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Atypical pulmonary presentation of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a patient with philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report.

PMID: 35712053 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.1016/j.idcr.2022.e01530 (read at publisher's website )
PMCID: PMC9193837 (free full text version available)

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Caitlyn J Smith, Ayman H Gaballah, Kelly Bowers, Chase Baxter, Carla R Caruso,

<i>Strongyloides stercoralis</i> is a soil-transmitted helminth endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and can be acquired due to parasite penetration through the skin. It can remain dormant in the gastrointestinal system for decades after the primary infection. In immunocompromised patients, this parasite can cause autoinfection with progression to hyperinfection syndrome. Here we report a unique case of pulmonary strongyloidiasis in a 32-year-old female, originally from Guatemala, with a significant clinical history of Philadelphia chromosome-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed in 2019. The patient is status post chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor plus hyper-CVAD regimen (Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine sulfate, Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and Dexamethasone). History of drug-induced hyperglycemia and obesity was also noted. Her current chief complaint included dyspnea, tachycardia, and chest pain. Chest computerized tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary edema with septal thickening, scattered ground-glass opacities, and small pericardial effusion. Due to normal ejection fraction, the differential diagnosis included non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, pneumonitis secondary to chemotoxicity, and infection. She rapidly progressed to acute hypoxic respiratory failure, and a bronchoalveolar lavage study revealed numerous larvae consistent with <i>Strongyloides</i> hyperinfection. Further workup revealed eosinophilia with negative <i>Strongyloides</i> IgG antibody. Given the rarity of this infection in the United States and the patient's place of birth, acquired latent Strongyloides infection is favored as the initial source of infection. The reactivation of the infection process was most likely secondary to her chemotherapy treatment. <i>Strongyloides</i> hyperinfection diagnosis can be challenging to establish and entails a high level of suspicion. Cytology evaluation is an essential factor for diagnosis.

IDCases (IDCases)
[2022, 29:e01530]

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