Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Bradley N Axelrod

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Differentiating poor validity from probable impairment on the medical symptom validity test: a cross-validation study.

Ruth T Morin, Bradley N Axelrod, Summar Reslan, Christian Schutte,

AIMS:In neuropsychological evaluations, it is often difficult to ascertain whether poor performance on measures of validity is due to poor effort or malingering, or whether there is genuine cognitive impairment. Dunham and Denney created an algorithm to assess this question using the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). We assessed the ... Read more >>

Int. J. Neurosci. (The International journal of neuroscience)
[2019, 129(3):217-224]

Cited: 0 times

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Use of Latent Class Analysis to define groups based on validity, cognition, and emotional functioning.

Ruth T Morin, Bradley N Axelrod,

Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify a heterogeneous sample of neuropsychology data. In particular, we used measures of performance validity, symptom validity, cognition, and emotional functioning to assess and describe latent groups of functioning in these areas.A data-set of 680 neuropsychological evaluation protocols was analyzed using a LCA. ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2017, 31(6-7):1087-1099]

Cited: 1 time

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Strategies of successful and unsuccessful simulators coached to feign traumatic brain injury.

Robert J Kanser, Lisa J Rapport, Jesse R Bashem, Nia M Billings, Robin A Hanks, Bradley N Axelrod, Justin B Miller,

OBJECTIVE:The present study evaluated strategies used by healthy adults coached to simulate traumatic brain injury (TBI) during neuropsychological evaluation. METHOD:Healthy adults (n = 58) were coached to simulate TBI while completing a test battery consisting of multiple performance validity tests (PVTs), neuropsychological tests, a self-report scale of functional independence, and a debriefing ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2017, 31(3):644-653]

Cited: 6 times

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Neuropsychological test validity in Veterans presenting with subjective complaints of 'very severe' cognitive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury.

Robert J Spencer, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Bradley N Axelrod, Linas A Bieliauskas,

This study explored the utility of combining data from measures of performance validity and symptom validity among Veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).Persistent cognitive impairments following mTBI are often reported by returning combat veterans. However, objectively-measured cognitive deficits are not common among individuals with mTBI, raising ... Read more >>

Brain Inj (Brain injury)
[2017, 31(1):32-38]

Cited: 3 times

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Clinimetric validity of the Trail Making Test Czech version in Parkinson's disease and normative data for older adults.

Ondrej Bezdicek, Hana Stepankova, Bradley N Axelrod, Tomas Nikolai, Zdenek Sulc, Robert Jech, Evžen Růžička, Miloslav Kopecek,

OBJECTIVE:The influence of demographic variables on the Trail Making Test (TMT) performance in older individuals and empirical findings on clinical validity in predementia states, such as Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), are limited. The principal aim of this study was to add normative data for the Czech population of ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2017, 31(sup1):42-60]

Cited: 1 time

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The Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms (mBIAS) scale in a mixed clinical sample.

Sara M Lippa, Bradley N Axelrod, Rael T Lange,

The Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms (mBIAS) scale was developed as a symptom validity test (SVT) for use with patients following mild traumatic brain injury. This study was the first to examine the clinical utility of the mBIAS in a mixed clinical sample presenting to a Department of Veterans Affairs ... Read more >>

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology)
[2016, 38(7):721-729]

Cited: 2 times

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Evaluating the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) in a Sample of Veterans Between the Ages of 18 to 64.

Summar Reslan, Bradley N Axelrod,

The purpose of the current study was to compare three potential profiles of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT; Pass, Genuine Memory Impairment Profile [GMIP], and Fail) on other freestanding and embedded performance validity tests (PVTs). Notably, a quantitatively computed version of the GMIP was utilized in this investigation. Data ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2017, 24(2):132-139]

Cited: 2 times

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Embedded Measures of Performance Validity in the Rey Complex Figure Test in a Clinical Sample of Veterans.

Michael A Sugarman, Erin M Holcomb, Bradley N Axelrod, John E Meyers, Philip C Liethen,

The purpose of this study was to determine how well scores from the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) could serve as embedded measures of performance validity in a large, heterogeneous clinical sample at an urban-based Veterans' Affairs hospital. Participants were divided into credible performance (n = 244) and noncredible performance ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2016, 23(2):105-114]

Cited: 2 times

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Is Co-norming Required?

Martin L Rohling, Ronald M Miller, Bradley N Axelrod, Jacqueline R Wall, Amy J H Lee, Daniel T Kinikini,

Researchers who have been responsible for developing test batteries have argued that competent practice requires the use of a "fixed battery" that is co-normed. We tested this assumption with three normative systems: co-normed, meta-regressed norms and a system of these two methods. We analyzed two samples: 330 referred patients and ... Read more >>

Arch Clin Neuropsychol (Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists)
[2015, 30(7):611-633]

Cited: 4 times

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The Prague Stroop Test: Normative standards in older Czech adults and discriminative validity for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

Ondrej Bezdicek, Jiri Lukavsky, Hana Stepankova, Tomas Nikolai, Bradley N Axelrod, Jiri Michalec, Evžen Růžička, Miloslav Kopecek,

The aim of this study was to provide normative data for older and very old Czech adults on the Prague Stroop Test (PST) and to test its discriminative validity in individuals with Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI).The construction of the PST was modeled after the Victoria Stroop Test. We ... Read more >>

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology)
[2015, 37(8):794-807]

Cited: 15 times

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

Todd A Girard, Bradley N Axelrod, Ronak Patel, John R Crawford,

All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included ... Read more >>

Assessment (Assessment)
[2015, 22(4):441-448]

Cited: 10 times

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Embedded measures of performance validity using verbal fluency tests in a clinical sample.

Michael A Sugarman, Bradley N Axelrod,

The objective of this study was to determine to what extent verbal fluency measures can be used as performance validity indicators during neuropsychological evaluation. Participants were clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation in an urban-based Veteran's Affairs hospital. Participants were placed into 2 groups based on their objectively evaluated effort on ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2015, 22(2):141-146]

Cited: 24 times

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Utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination in predicting general intellectual abilities.

Michael A Sugarman, Bradley N Axelrod,

To determine whether scores from 2 commonly used cognitive screening tests can help predict general intellectual functioning in older adults.Cutoff scores for determining cognitive impairment have been validated for both the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). However, less is known about how the 2 measures ... Read more >>

Cogn Behav Neurol (Cognitive and behavioral neurology : official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology)
[2014, 27(3):148-154]

Cited: 2 times

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Comparisons of five performance validity indices in bona fide and simulated traumatic brain injury.

Jesse R Bashem, Lisa J Rapport, Justin B Miller, Robin A Hanks, Bradley N Axelrod, Scott R Millis,

A number of performance validity tests (PVTs) are used to assess memory complaints associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, few studies examine the concordance and predictive accuracy of multiple PVTs, specifically in the context of combined models in known-group designs. The present study compared five widely used PVTs: the ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2014, 28(5):851-875]

Cited: 13 times

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Finger Tapping Test performance as a measure of performance validity.

Bradley N Axelrod, John E Meyers, Jeremy J Davis,

The Finger Tapping Test (FTT) has been presented as an embedded measure of performance validity in most standard neuropsychological evaluations. The present study evaluated the utility of three different scoring systems intended to detect invalid performance based on FTT. The scoring systems were evaluated in neuropsychology cases from clinical and ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2014, 28(5):876-888]

Cited: 14 times

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Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

Ondrej Bezdicek, Hana Stepankova, Ladislav Moták, Bradley N Axelrod, John L Woodard, Marek Preiss, Tomáš Nikolai, Evžen Růžička, Amir Poreh,

The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits ... Read more >>

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn (Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition)
[2014, 21(6):693-721]

Cited: 17 times

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Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.

Sarah A Van Dyke, Scott R Millis, Bradley N Axelrod, Robin A Hanks,

The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2013, 27(8):1234-1246]

Cited: 40 times

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WAIS-IV reliable digit span is no more accurate than age corrected scaled score as an indicator of invalid performance in a veteran sample undergoing evaluation for mTBI.

Robert J Spencer, Bradley N Axelrod, Lauren L Drag, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Percival H Pangilinan, Linas A Bieliauskas,

Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a measure of effort derived from the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler intelligence scales. Some authors have suggested that the age-corrected scaled score provides a more accurate measure of effort than RDS. This study examined the relative diagnostic accuracy of the traditional RDS, an ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2013, 27(8):1362-1372]

Cited: 26 times

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Number of impaired scores as a performance validity indicator.

Jeremy J Davis, Bradley N Axelrod, Tara S McHugh, Robin A Hanks, Scott R Millis,

This study examined embedded performance validity indicators (PVI) based on the number of impaired scores in an evaluation and the overall test battery mean (OTBM). Adult participants (N = 175) reporting traumatic brain injury were grouped using eight PVI. Participants who passed all PVI (n = 67) demonstrated fewer impaired scores and higher OTBM ... Read more >>

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology)
[2013, 35(4):413-420]

Cited: 5 times

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Czech version of the Trail Making Test: normative data and clinical utility.

Ondrej Bezdicek, Ladislav Motak, Bradley N Axelrod, Marek Preiss, Tomas Nikolai, Martin Vyhnalek, Amir Poreh, Evzen Ruzicka,

The Trail Making Test (TMT) comprises two psychomotor tasks that measure a wide range of visual-perceptual and executive functions. The purpose of this study was to provide Czech normative data and to examine the relationship between derived TMT indices and demographic variables. The TMT was administered to 421 healthy adults. ... Read more >>

Arch Clin Neuropsychol (Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists)
[2012, 27(8):906-914]

Cited: 34 times

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Derivation of an embedded Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test performance validity indicator.

Jeremy J Davis, Scott R Millis, Bradley N Axelrod,

This study derived an embedded performance validity indicator for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) using an archival dataset. Participants aged 20 to 65 (N = 167) who reported traumatic brain injury and completed at least two performance validity tests were included. The group who passed all performance validity measures (n = 68) ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2012, 26(8):1397-1408]

Cited: 12 times

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Do administration instructions alter optimal neuropsychological test performance? Data from healthy volunteers.

Joseph L Etherton, Bradley N Axelrod,

The degree to which patients should be prompted to give their best effort has not been adequately addressed in the literature, nor has the issue of the extent to which they should be informed that measures of effort will be included in the assessment battery. Three groups of undergraduates were ... Read more >>

Appl Neuropsychol Adult (Applied neuropsychology. Adult)
[2013, 20(1):15-19]

Cited: 2 times

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Performance validity and neuropsychological outcomes in litigants and disability claimants.

Jeremy J Davis, Tara S McHugh, Bradley N Axelrod, Robin A Hanks,

This study examined the relationship of performance validity and neuropsychological outcomes in a sample of individuals referred for independent neuropsychological examination in the context of reported traumatic brain injury (82% mild). Archival data were examined on 175 participants aged 20 to 65 who were administered at least two performance validity ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2012, 26(5):850-865]

Cited: 11 times

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Parsimonious prediction of Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition scores: immediate and delayed memory indexes.

Justin B Miller, Bradley N Axelrod, Lisa J Rapport, Scott R Millis, Sarah Vandyke, Christian Schutte, Robin A Hanks,

Research on previous versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) found that index scores could be predicted using a parsimonious selection of subtests (e.g., Axelrod & Woodard, 2000). The release of the Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) requires a reassessment of these predictive formulas as well as the use of indices from ... Read more >>

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology)
[2012, 34(5):531-542]

Cited: 1 time

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Parsimonious estimation of the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition demographically adjusted index scores: immediate and delayed memory.

Justin B Miller, Bradley N Axelrod, Christian Schutte,

The recent release of the Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition contains many improvements from a theoretical and administration perspective, including demographic corrections using the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Although the administration time has been reduced from previous versions, a shortened version may be desirable in certain situations given practical time limitations ... Read more >>

Clin Neuropsychol (The Clinical neuropsychologist)
[2012, 26(3):490-500]

Cited: 1 time

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