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Amatoxin Toxicity

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Rapid, Sensitive, and Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Lethal Amatoxins in Urine.

Candace S Bever, Kenneth D Swanson, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Michael Filigenzi, Robert H Poppenga, Jennifer Kaae, Luisa W Cheng, Larry H Stanker,

Globally, mushroom poisonings cause about 100 human deaths each year, with thousands of people requiring medical assistance. Dogs are also susceptible to mushroom poisonings and require medical assistance. Cyclopeptides, and more specifically amanitins (or amatoxins, here), are the mushroom poison that causes the majority of these deaths. Current methods (predominantly ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2020, 12(2):]

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Selected Fungal Natural Products with Antimicrobial Properties.

Dorota Jakubczyk, Francois Dussart,

Fungal natural products and their effects have been known to humankind for hundreds of years. For example, toxic ergot alkaloids produced by filamentous fungi growing on rye poisoned thousands of people and livestock throughout the Middle Ages. However, their later medicinal applications, followed by the discovery of the first class ... Read more >>

Molecules (Molecules (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 25(4):]

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A Convergent Total Synthesis of the Death Cap Toxin α-Amanitin.

Mary-Ann J Siegert, Caroline H Knittel, Roderich D Süssmuth,

The toxic bicyclic octapeptide α-amanitin is mostly found in different species of the mushroom genus Amanita, with the death cap (Amanita phalloides) as one of the most prominent members. Due to its high selective inhibition of RNA polymerase II, which is directly linked to its high toxicity, particularly to hepatocytes, ... Read more >>

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English))
[2020, 59(14):5500-5504]

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Fatal Immunohaemolysis after the Consumption of the Poison Pax Mushroom: A Focus on the Diagnosis of the Paxillus Syndrome with the Aid of Two Case Reports.

Andreas Stöver, Bettina Haberl, Claudia Helmreich, Werner Müller, Frank Musshoff, Helena Fels, Matthias Graw, Olwen Groth,

This retrospective report focuses on the diagnosis of the Paxillus syndrome, based on two fatal cases of haemolysis following the consumption of Paxillus involutus. These mushrooms are still consumed regularly, despite earlier reports of life-threatening autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Such cases are nevertheless rare, and thus far no toxin could be ... Read more >>

Diagnostics (Basel) (Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland))
[2019, 9(4):]

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Mushroom intoxication, a fatal condition in Romanian children: Two case reports.

Cristina Oana Mărginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ, Maria Oana Mărginean,

RATIONALE:Approximately 5000 species of wild mushroom are reported worldwide, of which 100 are documented as poisonous and <10 are fatal. The clinical picture of patients with wild mushroom intoxication depends mostly on the type of ingested mushroom, ranging from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to organ failure and death. PATIENT CONCERNS:We report ... Read more >>

Medicine (Baltimore) (Medicine)
[2019, 98(41):e17574]

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Mushroom Poisoning Presenting With Acute Kidney Injury and Elevated Transaminases.

Mathilde Beaumier, Jean-Philippe Rioult, Marie Georges, Isabelle Brocheriou, Thierry Lobbedez, Antoine Lanot,

Kidney Int Rep (Kidney international reports)
[2019, 4(6):877-881]

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Toxicological profile of Amanita virosa - A narrative review.

Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Gholamreza Karimi, Ramin Rezaee,

Mushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mushroom species are considered "poisonous" as ... Read more >>

Toxicol Rep (Toxicology Reports)
[2019, 6:143-150]

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Notes from the Field: Acute Intoxications from Consumption of Amanita muscaria Mushrooms - Minnesota, 2018.

Joanne Taylor, Stacy Holzbauer, Danushka Wanduragala, Alexander Ivaskovic, Ron Spinosa, Kirk Smith, Justin Corcoran, Ashley Jensen,

MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report)
[2019, 68(21):483-484]

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Recent Advances in the Discovery and Biosynthetic Study of Eukaryotic RiPP Natural Products.

Shangwen Luo, Shi-Hui Dong,

Natural products have played indispensable roles in drug development and biomedical research. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a group of fast-expanding natural products attribute to genome mining efforts in recent years. Most RiPP natural products were discovered from bacteria, yet many eukaryotic cyclic peptides turned out to ... Read more >>

Molecules (Molecules (Basel, Switzerland))
[2019, 24(8):]

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CDFT-Based Reactivity Descriptors as a Useful MEDT Chemoinformatics Tool for the Study of the Virotoxin Family of Fungal Peptides.

Norma Flores-Holguín, Juan Frau, Daniel Glossman-Mitnik,

Virotoxins are monocyclic peptides formed by at least five different compounds: alaviroidin, viroisin, deoxoviroisin, viroidin and deoxovirodin. These are toxic peptides singularly found in Amanita virosa mushrooms. Here we perform computational studies on the structural and electronic conformations of these peptides using the MN12SX/Def2TZVP/H2O chemistry model to investigate their chemical ... Read more >>

Molecules (Molecules (Basel, Switzerland))
[2019, 24(15):]

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Novel approach in whole genome mining and transcriptome analysis reveal conserved RiPPs in Trichoderma spp.

Gabriel A Vignolle, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner, Christian Derntl,

BACKGROUND:Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a highly diverse group of secondary metabolites (SM) of bacterial and fungal origin. While RiPPs have been intensively studied in bacteria, little is known about fungal RiPPs. In Fungi only six classes of RiPPs are described. Current strategies for genome mining are ... Read more >>

BMC Genomics (BMC Genomics)
[2020, 21(1):258]

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Extracorporeal treatment in children with acute severe poisoning.

Xiaomei Sun, Xiuying Chen, Jing Lu, Yuhong Tao, Lijuan Zhang, Liqun Dong,

Acute poisoning in children is a clinical emergency. Prompt and effective treatment is critical for life-threatening poisoning. Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) is a practical option for enhancing the elimination of poisons.We conducted a retrospective observational study on 338 children with severe acute poisoning who received ECTR during hospitalization from January 2010 ... Read more >>

Medicine (Baltimore) (Medicine)
[2019, 98(47):e18086]

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Effect of Biliary Drainage on the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in Beagles.

Jian Sun, Yu-Tao Zhang, Yu-Min Niu, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Jun-Jia Lu, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun,

Amatoxin poisoning induces delayed-onset acute liver failure, which are responsible for more than 90% of deaths in mushroom poisoning. It has been postulated from animal and human studies that biliary drainage interrupting enterohepatic amatoxin circulation may affect amatoxin poisoning. Dogs were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2018, 10(6):]

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Mushroom Poisoning-A 17 Year Retrospective Study at a Level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland.

Sarah A Keller, Jolanta Klukowska-Rötzler, Katharina M Schenk-Jaeger, Hugo Kupferschmidt, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Beat Lehmann, Evangelia Liakoni,

The consequences of mushroom poisoning range from mild, mostly gastrointestinal, disturbances to organ failure or even death. This retrospective study describes presentations related to mushroom poisoning at an emergency department in Bern (Switzerland) from January 2001 to October 2017. Gastrointestinal disturbances were reported in 86% of the 51 cases. The ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2018, 15(12):]

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A New Conjugation Method Used for the Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of Amanitin, a Deadly Mushroom Toxin.

Candace S Bever, Bogdan Barnych, Robert Hnasko, Luisa W Cheng, Larry H Stanker,

One of the deadliest mushrooms is the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides. The most toxic constituent is &alpha;-amanitin, a bicyclic octapeptide, which damages the liver and kidneys. To develop a new tool for detecting this toxin, polyclonal antibodies were generated and characterized. Both &alpha;- and &beta;-amanitin were coupled to carrier ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2018, 10(7):]

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Mushroom poisoning: A proposed new clinical classification.

Julian White, Scott A Weinstein, Luc De Haro, Regis Bédry, Andreas Schaper, Barry H Rumack, Thomas Zilker,

Mushroom poisoning is a significant and increasing form of toxin-induced-disease. Existing classifications of mushroom poisoning do not include more recently described new syndromes of mushroom poisoning and this can impede the diagnostic process. We reviewed the literature on mushroom poisoning, concentrating on the period since the current major classification published ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2019, 157:53-65]

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Cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest related to mushroom poisoning: A case report.

Shu Li, Qing-Bian Ma, Ci Tian, Hong-Xia Ge, Yang Liang, Zhi-Guo Guo, Cheng-Duo Zhang, Bei Yao, Jia-Ning Geng, Fran Riley,

BACKGROUND:Mushroom exposure is a global health issue. The manifestations of mushroom poisoning (MP) may vary. Some species have been reported as rhabdomyolytic, hallucinogenic, or gastrointestinal poisons. Critical or even fatal MPs are mostly attributable to Amanita phalloides, with the development of severe liver or renal failure. Myocardial injury and even ... Read more >>

World J Clin Cases (World journal of clinical cases)
[2019, 7(16):2330-2335]

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Simultaneous identification and characterization of amanita toxins using liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its applications.

Chunlei Li, Hongyan Qian, Tao Bao, Guangde Yang, Sicen Wang, Xinshe Liu,

Rapid and accurate identification of multiple toxins for clinical diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning cases is still a challenge, especially with the lack of authentic references. In this study, we developed an effective method for simultaneous identification of amanita peptide toxins by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection ... Read more >>

Toxicol. Lett. (Toxicology letters)
[2018, 296:95-104]

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Chemical reactivity and bioactivity properties of the Phallotoxin family of fungal peptides based on Conceptual Peptidology and DFT study.

Norma Flores-Holguín, Juan Frau, Daniel Glossman-Mitnik,

A methodology based on the concepts that arise from Density Functional Theory (CDFT) was chosen for the calculation of the global and local reactivity descriptors of the Phallotoxin family of fungal peptides. The determination of the active sites for the molecules has been achieved by resorting some descriptors within Molecular ... Read more >>

Heliyon (Heliyon)
[2019, 5(8):e02335]

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Acute renal injury cause by confirmed Psilocybe cubensis mushroom ingestion.

Emily Austin, Hilary S Myron, Richard K Summerbell, Connie Mackenzie,

Psilocybe mushrooms are consumed for their hallucinogenic properties. Fortunately, there are relatively few adverse effects associated with their consumption. This is the first reported case of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to confirmed ingestion of Psilocybe cubensis mushroom. A 15-year-old male developed symptomatic AKI 36 h post-ingestion of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms. ... Read more >>

Med Mycol Case Rep (Medical Mycology Case Reports)
[2019, 23:55-57]

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Development and Evaluation of Isothermal Amplification Methods for Rapid Detection of Lethal Amanita Species.

Zhengmi He, Yuting Su, Sainan Li, Pan Long, Ping Zhang, Zuohong Chen,

In the present work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) methods were developed to detect and distinguish different lethal Amanita species. Specific LAMP primers and HRCA padlock probes for species-specific identification and a set of universal LAMP primers for lethal Amanita species were designed and tested. ... Read more >>

Front Microbiol (Frontiers in Microbiology)
[2019, 10:1523]

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Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom Poisonings: Species, Toxidromes, Treatments, and Outcomes.

James H Diaz,

Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet ... Read more >>

Wilderness Environ Med (Wilderness & environmental medicine)
[2018, 29(1):111-118]

Cited: 3 times

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Toxicity and toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in beagle dogs.

Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun,

In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2018, 143:59-67]

Cited: 2 times

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Clinical characteristics and outcome of toxicity from Amanita mushroom poisoning.

Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul,

To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases.We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015.There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male ... Read more >>

Int J Gen Med (International journal of general medicine)
[2017, 10:395-400]

Cited: 1 time

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Epidemiology and clinics of mushroom poisoning in Northern Italy: A 21-year retrospective analysis.

G Cervellin, I Comelli, G Rastelli, F Sanchis-Gomar, F Negri, C De Luca, G Lippi,

BACKGROUND:Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. METHODS:Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, ... Read more >>

Hum Exp Toxicol (Human & experimental toxicology)
[2018, 37(7):697-703]

Cited: 2 times

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