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Amblyopia

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Layer-specific Loss and Compensation of Parvocellular Response in Subcortical Pathways of Adult Human Amblyopia

Wen Wen, Yue Wang, Sheng He, Hong Liu, Chen Zhao, Peng Zhang,

Abnormal visual experience in critical period causes amblyopia or lazy eye, reducing visual abilities even with corrected optics. A long-standing question is where in the human visual system does the amblyopic deficit arise. In particular, whether amblyopia induces selective deficits of the magnocellular (M) or the parvocellular (P) geniculostriate pathways, ... Read more >>

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Can ocular dominance plasticity provide a general index to visual plasticity to personalize treatment in amblyopia?

Chunwen Tao, Zhifen He, Yiya Chen, Jiawei Zhou, Robert Hess,

Purpose: Recently, Lunghi et al showed that amblyopic eye's visual acuity per se after 2 months of occlusion therapy could be predicted by a homeostatic plasticity, i.e., the temporary shift of ocular dominance observed after a 2-hour monocular deprivation, in children with anisometropic amblyopia (Lunghi et al., 2016). In this ... Read more >>

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Spectacle correction versus no spectacles for prevention of strabismus in hyperopic children.

Lisa Jones-Jordan, Xue Wang, Roberta W Scherer, Donald O Mutti,

BACKGROUND:Hyperopia in infancy requires accommodative effort to bring images into focus. Prolonged accommodative effort has been associated with an increased risk of strabismus. Strabismus may result in asthenopia and intermittent diplopia, and makes near work tasks difficult to complete. Spectacles to correct hyperopic refractive error is believed to prevent the ... Read more >>

Cochrane Database Syst Rev (The Cochrane database of systematic reviews)
[2020, 4:CD007738]

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Quantitative analysis of macular and peripapillary microvasculature in adults with anisometropic amblyopia.

Gamze Dereli Can,

INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to compare the macular and peripapillary capillary vessel density (CVD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in amblyopic eyes of adults with their fellow eyes and with eyes of healthy controls using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A). METHODS:A total of 34 eyes of 17 patients with ... Read more >>

Int Ophthalmol (International ophthalmology)
[2020, :]

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Comment on the article: multifocal electroretinography in amblyopia.

Mirjana Bjeloš, Mladen Bušić, Ana Križanović, Biljana Kuzmanović Elabjer,

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie)
[2020, :]

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Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia.

Aileen Antonio-Santos, S Swaroop Vedula, Sarah R Hatt, Christine Powell,

BACKGROUND:Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of ... Read more >>

Cochrane Database Syst Rev (The Cochrane database of systematic reviews)
[2020, 3:CD005136]

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Reply to the letter to the editor: Multifocal electroretinography in amblyopia.

Christiane Al-Haddad, Alaa Bou Ghannam, Elza Rachid,

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie)
[2020, :]

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Refinement strategies in photoscreening for the detection of amblyopia risk factors in 12-to-24-month-old children.

Yao-Lin Liu, Chia-Jung Lee, Jao-Shwann Liang, Shu-Wen Chang, Tzu-Hsun Tsai,

PURPOSE:To establish an appropriate clinical protocol for early photoscreening in 12-to-24-month-old children at pediatric well-baby clinics. METHODS:This prospective study included a total of 277 children aged 12-24 months who visited a pediatric well-baby clinic. All participants underwent: 1) inquiry of medical history; 2) photoscreening with PlusoptiX A12; and 3) comprehensive ... Read more >>

J. Formos. Med. Assoc. (Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi)
[2020, :]

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Ophthalmic Pathology in the Offspring of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Olga Alvarez-Bulnes, Anna Monés-Llivina, Lluís Cavero-Roig, Paula Sol Ventura, Josefina Llagostera-Benedico, Carme Valls-Sirera, Gemma Talló-Catarineu,

BACKGROUND:Gestational diabetes (GD) occurs in 5.8% to 25.1% of pregnant women. This disorder has been linked with intrauterine growth delays, congenital anomalies, and neurobehavioral disorders following birth. As to ophthalmological effects, changes in macular thickness and hypoplasia of the upper quadrant of the papilla have been described. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether ... Read more >>

Matern Child Health J (Maternal and child health journal)
[2020, 24(4):524-529]

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Subanesthetic ketamine reactivates adult cortical plasticity to restore vision from amblyopia

Steven Grieco, Xin Qiao, Xiaoting Zheng, Yongjun Liu, Lujia Chen, Hai Zhang, Jeffrey Gavornik, Cary Lai, Sunil Gandhi, Todd Holmes, Xiangmin Xu,

Summary Subanesthetic ketamine evokes rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in human patients. The mechanism for ketamine’s effects remains elusive, but ketamine may broadly modulate brain plasticity processes. We show that single-dose ketamine reactivates adult mouse visual cortical plasticity and promotes functional recovery of visual acuity defects from amblyopia. Ketamine specifically ... Read more >>

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Pituitary apoplexy secondary to pituitary macroadenoma, a diagnostic challenge

Ángel Sánchez-Tinajero, Danna Patricia Ruiz-Santillán,

Background:Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome reflecting a rapid expansion of sellar content, typically secondary to a stroke in a previous pituitary adenoma. This pathology is a rare complication, and, therefore, underdiagnosed. The consequences of a delay in the diagnosis are translated into serious functional and even deadly complications for ... Read more >>

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc (Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social)
[2020, 57(4):259-263]

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Influence of prenatal environment and birth parameters on amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia.

Gareth Lingham, David A Mackey, Paul G Sanfilippo, Jenny Mountain, Alex W Hewitt, John P Newnham, Seyhan Yazar,

PURPOSE:To report the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia in a young adult population at a single center in Australia and to investigate the underlying prenatal and early-life risk factors. METHODS:Participants in the Raine Study have been followed from mid-gestation (n = 2,868 newborns) to young adulthood. At age 20 ... Read more >>

J AAPOS (Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus)
[2020, :]

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Effect of plum-blossom needling versus tropicamide eye drops on adolescent myopia: protocol for a randomized crossover trial.

Liang Chen, Yuanbo Liang, Jingwei Zheng, Meiping Xu, Huanyun Yu, Lewei Tang,

OBJECTIVE:Myopia is the most common eye problem and affects an estimated 28.3% of the global population. Its incidence is increasing annually. Myopia treatment is limited to correcting visual acuity. Acupuncture is one of the main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and includes plum-blossom needling, which has been widely used for ... Read more >>

J Tradit Chin Med (Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan)
[2020, 40(2):333-339]

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Evaluation of All Causes of Visual Function Loss in Children With Congenital Blepharoptosis.

Ozlem Ural, Mehmet C Mocan, Ugur Erdener,

PURPOSE:To evaluate the overall frequency of visual function loss in pediatric patients with congenital blepharoptosis. METHODS:This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary center. The clinical records of patients younger than 18 years who were diagnosed as having congenital blephroptosis, underwent surgery, and had at least 1 year of postoperative ... Read more >>

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus (Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus)
[2020, 57(2):97-102]

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Accuracy of noncycloplegic photorefraction using Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in preschool children in an Indian eye clinic.

Manasvini Sharma, Suma Ganesh, Shailja Tibrewal, Shalinder Sabharwal, Neha Sachdeva, Mohd Adil, Jyotsana Chaudhary, Zeeshan Siddiqui,

Purpose:To evaluate the accuracy of Spot photoscreener (PS) as a noncycloplegic photorefractor in detecting amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) in preschool children in an Indian eye clinic setting. Also, to derive appropriate cutoff values for screening to obtain maximum sensitivity and specificity of the device in detecting ARF. Methods:This was a ... Read more >>

Indian J Ophthalmol (Indian journal of ophthalmology)
[2020, 68(3):504-509]

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Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Associated Factors Among Primary Schoolchildren in Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia.

Yemisrach Hailu, Desta Hiko, Tamrat Shaweno,

Background:Visual impairment (VI) refers to reduction of vision resulting in a lower than normal visual acuity (VA). Although school programs are recommended for early detection and timely interventions of VI, available information with regard to prevalence of VI and associated factors among primary schoolchildren near to the main city, Addis ... Read more >>

Clin Ophthalmol (Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.))
[2020, 14:767-774]

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Unilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Following Perinatal Stroke of the Middle Cerebral Artery.

Jeremy J Kudrna, Stephen C Dryden, Cody R Richardson, Asim F Choudhri, Natalie C Kerr,

The authors describe a case of unilateral abducens nerve palsy following perinatal stroke of the middle cerebral artery. A 1-year-old boy presented with left eye esotropia but no other ocular abnormalities. The patient's history, examination, and diagnostic tests were consistent with abducens nerve palsy. He underwent left medial rectus recession ... Read more >>

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus (Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus)
[2020, 57:e30-e33]

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[Timing of congenital cataract surgery : Amblyopia versus aphakic glaucoma].

C Kuhli-Hattenbach, M Fronius, T Kohnen,

A congenital cataract is a rare disorder, which is associated with a high risk of amblyopia. Ophthalmologists are faced with many diagnostic and surgical challenges in the management of this disease. Older children can undergo primary treatment with an intraocular lens, whereas children younger than 12 months of age usually initially remain aphakic. ... Read more >>

Ophthalmologe (Der Ophthalmologe)
[2020, 117(3):190-198]

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Active efficient coding explains the development of binocular vision and its failure in amblyopia.

Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram E Shi, Jochen Triesch,

The development of vision during the first months of life is an active process that comprises the learning of appropriate neural representations and the learning of accurate eye movements. While it has long been suspected that the two learning processes are coupled, there is still no widely accepted theoretical framework ... Read more >>

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2020, 117(11):6156-6162]

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Optimum timing of screening for amblyopia.

Jonathan M Holmes,

J AAPOS (Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus)
[2020, :]

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Comparison of surgery versus observation for small angle intermittent exotropia.

Jae Yun Sung, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong-Min Hwang,

In young children with small angle exotropia, making decisions for the individual patient whether to perform surgery or not, and choosing the optimal time for surgical intervention are quite difficult. We aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of small angle intermittent exotropia of 20 prism diopters (PD) or less after ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):4631]

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Long-term visual and treatment outcomes of whole-population pre-school visual screening (PSVS) in children: a longitudinal, retrospective, population-based cohort study.

Una O'Colmain, Yan Ning Neo, Claire Gilmour, Caroline J MacEwen,

BACKGROUND:This study reports the long-term visual and treatment outcomes in a whole-population, orthoptic-delivered pre-school visual screening (PSVS) programme in Scotland and further examines their associations with socioeconomic backgrounds and home circumstances. METHODS:Retrospective case review was conducted on 430 children who failed PSVS. Outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ... Read more >>

Eye (Lond) (Eye (London, England))
[2020, :]

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Commentary: Pediatric infectious keratitis.

Manpreet Kaur, Jeewan S Titiyal,

Indian J Ophthalmol (Indian journal of ophthalmology)
[2020, 68(3):440-441]

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Reduced stereoacuity as a predictor for clinically significant convergence insufficiency.

Ari Leshno, Chaim Stolovitch, Ofira Zloto, Sharon Blum Meirovitch, Daphna Mezad-Koursh,

BACKGROUND:Stereoacuity relies on accurate binocular alignment. Convergence insufficiency (CI) a binocular motor disorder, interferes with near work. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association between convergence amplitude (CA) and stereoacuity in a large paediatric cohort. METHODS:Retrospective chart review included patients aged 6-17 years; excluded patients with amblyopia, manifest strabismus or visual acuity <20/30 ... Read more >>

Br J Ophthalmol (The British journal of ophthalmology)
[2020, :]

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Evaluation of the Spot Vision Screener in comparison with the orthoptic examination in visual screening in 3-5 year-old schoolchildren.

L Sigronde, J Blanc, S Aho, C Pallot, A-M Bron, C Creuzot-Garcher,

PURPOSE:To evaluate the Spot Vision Screener (SVS) compared with the orthoptic examination for detection of amblyopia risk factors in preschools. METHODS:This prospective study included children with a visual screening organized by the department of "le" (PMI) in Côte d'Or (Burgundy, France), between June 2017 and April 2018. All children were ... Read more >>

J Fr Ophtalmol (Journal francais d'ophtalmologie)
[2020, :]

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