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A prediction model for nonpersistence or nonadherence to direct oral anticoagulants in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation.

PMID: 36125062 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.18553/jmcp.2022.28.10.1161 (read at publisher's website )

Lucas Wirbka, Carmen Ruff, Walter E Haefeli, Andreas D Meid,

<b>BACKGROUND:</b> Medication adherence and persistence is fundamental for drug effectiveness, which is also true for the prevention of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Adherence to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as first-line agents is often high in the early posthospital period. However, adherence often sharply declines (or eventually leads to nonpersistence) in the post-discharge ambulatory period, rendering stroke prevention ineffective. If patients at high risk of nonpersistence or nonadherence could be identified early, they could be offered early intervention measures to improve adherence and/or persistence. <b>OBJECTIVE:</b> To develop and internally validate a predictive model for medication nonadherence and nonpersistence to DOAC treatment in patients with AF after discharge using health insurance claims data. <b>METHODS:</b> We selected health insurance claims data between 2011 and 2016 from 8,055 patients with AF who were newly treated with rivaroxaban or apixaban after a hospital admission for stroke, transient ischemic attack, or AF. In the post-discharge ambulatory period, medication adherence was derived as the proportion of days covered, calculated from drug dispensation data. A maximum permissible 90-day gap between the end of a prescription and the next dispensation was used to estimate persistence. Candidate predictors were either derived from the index hospital admission or summarized from the previous year (eg, comorbidities or medication adherence to long-term treatments, such as ß-blockers, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, statins, and thyroid hormones). A regularized logistic regression model was fitted using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator in a split-sample approach (66.7% training data; 33.3% test data) to predict a composite of medication nonadherence/nonpersistence. Discrimination performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the maximum sensitivity/specificity, and the scaled Brier score. A calibration curve fitted by linear regression was used to evaluate model calibration. <b>RESULTS:</b> The average age of the study participants was 79.7 years, 62% were female, and 3,515 patients (44%) were adherent and persistent (median follow-up of 185 days). Medication adherence to previous long-term treatments showed strong predictive properties. The developed model discriminated well (concordance statistic: 0.755), was well calibrated, and showed a scaled Brier score of 0.202 for identification of patients at risk. <b>CONCLUSIONS:</b> The model successfully predicted medication non-adherence/nonpersistence to DOAC treatment after discharge. Such a model could help ensure that targeted interventions are already in place at the time of hospital discharge, potentially preventing strokes and reducing costs. <b>DISCLOSURES:</b> Mr Wirbka is funded by the German Innovation Funds according to § 92a (2) Volume V of the Social Insurance Code (§ 92a Abs. 2, SGBV-Fünftes Buch Sozialgesetzbuch), grant number: 01VSF18019. Dr Haefeli received financial support from Daiichi-Sankyo, app development (https://www.easydoac.de/), and Bayer. He also received personal speaker fees from Bristol Myers-Squibb and Daiichi-Sankyo Online Seminar. Dr Meid is funded by the Physician-Scientist Programme of the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg University.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm (Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy)
[2022, 28(10):1161-1172]

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