Full Text Journal Articles by
Author Barbra A Richardson

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Financial incentives to increase pediatric HIV testing: a randomized trial.

Irene N Njuguna, Anjuli D Wagner, Jillian Neary, Vincent O Omondi, Verlinda A Otieno, Anita Orimba, Cyrus Mugo, Joseph B Babigumira, Carol Levin, Barbra A Richardson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Jennifer Slyker,

<h4>Background</h4>Financial incentives can motivate desirable health behaviors, including adult HIV testing. Data regarding the effectiveness of financial incentives for HIV testing in children, who require urgent testing to prevent mortality, are lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>In a five-arm unblinded randomized controlled trial, adults living with HIV attending 19 HIV clinics in Western Kenya, with ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2021, 35(1):125-130]

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Urine Biomarker Assessment of Infant Adherence to Isoniazid Prophylaxis.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Daniel Leon, Nuttada Panpradist, Barbra A Richardson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Jerphason Mecha, Daniel Matemo, Jaclyn N Escudero, John Kinuthia, Barry Lutz, Grace John-Stewart,

We assessed adherence in an infant tuberculosis prevention trial in Kenya with a urine isoniazid metabolite-detecting dipstick. Ninety-seven infants had 155 assays performed; 77 (49.7%) were found to be positive despite caregiver-reported adherence. Positive assays were associated with maternal secondary education, HIV suppression and no reported missed doses in past ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(1):e43-e45]

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Adolescent transition to adult care for HIV-infected adolescents in Kenya (ATTACH): study protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised trial.

Irene N Njuguna, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Caren W Mburu, Cyrus Mugo, Jillian Neary, Janet Itindi, Alvin Onyango, Barbra A Richardson, Arianna Rubin Means, Monisha Sharma, Bryan J Weiner, Anjuli D Wagner, Laura Oyiengo, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Successfully transitioning adolescents to adult HIV care is critical for optimising outcomes. Disclosure of HIV status, a prerequisite to transition, remains suboptimal in sub-Saharan Africa. Few interventions have addressed both disclosure and transition. An adolescent transition package (ATP) that combines disclosure and transition tools could support transition and improve outcomes.<h4>Methods ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(12):e039972]

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Psychosocial Factors, Condomless Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Women in Serodiscordant Couples in Nairobi, Kenya.

Michela Blain, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, Danielle N Poole, Walter Jaoko, Kate S Wilson, Anne Kaggiah, Jane M Simoni, Carey Farquhar, R Scott McClelland,

This prospective study of HIV-positive Kenyan women in serodiscordant couples examined relationships between psychosocial factors, viral suppression, and condomless sex. Participants were screened for alcohol use disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) annually and depressive symptoms every 6 months. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection was used as a marker for condomless sex. ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2020, 24(12):3346-3358]

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Alcohol use and viral suppression in HIV-positive Kenyan female sex workers on antiretroviral therapy.

Jessica E Long, Barbra A Richardson, George Wanje, Kate S Wilson, Juma Shafi, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Jane M Simoni, John Kinuthia, Walter Jaoko, R Scott McClelland,

<h4>Background</h4>Excessive alcohol intake has been associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The impact of alcohol on viral suppression is particularly important among groups at high risk of HIV transmission, such as female sex workers (FSWs). Few studies have directly evaluated the association between alcohol use and HIV viral ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2020, 15(11):e0242817]

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A risk scoring tool for predicting Kenyan women at high risk of contraceptive discontinuation.

Claire W Rothschild, Barbra A Richardson, Brandon L Guthrie, Peninah Kithao, Tom Omurwa, James Mukabi, Erica M Lokken, Grace John-Stewart, Jennifer A Unger, John Kinuthia, Alison L Drake,

<h4>Objective</h4>We developed and validated a pragmatic risk assessment tool for identifying contraceptive discontinuation among Kenyan women who do not desire pregnancy.<h4>Study design</h4>Within a prospective cohort of contraceptive users, participants were randomly allocated to derivation (<i>n</i> = 558) and validation (<i>n</i> = 186) cohorts. Risk scores were developed by selecting the Cox proportional hazards model ... Read more >>

Contracept X (Contraception: X)
[2020, 2:100045]

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Elevation of cervical C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 levels is associated with HIV-1 acquisition in pregnant and postpartum women.

Michelle C Sabo, Dara A Lehman, Jillian C Pintye, Bingjie Wang, Alison L Drake, John Kinuthia, Lusi Osborn, Daniel Matemo, Barbra A Richardson, Julie Overbaugh, Grace John-Stewart, Susan M Graham,

<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the relationship between cervical cytokine/chemokine concentrations and HIV-1 acquisition in peripartum Kenyan women.<h4>Design</h4>Nested case-control study.<h4>Methods</h4>Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Kenya (the Mama Salama Study), were tested for HIV-1 at 1-3 month intervals during pregnancy and through 9 months postpartum. Cases positive for ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(12):1725-1733]

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Postpartum metabolic syndrome and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein after gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

Alfred O Osoti, Stephanie T Page, Barbra A Richardson, Brandon L Guthrie, John Kinuthia, Stephen J Polyak, Carey Farquhar,

<b>Objective: </b>To evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation and an independent predictor for cardiovascular disease overall and in subgroups of women with/without pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension (GHT).<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A prospective cohort study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Women with pre-eclampsia ... Read more >>

Int J Gynaecol Obstet (International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics)
[2020, 151(3):443-449]

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Impact of a two-way short message service (SMS) to support maternally administered childhood mid-upper arm circumference monitoring and expand malnutrition screening in Kenya: the Mama Aweza trial protocol.

Kirkby D Tickell, Mareme M Diakhate, Jeanne L Goodman, Jennifer A Unger, Barbra A Richardson, Arianna Rubin Means, Keshet Ronen, Carol Levin, Esther M Choo, Catherine Achieng, Mary Masheti, Benson O Singa, Christine J McGrath,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Over 52 million children under 5 years of age become wasted each year, but only 17% of these children receive treatment. Novel methods to identify and deliver treatment to malnourished children are necessary to achieve the sustainable development goals target for child health. Mobile health (mHealth) programmes may provide an opportunity to ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(9):e036660]

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Brief Report: Incidence and Correlates of Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Kenyan Sex Workers.

Erica M Lokken, George Wanje, Barbra A Richardson, Esther Mutunga, Kate S Wilson, Walter Jaoko, John Kinuthia, Raymond Scott McClelland,

INTRODUCTION:The incidence of pregnancy in female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV is not well characterized. METHODS:Current and former FSWs living with HIV and enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Mombasa, Kenya, were followed monthly to ascertain sexual behavior and underwent quarterly pregnancy testing. Pregnancies were considered planned, mistimed, ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2020, 85(1):11-17]

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Examining the relationship between diarrhea and linear growth in Kenyan HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

Emily L Deichsel, Grace C John-Stewart, Judd L Walson, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Barbra A Richardson, Brandon L Guthrie, Carey Farquhar, Rose Bosire, Patricia B Pavlinac,

<h4>Background</h4>Diarrhea in infancy can compromise linear growth and this relationship is likely influenced by diarrhea severity, number of episodes, and the timing of those episodes. HIV exposed, uninfected infants (HEU) have higher risk of growth faltering, infectious morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants and may be representative of children particularly ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2020, 15(7):e0235704]

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Association between Vaginal Bacterial Microbiota and Vaginal Yeast Colonization.

McKenna C Eastment, Jennifer E Balkus, Barbra A Richardson, Sujatha Srinivasan, Joshua Kimani, Omu Anzala, Jane Schwebke, Tina L Fiedler, David N Fredricks, R Scott McClelland,

<h4>Background</h4>Vaginal yeast is frequently found with Lactobacillus-dominant microbiota. The relationship between vaginal yeast and other bacteria has not been well characterized.<h4>Methods</h4>These analyses utilized data from the Preventing Vaginal Infections trial. Relative abundance of vaginal bacteria from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantities of 10 vaginal bacteria using taxon-directed PCR ... Read more >>

J Infect Dis (The Journal of infectious diseases)
[2020, :]

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Enhancing natural killer cell function with gp41-targeting bispecific antibodies to combat HIV infection.

Nitya S Ramadoss, Nancy Q Zhao, Barbra A Richardson, Philip M Grant, Peter S Kim, Catherine A Blish,

OBJECTIVE(S):The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the activity of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) to enhance natural killer (NK) cell antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HIV-infected cells. DESIGN:These bsAbs are based on patient-derived antibodies targeting the conserved gp41 stump of HIV Env, and also incorporate a high-affinity single ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(9):1313-1323]

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A randomized controlled trial of isoniazid to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Kenyan HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, A J Warr, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Daniel Matemo, Lisa M Cranmer, Jerphason Mecha, Jaclyn N Escudero, Thomas R Hawn, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Background</h4>HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants in endemic settings are at high risk of tuberculosis (TB). For infants, progression from primary M. tuberculosis infection to TB disease can be rapid. We assessed whether isoniazid (INH) prevents primary Mtb infection.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a randomized non-blinded controlled trial enrolling HEU infants 6 weeks of age ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Clinic-level and individual-level factors that influence HIV viral suppression in adolescents and young adults: a national survey in Kenya.

Irene Njuguna, Jillian Neary, Caren Mburu, Danae Black, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus Mugo, Yolanda Evans, Brandon Guthrie, Janet Itindi, Alvin Onyango, Laura Oyiengo, Barbra A Richardson, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart,

OBJECTIVES:To determine clinic-level and individual-level correlates of viral suppression among HIV-positive adolescents and young adult (AYA) aged 10-24 years receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN:Multilevel cross-sectional analysis using viral load data and facility surveys from HIV treatment programs throughout Kenya. METHODS:We abstracted medical records of AYA in HIV care, analyzed the ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2020, 34(7):1065-1074]

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Older age at infection and nulliparity are associated with long-term non-progression in female sex workers infected with non-subtype B HIV-1.

Vernon Mochache, Barbra A Richardson, Linnet N Masese, Susan M Graham, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, John Kinuthia, Walter Jaoko, Julie Overbaugh, R Scott McClelland,

Int J STD AIDS (International journal of STD & AIDS)
[2020, 31(6):510-516]

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Influenza-Induced Interferon Lambda Response Is Associated With Longer Time to Delivery Among Pregnant Kenyan Women.

Christof Seiler, Nicholas L Bayless, Rosemary Vergara, Jillian Pintye, John Kinuthia, Lusi Osborn, Daniel Matemo, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Susan Holmes, Catherine A Blish,

Specific causes of preterm birth remain unclear. Several recent studies have suggested that immune changes during pregnancy are associated with the timing of delivery, yet few studies have been performed in low-income country settings where the rates of preterm birth are the highest. We conducted a retrospective nested case-control evaluation ... Read more >>

Front Immunol (Frontiers in immunology)
[2020, 11:452]

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Pilot evaluation of a standardized patient actor training intervention to improve HIV care for adolescents and young adults in Kenya.

Cyrus Mugo, Kate Wilson, Anjuli D Wagner, Irene W Inwani, Kevin Means, David Bukusi, Jennifer Slyker, Grace John-Stewart, Barbra A Richardson, Margaret Nduati, Helen Moraa, Dalton Wamalwa, Pamela Kohler,

Poor retention in HIV care remains a major problem for Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA). A Standardized Patient (SP) clinical training intervention was developed to improve healthcare worker (HCW) "adolescent-friendly" competencies in Kenya. Professional actors were trained to portray HIV-infected AYA according to standardized scripts. HCWs completed a 2-day SP ... Read more >>

AIDS Care (AIDS care)
[2019, 31(10):1250-1254]

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Endothelial Activation, Innate Immune Activation, and Inflammation Are Associated With Postbronchodilator Airflow Limitation and Obstruction Among Adolescents Living With HIV.

Engi F Attia, Pavan K Bhatraju, Matthew Triplette, Susanna Kosamo, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Timothy Eoin West, Barbra A Richardson, Jerry S Zifodya, Sherry Eskander, Christine D Njiru, Danson Warui, Gregory A Kicska, Michael H Chung, Kristina Crothers, Wayne Conrad Liles, Susan M Graham,

<h4>Background</h4>Chronic inflammation, innate immune activation, T-cell imbalance and endothelial activation have been linked with lung diseases. We sought to determine whether markers of these pathophysiologic pathways were associated with spirometry and chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH).<h4>Setting</h4>Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases in Nairobi, Kenya.<h4>Methods</h4>We ... Read more >>

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999))
[2020, 83(3):267-277]

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Impact of preconception vaginal microbiota on women's risk of spontaneous preterm birth: protocol for a prospective case-cohort study.

Erica M Lokken, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Sujatha Srinivasan, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, Sophia Lannon, Walter Jaoko, Hudson Alumera, Arthur Kemoli, Emily Fay, G John-Stewart, David N Fredricks, R Scott McClelland,

INTRODUCTION:Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginal microbiota disruption during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), but clinical trials of BV treatment during pregnancy have shown little or no benefit. An alternative hypothesis is that vaginal bacteria present around conception may lead to SPTB by compromising the ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(2):e035186]

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Newly diagnosed HIV positive children: a unique index case to improve HIV diagnosis and linkage to care of parents.

Jillian Neary, Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra A Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Anjuli D Wagner,

Newly diagnosed HIV positive children may be unique index cases to identify undiagnosed parents. Data was used from the Pediatric Urgent Start of HAART (NCT02063880) trial, which enrolled hospitalized, ART-naïve, HIV positive children ages 0-12 years in Kenya. Exact McNemar's tests were used to compare proportions of mothers and fathers ... Read more >>

AIDS Care (AIDS care)
[2020, 32(11):1400-1405]

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Infant TB Infection Prevention Study (iTIPS): a randomised trial protocol evaluating isoniazid to prevent M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed uninfected children.

Sylvia M LaCourse, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, A J Warr, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Daniel Matemo, Lisa M Cranmer, Jaclyn N Escudero, Thomas R Hawn, Grace C John-Stewart,

INTRODUCTION:HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants in tuberculosis (TB) endemic settings are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and TB disease, even in the absence of known Mtb exposure. Because infancy is a time of rapid progression from primary infection to active TB disease, it is important to define when ... Read more >>

BMJ Open (BMJ open)
[2020, 10(1):e034308]

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A Mixed-Methods Study Examining Adherence to and Acceptability of Intravaginal Rings for HIV Prevention: Behavioral Results of MTN-027.

José A Bauermeister, Jesse M Golinkoff, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Daniela López, Craig J Hoesley, Beatrice A Chen, Peter Anderson, Charlene S Dezzutti, Julie Strizki, Carol Sprinkle, Faye Heard, Wayne Hall, Cindy Jacobson, Jennifer Berthiaume, Ashley Mayo, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna Piper, ,

Intravaginal rings (IVR) containing antiretroviral drugs are a promising method for HIV prevention. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate the acceptability of four IVRs used continuously for 28 days as part of a Phase I trial (N = 48 HIV-negative women; ages 18-45). Adherence was high throughout the trial, yet 30% ... Read more >>

AIDS Behav (AIDS and behavior)
[2020, 24(2):607-616]

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Male Partner Linkage to Clinic-Based Services for Sexually Transmitted Infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Services Following Couple Home-Based Education and Testing.

Jennifer Mark, John Kinuthia, Alfred O Osoti, Molly A Gone, Victor Asila, Daisy Krakowiak, Monisha Sharma, Saloni Parikh, Quy T Ton, Barbra A Richardson, Carey Farquhar, Alison C Roxby,

BACKGROUND:Home-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and education has increased HIV test uptake and access to health services among men. We studied how a home-based antenatal intervention influenced male partner utilization of clinic-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services, linkage to HIV care and medical circumcision. METHODS:We conducted a ... Read more >>

Sex Transm Dis (Sexually transmitted diseases)
[2019, 46(11):716-721]

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Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Alison C Roxby, Krista Yuhas, Carey Farquhar, Rose Bosire, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Barbra A Richardson, Patricia A Totten, Grace John-Stewart,

<h4>Objective</h4>Many sexually transmitted infections increase risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, but the effect of Mycoplasma genitalium is not known. We hypothesized that M. genitalium infection would be common among HIV-infected pregnant women and could be associated with in-utero and intrapartum MTCT.<h4>Design</h4>Observational case-cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>The current study used specimens from ... Read more >>

AIDS (AIDS (London, England))
[2019, 33(14):2211-2217]

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