratory and nutritional supportive care and hospitalisations required in the real-world scenario in children with SMA type 1 treated with nusinersen.<h4>Methods</h4>Single-centre observational cohort study of children with SMA1 commencing nusinersen from November 2016 to September 2018. Motor, respiratory and nutritional clinical characteristics and management are described from ... Read more >>

Paediatr Respir Rev (Paediatric respiratory reviews)
[2020, :]

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Targeting Receptors on Cancer Cells with Protein Toxins.

Antonella Antignani, Eric Chun Hei Ho, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Rong Qiu, Robert Sarnvosky, David J FitzGerald,

Cancer cells frequently upregulate surface receptors that promote growth and survival. These receptors constitute valid targets for intervention. One strategy involves the delivery of toxic payloads with the goal of killing those cancer cells with high receptor levels. Delivery can be accomplished by attaching a toxic payload to either a ... Read more >>

Biomolecules (Biomolecules)
[2020, 10(9):]

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Urinary biomarkers of mycobacterial load and treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis.

Qianjing Xia, Myung Hee Lee, Kathleen F Walsh, Kathrine McAulay, James M Bean, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Kathryn M Dupnik, Warren D Johnson, Jean W Pape, Kyu Y Rhee, Flonza Isa,

BACKGROUNDControl of the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic remains hindered in part by a lack of simple and accurate measures of treatment efficacy, as current gold standard markers rely on sputum-based assays that are slow and challenging to implement. However, previous work identified urinary N1, N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSpm), neopterin, hydroxykynurenine, N-acetylhexosamine, ureidopropionic acid, ... Read more >>

JCI Insight (JCI insight)
[2020, 5(18):]

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Evaluating Changes in del Nido Cardioplegia Practices in Adult Cardiac Surgery.

Donald S Likosky, Xiaoting Wu, David C Fitzgerald, Jonathan W Haft, Gaetano Paone, Matthew A Romano, Joshua B Goldberg, Alphonse DeLucia, David L Sturmer, David M Grix, Donald H Nieter, Brittney N Graebner, Timothy A Dickinson, ,

There has been a rapid adoption of the use of del Nido cardioplegia (DC) among adults undergoing cardiac surgery. We leveraged a multicenter database to evaluate differences over time in the choice and impact of cardioplegia type (DC vs. blood) among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We evaluated 26,373 patients undergoing ... Read more >>

J Extra Corpor Technol (The journal of extra-corporeal technology)
[2020, 52(3):173-181]

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Let Their Voices Be Seen.

Amanda J Young, Frances Richardson, Dawn Fitzgerald, Benjamin S Heavrin, Brooke Tweddell, Lydia Gettings, Ashley Cooper, Cori Cohen Grant,

<h4>Study objective</h4>The mutual distrust, in part caused by misunderstanding and bias, between sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and their emergency department (ED) providers has been widely documented in the SCD literature. This study seeks to illustrate the perceptions and experiences of adult sickle cell patients who have had at least ... Read more >>

Ann Emerg Med (Annals of emergency medicine)
[2020, 76(3S):S73-S77]

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Point-of-care viral load testing among adolescents and youth living with HIV in Haiti: a protocol for a randomised trial to evaluate implementation and effect.

Lindsey K Reif, Marie Elmase Belizaire, Grace Seo, Vanessa Rouzier, Patrice Severe, Joseph Marie Joseph, Bernadette Joseph, Sandra Apollon, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Batya Elul, Jean W Pape, Margaret L McNairy, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Louise Kuhn,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Adolescents living with HIV have poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and viral suppression outcomes. Viral load (VL) monitoring could reinforce adherence but standard VL testing requires strong laboratory capacity often only available in large central laboratories. Thus, coordinated transport of samples and results between the clinic and laboratory is required, ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(8):e036147]

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