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Impact of Nutrition on the Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Injuries in Critically Ill Patients: An Integrative Review.

PMID: 36125455 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.1097/01.asw.0000855748.02063.99 (read at publisher's website )

Julia Braga da Silveira, Gabrielle Mello Teixeira, Miriam Viviane Baron, Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert,

<h4>Objective</h4>To review the main scientific evidence on nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries (PIs) in critically ill adult patients.<h4>Data sources</h4>The searches were carried out in several scientific databases, namely, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Public MEDLINE (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), and Web of Science. The MeSH terms used were "pressure injury", "nutrition", and "intensive care".<h4>Study selection</h4>Studies published between January 1, 2005, and July 1, 2020, were included. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The searches were carried out in August 2020. The authors selected studies available in Portuguese, English, and Spanish.<h4>Data extraction</h4>Two independent researchers conducted the searches and read the article titles and abstracts. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were fully evaluated. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus, and when there was no consensus, a senior researcher was consulted. Data extraction was performed using a standardized form.<h4>Data synthesis</h4>Level-of-evidence analysis according to the type of study followed the classification proposed by the Oxford Center Evidence-Based Medicine. The evidence available on the use of standard enteral nutrition therapy and enteral nutrition therapy enriched with hyperprotein and hypercaloric nutrition supplements as well as the addition of zinc, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and vitamins (A, C, D, and E) is limited in terms of supporting a specific nutrition support modality in the prevention and treatment of PI in the intensive care population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Malnutrition negatively impacts both the prevention and healing of PIs. The evidence available on the use of standard enteral nutrition therapy versus enrichment with nutrition supplements is too limited to support a specific nutrition modality in the prevention and treatment of PI in the intensive care population.

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